717 relations: Aeroports de Catalunya, Africa, Agnosticism, Agriculture, Agustí Bartra, Aigua Blava, Al-Andalus, Alans, Albert Boadella, Algeciras, Almogavars, Alpine climate, Alt Camp, Alt Empordà, Alt Penedès, Alt Pirineu i Aran, Alt Urgell, Alta Ribagorça, Americas, Amposta, Ana María Matute, Anarchism, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Andalusia, Andorra, Andorra–La Seu d'Urgell Airport, Anoia, Antena 3 (Spain), Antoni Gaudí, Antoni Tàpies, Aqueduct (water supply), Ara (newspaper), Aragon, Aranese dialect, Argentona, Art Nouveau, Artur Mas, Asia, Assemblea Nacional Catalana, Atheism, Atlantic Ocean, Autarky, Autonomous communities of Spain, AVE, Avui, Àger, Àmbit metropolità de Barcelona, Àngel Guimerà, Òmnium Cultural, ..., Badalona, Bages, Baix Camp, Baix Ebre, Baix Empordà, Baix Llobregat, Baix Penedès, Balearic Islands, Balearic Sea, Ball de bastons, Ban on bullfighting in Catalonia, Banco Sabadell, Banyoles, Barcelona, Barcelona França railway station, Barcelona metropolitan area, Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, Baroque, Basketball, Basque Country (autonomous community), Battle of the Ebro, Bear, Belgium, Berber languages, Berguedà, Besalú, Black Death, Blanes, Borrell II, Count of Barcelona, Botifarra, Bread, Bronze Age, Brussels, Buddhism, Buffer zone, Byzantine Empire, Cadaqués, Caganer, CaixaForum Barcelona, Calçot, California, Cambridge University Press, Camp de Tarragona, Canada, Canary Islands, Cap de Creus, Capital city, Caracalla, Carles Puigdemont, Carles Riba, Carlist Wars, Carlos Baguer, Carolingian Empire, Carthage, Casa Batlló, Casa Milà, Casa Vicens, Castell, Castellan, Castile (historical region), Castle, Catalan Central Depression, Catalan Civil War, Catalan Coastal Range, Catalan Company, Catalan constitutions, Catalan counties, Catalan Countries, Catalan Courts, Catalan declaration of independence, Catalan Football Federation, Catalan independence movement, Catalan independence referendum, 2017, Catalan 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Aeroports de Catalunya
Aeroports de Catalunya is a public company, owned by the Government of Catalonia, and attached to its Ministry of Land and Sustainability.
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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
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Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
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Agustí Bartra i Lleonart (Barcelona, 1908 - Terrassa, 1982) was a Catalan poet, writer, translator and University Professor in Catalan language.
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Aigua Blava is a small bay on the Costa Brava, Girona, Catalonia (Spain) near Begur and Palafrugell with a small beach (busy in the summer months) and a few mainly seafood restaurants.
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Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
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The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
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Albert Boadella Oncins (born 10 July 1943 in Barcelona) is a Spanish actor, playwright, director until 2012 of the company of the independent theater Els Joglars.
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Algeciras (translit) is a port city in the south of Spain, and is the largest city on the Bay of Gibraltar (in Spanish, the Bahía de Algeciras).
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Almogavars (almogávares, almugávares, almogàvers and almogávares) is the name of a class of soldier from many Christian Iberian kingdoms in the later phases of the Reconquista, during the 13th and 14th centuries.
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Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.
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Alt Camp is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain.
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Alt Empordà ("Upper Empordà") is a comarca (county) in Girona, Catalonia, Spain, one of two into which Empordà was divided by the comarcal division of Catalonia in 1936, the other one being Baix Empordà.
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Alt Penedès is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, northern Spain.
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Alt Pirineu i Aran
Alt Pirineu i Aran (in Catalan Vegueria de l'Alt Pirineu i Aran) is one of the seven vegueries (territories) defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia.
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Alt Urgell is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain, a modern representation of part of the historic County of Urgell (ca 789 - 1413), seat of the Counts of Urgell and the historic region of Urgellet.
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Alta Ribagorça is one of the comarques of Catalonia, Spain.
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The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
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Amposta is the capital of the comarca of Montsià, in the province of Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain, one hundred km south of Barcelona on the Mediterranean Coast.
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Ana María Matute
Ana María Matute Ausejo (1925 – 2014) was an internationally acclaimed Spanish writer and member of the Real Academia Española.
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Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
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In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
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Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
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Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
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Andorra–La Seu d'Urgell Airport
Andorra–La Seu d'Urgell Airport (Catalan: Aeroport Andorra–La Seu d'Urgell, Spanish: Aeropuerto Andorra–La Seu d'Urgell) is a public airport owned by the Government of Catalonia and hosts general aviation and commercial flights.
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Anoia is a comarca (county) in central Catalonia, Spain, with its capital at Igualada.
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Antena 3 (Spain)
Antena 3 is a Spanish terrestrial television channel owned by Atresmedia which also owns Onda Cero, one of Spain's most listened to radio stations.
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Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Spanish architect from Catalonia.
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Antoni Tàpies i Puig, 1st Marquess of Tàpies (13 December 1923 – 6 February 2012) was a Spanish painter, sculptor and art theorist, who became one of the most famous European artists of his generation.
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Aqueduct (water supply)
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
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Ara (is a Catalan daily newspaper that began publication on 28 November 2010, coinciding with the Catalan parliamentary elections. It is the third most read daily newspaper in Catalonia, and the most read daily newspaper written exclusively in the Catalan language. Its regional edition, Ara Balears, is the most popular Catalan language newspaper on the Balearic Islands. ARA’s online edition had nearly 3.2M visitors in September 2017, making it the most popular online newspaper in Catalan language. The founding editor was Carles Capdevila and the current editor is Esther Vera. The president is Ferran Rodés and the CEO is Salvador Garcia. The newspaper's advisory council includes journalists Antoni Bassas, Albert Om and Toni Soler, all known for their work with the Catalan public TV broadcaster, TV3. Aras content includes Catalan translations of reports and articles from the New York Times International Edition. Aras founding shareholders were, among others, Ferran Rodés, Fundació Carulla, Víctor Font and the group Cultura 03, which also publishes magazines Sàpiens, TimeOut Barcelona, Descobrir and Cuina. Cultura 03 is not currently a shareholder. In September 2010, Antoni Bassas announced that he would participate as a shareholder.
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Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
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Aranese (Aranés) is a standardized form of the Pyrenean Gascon variety of the Occitan language spoken in the Val d'Aran, in northwestern Catalonia close to the Spanish border with France, where it is one of the three official languages beside Catalan and Spanish.
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Argentona is a municipality in the comarca of the Maresme in Catalonia, Spain.
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Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
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Artur Mas i Gavarró (born 31 January 1956) is a Spanish politician, Catalan nationalist.
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Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
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Assemblea Nacional Catalana
The Assemblea Nacional Catalana ("Catalan National Assembly"; ANC by its Catalan acronym) is an organization that seeks the political independence of Catalonia from Spain; secondarily, it also promotes the reunification of the Catalan Countries.
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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
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The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
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Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient.
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Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community (comunidad autónoma, autonomia erkidegoa, comunitat autònoma, comunidade autónoma, comunautat autonòma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.
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Alta Velocidad Española (AVE) is a service of high-speed rail in Spain operated by Renfe, the Spanish national railway company, at speeds of up to.
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Avui (meaning Today in English) was a Catalan daily newspaper, based in Barcelona, in Spain.
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Àger is a municipality in the ''comarca'' of the Noguera in Catalonia, Spain.
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Àmbit metropolità de Barcelona
Àmbit metropolità de Barcelona is one of the seven territories defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia (Pla territorial general de Catalunya).
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Àngel Guimerà (6 May 1845 or 6 May 1847 or 1849 – 18 July 1924), known also as Ángel Guimerá, was a Spanish writer in Catalan language.
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Òmnium Cultural is a Catalan association based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Badalona is a municipality to the immediate north east of Barcelona in Catalonia, Spain.
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Bages is a comarca (county) in the center of Catalonia, Spain.
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Baix Camp is a comarca of Catalonia in northeastern Spain.
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Baix Ebre ("Lower Ebro") is a comarca (county), on the coast in southern Catalonia, Spain.
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Baix Empordà ("Lower Empordà") is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain.
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Baix Llobregat is a comarca (county) on the coast of Catalonia, Spain.
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Baix Penedès is a comarca in Catalonia, Spain.
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The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
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The Balearic Sea (endotoponym: Mar Balear in Catalan and Spanish) is a body of water in the Mediterranean Sea near the Balearic Islands.
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Ball de bastons
Ball de bastons (stick dance) is the name of a ritual weapon dance spread throughout Europe and the rest of the Iberian area (cossiers in Majorca, Portuguese pauliteiros, Aragonese palotiau, Basque ezpatadantza and Spanish paloteo or troqueado) but mostly in Catalonia.
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Ban on bullfighting in Catalonia
Bullfighting was banned in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia by a vote of the Catalan Parliament in July 2010.
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Banco de Sabadell, S.A. (Banc Sabadell) is a banking group headquartered in Alicante, Spain since 2017.
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Banyoles is a city of 17,309 inhabitants (2006) located in the province of Girona in northeastern Catalonia, Spain.
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Barcelona is a city in Spain.
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Barcelona França railway station
Estació de França (Estación de Francia; "France Station") is a major railway station in the city of Barcelona in Catalonia, Spain.
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Barcelona metropolitan area
The Barcelona metropolitan area (Àrea metropolitana de Barcelona, Área metropolitana de Barcelona) is a metropolitan area in Catalonia, north of Spain, centered on the city of Barcelona.
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Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art
The Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art (Museu d'Art Contemporani de Barcelona,; abbreviated as MACBA) is situated in the Plaça dels Àngels, in El Raval, Ciutat Vella, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Barcelona–El Prat Airport
Barcelona–El Prat Airport (Catalan: Aeroport de Barcelona – el Prat, Spanish: Aeropuerto de Barcelona-El Prat), also known as El Prat Airport, is an international airport located southwest.
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The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
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Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
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Basque Country (autonomous community)
The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
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Battle of the Ebro
The Battle of the Ebro (Batalla del Ebro, Batalla de l'Ebre) was the longest and largest battle of the Spanish Civil War.
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Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.
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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
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The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
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Berguedà is an inland comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain, lying partly in the Pyrenees and Pre-Pyrenees, and partly in the Catalan Central Depression.
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Besalú is a town in the comarca of Garrotxa, in Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
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The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
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Blanes is a town and municipality in the comarca of Selva in Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Borrell II, Count of Barcelona
Borrell II (died 993) was Count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 945 and Count of Urgell from 948.
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Botifarra (butifarra; boutifarre) is a type of sausage and one of the most important dishes of the Catalan cuisine.
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Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
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The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
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Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
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A buffer zone is generally a zonal area that lies between two or more other areas (often, but not necessarily, countries), but depending on the type of buffer zone, the reason for it may be to segregate regions or to conjoin them.
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The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
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Cadaqués is a town in the Alt Empordà comarca, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
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A Caganer is a figurine depicted in the act of defecation appearing in nativity scenes in Catalonia and neighbouring areas with Catalan culture such as Andorra, Valencia, and Northern Catalonia (in southern France).
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CaixaForum Barcelona is an art gallery in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Calçot is a type of scallion or green onion known as calçot in the Catalan language.
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California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
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Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
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Camp de Tarragona
Camp de Tarragona is a natural and historical region of Catalonia, Spain.
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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
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The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
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Cap de Creus
Cap de Creus is a peninsula and a headland located at the far northeast of Catalonia, some south from the French border.
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A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
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Caracalla (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD.
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Carles Puigdemont i Casamajó (born 29 December 1962 in Amer, Girona) is a Catalan politician and journalist from Spain.
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Carles Riba i Bracons (23 September 1893 - 1959) was a Catalan poet, writer and translator.
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The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century.
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Carlos (or Carles) Baguer (March 1768 – 29 February 1808) was a Spanish classical era composer and organist.
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The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
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Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
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Casa Batlló is a building in the center of Barcelona.
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Casa Milà, popularly known as La Pedrera or "The stone quarry", a reference to its unconventional rough-hewn appearance, is a modernist building in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Casa Vicens is a house in Barcelona, designed by Antoni Gaudí, now a museum.
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A castell is a human tower built traditionally at festivals in Catalonia and the Valencian Community, both in Spain.
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A castellan was the governor or captain of a castellany and its castle.
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Castile (historical region)
Castile is a vaguely defined historical region of Spain.
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A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
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Catalan Central Depression
The Catalan Central Depression (Depressió Central Catalana) is a natural depression between the Pre-Pyrenees and the Catalan Pre-Coastal Range in Spain.
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Catalan Civil War
The Catalan Civil War, also called the Catalonian Civil War or the War against John II, was a civil war in the Principality of Catalonia, then belonging to the Crown of Aragon, between 1462 and 1472.
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Catalan Coastal Range
The Catalan Coastal Range (Serralada Litoral Catalana) is a system of mountain ranges running parallel to the Mediterranean Sea coast in Catalonia, Spain.
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The Catalan Company or the Great Catalan Company (Catalan: Gran Companyia Catalana, Latin: Exercitus francorum, Societatis exercitus catalanorum, Societatis cathalanorum, Magna Societas Catalanorum) was a company of mercenaries led by Roger de Flor in the early 14th century and hired by the Byzantine Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos to combat the increasing power of the Turks.
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The Catalan constitutions (Constitucions catalanes) were the laws of the Principality of Catalonia promulgated by the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona and approved by the Catalan Courts.
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The Catalan counties (Els Comtats Catalans) were the administrative divisions of the eastern Carolingian Marca Hispanica and southernmost part of the March of Gothia created after its Frankish conquest.
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The Catalan Countries (Els Països Catalans),, refers to those territories where the Catalan language, or a variant of it, is spoken.
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The Catalan Courts or General Court of Catalonia (Corts Catalanes or Cort General de Catalunya) was the policymaking and parliamentary body of the Principality of Catalonia from the 13th to the 18th century.
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Catalan declaration of independence
The Catalan declaration of independence (Declaració d'independència de Catalunya; Declaración de independencia de Cataluña) was a resolution that was passed by the Parliament of Catalonia on 27 October 2017, which declared the independence of Catalonia from Spain and the founding of an independent Catalan Republic.
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Catalan Football Federation
The Catalan Football Federation is the football association responsible for administering football in Catalonia.
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Catalan independence movement
The Catalan independence movement (independentisme català; Spanish: independentismo catalán) is a political movement historically derived from Catalan nationalism, which seeks independence of Catalonia from Spain.
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Catalan independence referendum, 2017
The Catalan independence referendum of 2017, also known by the numeronym 1-O (for "1 October") in Spanish media, was an independence referendum held on 1 October 2017 in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia, passed by the Parliament of Catalonia as the Law on the Referendum on Self-determination of Catalonia and called by the Generalitat de Catalunya.
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Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
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Catalan literature is the name conventionally used to refer to literature written in the Catalan language.
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Catalan nationalism is the ideology asserting that the Catalans are a nation.
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Catalan regional election, 2010
The 2010 Catalan regional election was held on Sunday, 28 November 2010, to elect the 9th Parliament of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia.
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Catalan regional election, 2012
The 2012 Catalan regional election was held on Sunday, 25 November 2012, to elect the 10th Parliament of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia.
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Catalan regional election, 2017
The 2017 Catalan regional election was held on Thursday, 21 December 2017 to elect the 12th Parliament of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia.
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Catalan Republic (1641)
The Catalan Republic (República Catalana) was a short-lived state proclaimed in 1641, by Pau Claris, with the objective to establish the complete independence of Catalonia.
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Catalan Republic (1931)
The Catalan Republic (República Catalana) was a state proclaimed in 1931 by Francesc Macià as the "Catalan Republic within the Iberian Federation".
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Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí
The Churches of the Vall de Boí are a set of nine Early Romanesque churches declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO and located in the Vall de Boí, in the Catalan comarque of Alta Ribagorça (Province of Lleida).
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The Catalan rumba (rumba catalana) is a genre of music that developed in Barcelona's Romani community beginning in the 1950s.
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In music, a Catalan shawm is one of two varieties of shawm, an oboe-like woodwind musical instrument played in Catalonia in northeastern Spain.
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Catalan Sign Language
Catalan Sign Language (Llengua de signes catalana, LSC) is a sign language used by around 18,000 people in different regions of Spain including Barcelona and Catalonia.
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The Catalans (Catalan, French and Occitan: catalans; catalanes, Italian: catalani) are a Pyrenean/Latin European ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia (Spain), in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.
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Catalonia national football team
The Catalonia representative football team (Catalan: Selecció de futbol de Catalunya) is the official football team of the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia.
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Catalunya Ràdio is Catalonia's public radio network.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
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Catholic Church in Spain
The Catholic Church in Spain is part of the Catholic Church under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome, and the Spanish Episcopal Conference.
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The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.
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Cava (Spanish wine)
Cava (plural caves) is a sparkling wine of Denominación de Origen (DO) status from Spain.
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The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
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Central Catalan (català central) is the Eastern Catalan dialect with the highest number of speakers, since it is commonly spoken in densely populated areas such as the whole Barcelona province, the eastern half of Tarragona province and most of the Girona province, except for it is northern part, where a transition to Northern Catalan begins.
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Central European Summer Time
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
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Central European Time
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
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Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona
The Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona (also known by its acronym, CCCB) is an arts centre in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Cerdanya or often La Cerdanya (Latin: Ceretani or Ceritania, Cerdagne, Cerdaña), is a natural comarca and historical region of the eastern Pyrenees divided between France and Spain.
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Cervera is the capital of the comarca of Segarra, in the province of Lleida, Catalonia, Spain.
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The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
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Charles II of Spain
Charles II of Spain (Carlos II; 6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700), also known as El Hechizado or the Bewitched, was the last Habsburg ruler of the Spanish Empire.
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Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
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Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740; Karl VI.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia, Serbia and Archduke of Austria (as Charles III) in 1711.
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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
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Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
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Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
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Church of Colònia Güell
The Church of Colònia Güell (Cripta de la Colònia Güell) is an unfinished work by Antoni Gaudí.
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Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya
The Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya is a motorsport race track in Montmeló, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Citizens (Spanish political party)
Citizens (Ciudadanos; Ciutadans; Hiritarrak; Cidadáns; shortened as Cs—C's until January 2017), officially Citizens – Party of the Citizenry (Ciudadanos – Partido de la Ciudadanía), is a centre-right and liberal political party in Spain.
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Civil Code of Catalonia
The Civil Code of Catalonia (in Catalan: Codi Civil de Catalunya) is the main codified law of civil law in force in Catalonia, adopted in 2002 and organized into six books.
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Civil Guard (Spain)
The Civil Guard (Guardia Civil) is the oldest law enforcement agency in Spain.
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Civil law (legal system)
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
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Claude Simon (10 October 1913 – 6 July 2005) was a French novelist and critic, and the 1985 Nobel Laureate in Literature.
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CNBC is an American basic cable, internet and satellite business news television channel that is owned by NBCUniversal News Group, a division of NBCUniversal, with both being ultimately owned by Comcast.
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Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
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Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
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The cobla (plural cobles) is a traditional music ensemble of Catalonia, Spain and in Northern Catalonia in France.
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Colonies in antiquity
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
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A comarca (or, pl. comarcas; or, pl. comarques) is a traditional region or local administrative division found in Portugal, Spain and some of their former colonies: Panama, Nicaragua, and Brazil.
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The comarcal council (Catalan: consell comarcal, Galician: consello comarcal, Spanish: consejo comarcal), also somewhat misleadingly referred to as county council, is a local administration and government organ in the comarcas of some territories, such as the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia, Aragon and Galicia.
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Comarques Centrals is one of the seven territories defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia.
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Comarques Gironines is one of the seven territories defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia.
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Commonwealth of Catalonia
The Commonwealth of Catalonia (Mancomunitat de Catalunya) was an institution which grouped the four diputacions (provincial administrations) of Catalonia.
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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
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Community of Madrid
The Community of Madrid (Comunidad de Madrid) is one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain.
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Compromise of Caspe
The Compromise of Caspe made in 1412 was an act and resolution of parliamentary representatives of the constituent realms of the Crown of Aragon (the Kingdom of Aragon, Kingdom of Valencia, and Principality of Catalonia), meeting in Caspe, to resolve the interregnum following the death of King Martin of Aragon in 1410 without a legitimate heir.
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Conca de Barberà
Conca de Barberà is a comarca (county) in the province of Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Confederación Nacional del Trabajo
The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour; CNT) is a Spanish confederation of anarcho-syndicalist labour unions, which was long affiliated with the International Workers' Association (AIT).
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Congress of Deputies
The Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados; Diputatuen Kongresua; Congrés dels Diputats; Congreso dos Deputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch.
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Conselh Generau d'Aran
The General Council of Aran (in Aranese Conselh Generau d'Aran) is the autonomous governing body of the region (unofficially considered a comarca) of Val d'Aran in Catalonia.
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Conservatori Superior de Música del Liceu
Conservatori Superior de Música del Liceu is a music college in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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The Constitutio Antoniniana (Latin for: "Constitution of Antoninus") (also called the Edict of Caracalla or the Antonine Constitution) was an edict issued in 212, by the Roman Emperor Caracalla declaring that all free men in the Roman Empire were to be given theoretical Roman citizenship and that all free women in the Empire were to be given the same rights as Roman women.
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Constitution of Spain
The Spanish Constitution (Constitución Española; Espainiako Konstituzioa; Constitució Espanyola; Constitución Española; Constitucion espanhòla) is the democratic law that is supreme in the Kingdom of Spain.
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Constitutional Court of Spain
The Constitutional Court of Spain (Tribunal Constitucional de España) is the supreme interpreter of the Spanish Constitution, with the power to determine the constitutionality of acts and statutes made by any public body, central, regional, or local.
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A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
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Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
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Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
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Contradanza (also called contradanza criolla, danza, danza criolla, or habanera) is the Spanish and Spanish-American version of the contradanse, which was an internationally popular style of music and dance in the 18th century, derived from the English country dance and adopted at the court of France.
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Convergence and Union
Convergence and Union (Convergència i Unió, CiU) was a Catalan nationalist electoral alliance in Catalonia, Spain.
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Cornellà de Llobregat
Cornellà de Llobregat (Cornellá de Llobregat) is a municipality in the ''comarca'' of the Baix Llobregat in Catalonia, Spain.
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Correfocs; literally in English "fire-runs") are among the most striking features present in Catalan festivals. In the correfoc, a group of individuals will dress as devils and light fireworks - fixed on devil's pitchforks or strung above the route. Dancing to the sound of a rhythmic drum group, they set off their fireworks among crowds of spectators. The spectators that participate dress to protect themselves against small burns and attempt to get as close as possible to the devils, running with the fire. Other spectators will watch from "safe" distances, rapidly retreating as necessary. The correfoc can come in many forms. Some are simple parades using fireworks and effigies of the devil. In Sitges, it is common for a crowd to line a street, while participants run through a tunnel of fireworks. Correfocs are run during the Festival of ''La Mercè'' in Barcelona and Festival of ''Santa Tecla'' in Tarragona and the Festival of ''Saint Narcissus'' in Girona. Another typical Catalan folkloric expression of this sort takes place in L'Arboç. The highlight of the village's feast is the Carretillada. In the evening of the feast day, the town square is made to look like Hell. For nearly half an hour, "devils" burn their carretilles (carts), jumping around ceaselessly, while a large "sceptre of Lucifer" and the "pitchfork of the Diablessa (she-devil)" shoot fire-jets and other pyrotechnics. Every year, the carretillada is a bit different, because the 'colla' (group) does not give up novelties that are added each year to add to the spectacle.
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Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
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The Cortes Generales (General Courts) are the bicameral legislature of the Kingdom of Spain, consisting of two chambers: the Congress of Deputies (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house).
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The Costa Brava ("Wild Coast" or "Rough Coast") is a coastal region of Catalonia in northeastern Spain, consisting of the comarques (counties) of Alt Empordà, Baix Empordà and Selva in the province of Girona.
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The Costa Daurada (Costa Dorada, meaning in English "Golden Coast") is an area on the coast of Catalonia, Spain, between Cunit and Alcanar on the Mediterranean Sea.
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Count of Barcelona
The Count of Barcelona (Comte de Barcelona, Conde de Barcelona) was the ruler of Catalonia for much of Catalan history, from the 9th century until the 15th century.
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Counterurbanization, or de-urbanization, is a demographic and social process whereby people move from urban areas to rural areas.
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A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.
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County of Barcelona
The County of Barcelona (Comitatus Barcinonensis) was originally a frontier region under the rule of the Carolingian dynasty.
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County of Foix
The County of Foix was an independent medieval fief in southern France, and later a province of France, whose territory corresponded roughly the eastern part of the modern département of Ariège (the western part of Ariège being Couserans).
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Crème brûlée, also known as burnt cream or Trinity cream, is a dessert consisting of a rich custard base topped with a contrasting layer of caramelized sugar.
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Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes.
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Crown of Aragon
The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
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Crown of Castile
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
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Cuatro (TV channel)
Cuatro (stylized as cuatroo, "Four") is a Spanish commercial television channel, on air since November 2005.
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Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement which brought European painting and sculpture historically forward toward 20th century Modern art.
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Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and preserved for the benefit of future generations.
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In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
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In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
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Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
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Denominación de origen
The denominación de origen ('designation of origin')In other languages of Spain.
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Dessert is a confectionery course that concludes a main meal.
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Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.
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Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
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Domènec Terradellas (baptized 13 February 1713, Barcelona – 20 May 1751, Rome) was a Spanish opera composer.
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A duchy is a country, territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess.
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Duchy of Athens
The Duchy of Athens (Greek: Δουκᾶτον Ἀθηνῶν, Doukaton Athinon; Catalan: Ducat d'Atenes) was one of the Crusader states set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade, encompassing the regions of Attica and Boeotia, and surviving until its conquest by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century.
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Duchy of Neopatras
The Duchy of Neopatras (Ducat de Neopàtria; Δουκάτο Νέων Πατρών; Ducatus Neopatriae) was one of the Crusader States set up in Greece after the sacking and conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade.
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Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
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Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
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The Ebro in English (also in Spanish, Aragonese and Basque: 'Ebre') is one of the most important rivers on the Iberian Peninsula.
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The Ebro Delta (Delta de l'Ebre,, Delta del Ebro) is the delta region of the Ebro River (Ebre, Ebro), in the Province of Tarragona, Catalonia, in northeastern Spain.
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The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement, also known as the short-time movement, was a social movement to regulate the length of a working day, preventing excesses and abuses.
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El 33 is Catalonia's second public television channel.
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El Celler de Can Roca
El Celler de Can Roca is a restaurant in Girona, Catalonia, Spain which was opened in 1986 by the Roca brothers, Joan, Josep and Jordi.
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El Mundo (Spain)
El Mundo (The World), formally El Mundo del Siglo Veintiuno (The World of the Twenty-First Century) is the second largest printed daily newspaper in Spain.
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El País (literally The Country) is the most read newspaper (231,140 printed copies) in Spain and the most circulated daily newspaper (180,765 circulation average), according to data certified by the Office of Justification of Dissemination (OJD) and referring to the period of January 2017 to December 2017.
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El Periódico de Catalunya
El Periódico de Catalunya is a morning daily newspaper based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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El Punt (meaning in English "The Point") was a Catalan daily newspaper based in Girona, Catalonia (Spain).
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El Vendrell is a Spanish town located in Tarragona, Catalonia, in the wine-growing region of Penedès.
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elBulli was a Michelin 3-star restaurant near the town of Roses, Catalonia, Spain, run by chef Ferran Adrià.
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Els Pets is a Catalan pop rock band with lead singer, composer and guitarist Lluís Gavaldà from the village of Constantí (province of Tarragona, Catalonia).
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Els Segadors ("The Reapers") is the official national anthem of Catalonia, nationality and autonomous community of Spain.
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Els Setze Jutges
Els Setze Jutges (meaning "The Sixteen Judges") was a group of singers in the Catalan language founded in 1961 by Miquel Porter i Moix, Remei Margarit, and Josep Maria Espinàs.
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Embezzlement is the act of withholding assets for the purpose of conversion (theft) of such assets, by one or more persons to whom the assets were entrusted, either to be held or to be used for specific purposes.
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Empúries, also known as Ampurias (Ἐμπόριον, Empúries, Ampurias), was a town on the Mediterranean coast of the Catalan comarca of Alt Empordà in Catalonia, Spain.
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Empordà is a natural and historical region of Catalonia, Spain, divided since 1936 into two comarques, Alt Empordà and Baix Empordà.
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Empordà is a Spanish Denominación de Origen (DO) (Denominació d'Origen in Catalan) for wines produced in the northeastern corner of Catalonia, Spain in the province of Girona.
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ENAIRE is the air navigation manager in Spain and Western Sahara, certified for the provision of en route, approach and aerodrome control services.
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Enrique Granados Campiña (27 July 1867 – 24 March 1916) was a Spanish pianist and composer of classical music.
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In archaeology, the Epipalaeolithic, Epipaleolithic (sometimes Epi-paleolithic etc) is a term for a period intervening between the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic in the Stone Age.
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Escudella i carn d'olla
Escudella i carn d'olla, or shorter escudella, is a traditional Catalan soup and stew.
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Esport3 is a TV channel of Televisió de Catalunya dedicated to sports programming.
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Estanislao Figueras y de Moragas (Estanislau Figueras i de Moragas;; 13 November 1819 – 11 November 1882) was a Spanish politician who served as the first President of the First Spanish Republic from 12 February to 11 June 1873). Figueras was born in Barcelona. He led the Republican Party after Queen Isabella II was overthrown in 1868. He briefly became President after King Amadeo abdicated. He was succeeded as President by Francisco Pi y Margall. After the 1875 restoration of the monarchy he withdrew from public life. He died in Madrid in 1882.
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Estates of the realm
The estates of the realm, or three estates, were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom (Christian Europe) from the medieval period to early modern Europe.
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Eugeni d’Ors i Rovira (Barcelona, 28 September 1881 – Vilanova i la Geltrú, 25 September 1954) was a Spanish writer, essayist, journalist, philosopher and art critic.
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EUobserver is a European online newspaper, launched in 2000 by the Brussels-based organisation EUobserver.com ASBL.
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The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
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The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
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Executive Council of Catalonia
The Executive Council of Catalonia (Consell Executiu) or the Government of Catalonia (Catalan: Govern de Catalunya) is the executive branch of the Generalitat of Catalonia.
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Extremadura (is an autonomous community of western Iberian Peninsula whose capital city is Mérida, recognised by the State of Autonomy of Extremadura. It is made up of the two largest provinces of Spain: Cáceres and Badajoz. It is bordered by the provinces of Salamanca and Ávila (Castile and León) to the north; by provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real (Castile–La Mancha) to the east, and by the provinces of Huelva, Seville, and Córdoba (Andalusia) to the south; and by Portugal to the west. Its official language is Spanish. It is an important area for wildlife, particularly with the major reserve at Monfragüe, which was designated a National Park in 2007, and the International Tagus River Natural Park (Parque Natural Tajo Internacional). The government of Extremadura is called. The Day of Extremadura is celebrated on 8 September. It coincides with the Catholic festivity of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
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Falset (pop. 2,935) is the principal village of the comarca of the Priorat, in Catalonia, very famous for its wine.
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Futbol Club Barcelona, commonly known as Barcelona and familiarly as Barça, is a professional football club based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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FC Barcelona media
Barça TV is a Spanish television channel operated by FC Barcelona.
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Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
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Felipe VI of Spain
Felipe VI (Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y de Grecia; born 30 January 1968) is the King of Spain.
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Ferdinand I of Aragon
Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I; 27 November 1380 – 2 April 1416 in Igualada, Catalonia) called of Antequera and also the Just (or the Honest) was king of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca, Sardinia and (nominal) Corsica and king of Sicily, duke (nominal) of Athens and Neopatria, and count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdanya (1412–1416).
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Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II (Ferrando, Ferran, Errando, Fernando) (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479 until his death.
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Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya
Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya ("Catalan Government Railways"), or FGC, is a railway company which operates several unconnected lines in Catalonia, Spain.
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Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
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Figueres (Catalan for fig trees) is the capital of the comarca of Alt Empordà, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
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The fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), also known as finback whale or common rorqual and formerly known as herring whale or razorback whale, is a marine mammal belonging to the parvorder of baleen whales.
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Financial crisis of 2007–2008
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
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Fira de Barcelona
Fira de Barcelona is Barcelona’s trade fair institution and one of the most important in Europe.
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First Spanish Republic
The Republic of Spain (officially in Spanish República de España), commonly known as the First Spanish Republic to distinguish it from the Spanish Republic of 1931–39, was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation on 11 February 1873 and 29 December 1874 when General Arsenio Martínez-Campos's pronunciamento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain.
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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
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Fitch Ratings Inc.
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Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball with a foot to score a goal.
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Four Motors for Europe
The Four Motors for Europe is a transnational, interregional network of four highly industrialized and research-oriented regions in Europe.
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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
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Francesc Macià i Llussà (21 September 1859 – 25 December 1933) was the 122nd President of Catalonia and formerly an officer in the Spanish Army.
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Francesc Pi i Margall
Francesc Pi i Margall (Francisco Pi y Margall) (29 April 1824 – 29 November 1901) was a Spanish politician, Catalan federalist and libertarian socialist statesman, historian, and political philosopher and romanticist writer.
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Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
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Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
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Francisco Serrano, 1st Duke of la Torre
Don Francisco Serrano Domínguez Cuenca y Pérez de Vargas, 1st Duke of la Torre Grandee of Spain, Count of San Antonio (es: Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, primer duque de la Torre, conde de San Antonio; 17 December 1810 – 25 November 1885) was a Spanish marshal and statesman.
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Franco-Spanish War (1635–59)
The Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659) was a military conflict that was the result of French involvement in the Thirty Years' War.
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Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
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Freezing drizzle is drizzle that freezes on contact with the ground or an object at or near the surface.
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Fuet is a Catalan thin, dry cured, sausage of pork meat in a pork gut.
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Fundació Antoni Tàpies
The Fundació Antoni Tàpies ('Antoni Tàpies Foundation') is a cultural center and museum, located in Carrer d'Aragó, in Barcelona, Catalonia.
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Fundació Joan Miró
The ("Joan Miró Foundation, Centre of Studies of Contemporary Art") is a museum of modern art honoring Joan Miró located on the hill called Montjuïc in Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain).
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Futsal is a variant of association football played on a hard court, smaller than a football pitch, and mainly indoors.
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Gabriel Ferrater i Soler (20 May 1922 in Reus – 27 April 1972 in Sant Cugat del Vallès) was an author, translator and scholar of linguistics of the sixties who wrote in the Catalan language.
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Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
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In dance, the galop, named after the fastest running gait of a horse (see gallop), a shortened version of the original term galoppade, is a lively country dance, introduced in the late 1820s to Parisian society by the Duchesse de Berry and popular in Vienna, Berlin and London.
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The Gare d'Austerlitz (Austerlitz Station), officially Paris-Austerlitz, is one of the six large terminus railway stations in Paris.
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The Garonne (Garonne,; in Occitan, Catalan, and Spanish: Garona; Garumna or Garunna) is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of.
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Garraf, better known as El Garraf, is a comarca (county) in the province of Barcelona, Catalonia, northern Spain.
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Les Garrigues is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain.
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Garrotxa is a comarca (county) in Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Gascon is a dialect of Occitan.
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Generalitat de Catalunya
The Government of Catalonia or the Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalan;,; Generalidad de Cataluña) is the institution under which the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia is politically organised.
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Generation of '36
The Generation of '36 (Generación del 36) is the name given to a group of Spanish artists, poets and playwrights who were working about the time of the Spanish Civil War (1936 and 1939).
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Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
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Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and outspoken support of democratic socialism.
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Jaume Aragall i Garriga (born 6 June 1939), better known as Giacomo Aragall, is a Spanish operatic tenor.
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Gigantes y cabezudos
Many Spanish and Portuguese festivals include costumed figures known as gigantes y cabezudos, roughly, “Giants and Big-Heads”,in portuguese gigantones e cabeçudos, in Valencian, "Gegants i cabuts", in Catalan, gegants i capgrossos, or in Basque, "erraldoi eta buruhandiak".
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Girona (Gerona; Gérone) is a city in Catalonia, Spain, at the confluence of the rivers Ter, Onyar, Galligants, and Güell and has an official population of 99,013 as of January 2017.
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Girona–Costa Brava Airport
Girona–Costa Brava Airport (Catalan: Aeroport de Girona-Costa Brava, Spanish: Aeropuerto de Gerona-Costa Brava) is an airport located southwest of the city of Girona, next to the small village of Vilobí d'Onyar, in the north-east of Catalonia, Spain.
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Gironès is a comarca (county) in eastern Catalonia, Spain, bordering Selva, Baix Empordà, Alt Empordà, Pla de l'Estany and Garrotxa.
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Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
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The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
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Government of Spain
The Government of Spain (Gobierno de España) is the central government which leads the executive branch and the General State Administration of Spain.
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Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
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Guàrdia Urbana de Barcelona
The Guàrdia Urbana (English: Urban Guard) is the municipal police force for the city of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Gulf of Roses
The Gulf of Roses (Golf de Roses) is the most northeastern bay on the Catalan coast of Spain.
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Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
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High Court of Justice of Catalonia
The High Court of Justice of Catalonia (Tribunal Superior de Justícia de Catalunya, TSJC) is the highest body and last judicial instance of the Spanish judiciary in Catalonia.
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High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that operates significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicated tracks.
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Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
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Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania.
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Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
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History of Catalonia
The territory that now constitutes the nationality and autonomous community of Catalonia was first settled during the Middle Palaeolithic era.
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Homage to Catalonia
Homage to Catalonia is George Orwell's personal account of his experiences and observations in the Spanish Civil War.
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The Homilies d'Organyà ("Homilies of Organyà") constitute one of the oldest known literary documents (longer than a mere fragment) in the Catalan language.
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Hospital de Sant Pau
The former Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (Hospital of the Holy Cross and Saint Paul) in the neighborhood of El Guinardó, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, is a complex built between 1901 and 1930, designed by the Catalan modernisme architect Lluís Domènech i Montaner.
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House of Barcelona
The House of Barcelona was a medieval dynasty that ruled the County of Barcelona continuously from 878 and the Crown of Aragon from 1137 (as kings from 1162) until 1410.
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House of Bourbon
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
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House of Habsburg
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
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House of Trastámara
The House of Trastámara was a dynasty of kings in Spain, which first governed in Castile beginning in 1369 before expanding its rule into Aragon, Navarre and Naples.
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Hugh CapetCapet is a byname of uncertain meaning distinguishing him from his father Hugh the Great.
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A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
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The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
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The Iberians (Hibērī, from Ίβηρες, Iberes) were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources (among others, Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodotus and Strabo) identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC.
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The Ilergetes were an ancient Iberian (Pre-Roman) people of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania) who dwelt in the plains area of the rivers Segre and Cinca towards Iberus (Ebro) river, and in and around Ilerda/Iltrida, present-day Lleida/Lérida.
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Immigration to Spain
As of 2014, there were over 5,023,487 foreign-born people in Spain, over 10.7% of the total population.
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Indie pop (also typeset as indie-pop or indiepop) is a music genre and subculture that combines guitar pop with DIY ethic in opposition to the style and tone of mainstream pop music.
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The Indigetes (Latin: indigetes or indigetae or Indiketes) were an ancient Iberian (Pre-Roman) people of the eastern side of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania).
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Initiative for Catalonia Greens
Initiative for Catalonia Greens (Iniciativa per Catalunya Verds, ICV) is a political party in Catalonia.
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Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain)
The National Institute of Statistics (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE) is the official organisation in Spain that collects statistics about demography, economy, and Spanish society.
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The International Brigades (Brigadas Internacionales) were paramilitary units set up by the Communist International to assist the Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War.
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The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
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Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz y Pascual (29 May 186018 May 1909) was a Spanish virtuoso pianist, composer, and conductor.
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Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I (Isabel, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death.
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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
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Ius Italicum (Latin, Italian or Italic law) was an honour conferred on particular cities of the Roman Empire by the emperors.
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Jacint Verdaguer i Santaló (May 17, 1845 – June 10, 1902) was a catalan writer, regarded as one of the greatest poets of Catalan literature and a prominent literary figure of the Renaixença, a cultural revival movement of the late Romantic era.
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Jaime Gil de Biedma
Jaime Gil de Biedma y Alba (November 13, 1929 – January 8, 1990) was a Spanish post-Civil War poet.
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James I of Aragon
James I the Conqueror (Jaume el Conqueridor, Chaime lo Conqueridor, Jacme lo Conquistaire, Jaime el Conquistador; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276; King of Majorca from 1231 to 1276; and Valencia from 1238 to 1276.
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Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
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Joan Brossa (1919–1998) was a Spanish poet, playwright, graphic designer and visual artist.
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Joan Maragall i Gorina (10 October 1860 in Barcelona – 20 December 1911) was a Spanish Catalan poet, journalist and translator, the foremost member of the modernisme movement in literature.
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Joan Miró i Ferrà (20 April 1893 – 25 December 1983) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, and ceramicist born in Barcelona.
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Joan Oliver i Sallarès
Joan Oliver i Sallarès, also known by his pseudonym Pere Quart, (Sabadell, 1899 - Barcelona, 1986) was a Catalan poet, playwright, literary manager, translator, narrator, and journalist.
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Joan Salvat-Papasseit (Barcelona, 16 May 1894 - 7 August 1924) was a Catalan poet, though he also wrote articles, manifestos and other prose of a political and social nature.
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John II of Aragon
John II (Catalan: Joan II, Aragonese: Chuan II and Joanes II), called the Great (el Gran) or the Faithless (el Sense Fe) (29 June 1398 – 20 January 1479), was the King of Navarre through his wife (jure uxoris) from 1425 and the King of Aragon in his own right from 1458 until his death.
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Jordi Cuixart i Navarro (Santa Perpètua de Mogoda, province of Barcelona, Spain, 1975) is the president of Òmnium Cultural, an independent organisation founded in 1961 with around 119,000 members and 40 local branches.
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Jordi Pujol i Soley (born 9 June 1930) is a Spanish politician who was the leader of the party Convergència Democràtica de Catalunya (CDC) from 1974 to 2003, and President of the Generalitat de Catalunya from 1980 to 2003.
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Jordi Sànchez i Picanyol
Jordi Sànchez i Picanyol (Barcelona, Spain, 1964) is a Spanish political activist, who has been president of the Catalan National Assembly (ANC) since May 2015.
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José Carreras, is the stage name of Josep Maria Carreras i Coll (born 5 December 1946), a tenor who is particularly known for his performances in the operas of Verdi and Puccini.
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José Montilla Aguilera (born 15 January 1955 in Iznájar, Córdoba, Spain) is a Spanish politician who is currently a member of the Spanish Senate.
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Josep Carner i Puigoriol (born Barcelona 9 February 1884 - died Brussels 4 June 1970), was a Catalan poet, journalist, playwright and translator.
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Josep Lluís Sert
Josep Lluís Sert i López (1 July 1902 – 15 March 1983) was an architect and city planner born in Catalonia, Spain.
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Josep Maria de Sagarra
Josep Maria de Sagarra i de Castellarnau (Barcelona, 5 March 1894 – 27 September 1961) was a Spanish writer.
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Josep Maria Subirachs
Josep Maria Subirachs i Sitjar (11 March 1927 – 7 April 2014) was a Spanish sculptor and painter of the late 20th century.
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Josep Pla i Casadevall (8 March 1897, Palafrugell, Girona, Spain - 23 April 1981, Llofriu, Girona, Spain) was a Spanish journalist and a popular author.
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Josep Puig i Cadafalch
Josep Puig i Cadafalch (Mataró, 17 October 1867 – Barcelona, 21 December 1956) was a Catalan Spanish Modernista architect who designed many significant buildings in Barcelona.
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Josep Tarradellas i Joan, 1st Marquess of Tarradellas (Cervelló, Baix Llobregat, Catalonia, Kingdom of Spain; 1899 – Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 1988) was a Spanish politician.
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Josep Vicenç Foix
Josep Vicenç Foix i Mas (Barcelona, 28 January 1893 - 29 January 1987) was a Catalan poet, writer, and essayist in Catalan.
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The jota (hota or ixota; xota; xota; old Spanish spelling: xota) is a genre of music and the associated dance known throughout Spain, most likely originating in Aragon.
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Juan Goytisolo Gay (5 January 1931 – 4 June 2017) was a Spanish poet, essayist, and novelist.
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Juan Prim, 1st Marquis of los Castillejos
Juan Prim y Prats, 1st Marquis of Los Castillejos, 1st Count of Reus, 1st Viscount of El Bruch, Grandee of Spain, (Joan Prim i Prats; 12 December 1814 – 30 December 1870) was a Spanish general and statesman who was briefly Prime Minister of Spain until his assassination.
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July 1936 military uprising in Barcelona
The July 1936 military uprising in Barcelona was a military uprising in Barcelona, the capital and greatest city of Catalonia, Spain on 19 July 1936 which contributed to the start of the Spanish Civil War.
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Junts per Catalunya
Junts per Catalunya (Together for Catalonia, JuntsxCat) is a Catalan political platform centered around former President of the Generalitat of Catalonia Carles Puigdemont and formed by the Catalan European Democratic Party (PDeCAT), successor of the now defunct Democratic Convergence of Catalonia, and independents to contest the 2017 Catalan regional election.
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Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
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Kingdom of Aragon
The Kingdom of Aragon (Reino d'Aragón, Regne d'Aragó, Regnum Aragonum, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain.
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Kingdom of Majorca
The Kingdom of Majorca (Regne de Mallorca,; Reino de Mallorca; Regnum Maioricae) was founded by James I of Aragon, also known as James The Conqueror.
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Kingdom of Sicily
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
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Kingdom of Valencia
The Kingdom of Valencia (Regne de València,; Reino de Valencia; Regnum Valentiae), located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula, was one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon.
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Korfball (Korfbal) is a ball sport, with similarities to netball and basketball.
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L'Estartit is a small town and seaside resort on the Costa Brava, on the north-eastern coast of Spain.
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L'Hospitalet de Llobregat
L'Hospitalet de Llobregat (or; Hospitalet de Llobregat), often shortened to L'Hospitalet, is a municipality to the immediate southwest of Barcelona in Catalonia, Spain.
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La Caixa, formally Caixa d'Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona (Caja de Ahorros y Pensiones de Barcelona), is Spain's third largest financial institution, with a network of over 5,800 branches, more than 9,500 automated teller machines, a workforce in excess of 31,900 and more than 13 million customers.
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The early modern period (late 15th or 16th-18th centuries) in Catalan literature and historiography, while extremely productive for Castilian writers of the Siglo de Oro, has been termed La Decadència ("The Decadence"), an era of decadence in Catalan literature and history, generally thought to be caused by a general falling into disuse of the vernacular language in cultural contexts and lack of patronage among the nobility, even in lands of the Crown of Aragon.
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La Jonquera is a municipality in the comarca of l'Alt Empordà, in Catalonia, Spain.
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The Primera División, commonly known as La Liga and as La Liga Santander for sponsorship reasons with Santander, is the men's top professional football division of the Spanish football league system.
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La Razón (Madrid)
La Razón (In Spanish: "The Reason") is a daily newspaper based in Madrid, Spain.
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La Roca del Vallès
La Roca del Vallès is a village in the comarca of Vallès Oriental in the province of Barcelona and Catalonia.
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La Vanguardia (Spanish for "The Vanguard") is a Spanish daily newspaper, founded in 1881.
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The Lacetani were an ancient Iberian (Pre-Roman) people of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania).
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Lake of Banyoles
Lake of Banyoles (or Estany de Banyoles) is a natural lake located in the ''comarca'' "Pla de l'Estany", Province of Girona, in northeastern Catalonia, Spain.
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A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body.
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A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.
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Many countries have a language policy designed to favor or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages.
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Languedoc (Lengadòc) is a former province of France.
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laSexta ("The Sixth") is the sixth nationwide broadcast television station in Spain.
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Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
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Law enforcement agency
A law enforcement agency (LEA), in North American English, is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws.
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Lax'n'Busto are a pop-rock group formed in 1986 in El Vendrell, Catalonia.
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Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
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The Gran Teatre del Liceu, or simply Liceu in Catalan, is an opera house on La Rambla in Barcelona, Catalonia.
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List of Aragonese monarchs
This is a list of the kings and queens of Aragon.
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List of Catalans
This is a list of notable people from Catalonia, Spain.
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List of Constitutions of Spain
Spain has proclaimed a number of Constitutions.
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List of country subdivisions by GDP over 100 billion US dollars
This is a list of first-level country subdivisions which have a nominal gross state product in excess of $100 billion.
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List of European regions by GDP
This is a list of European regions (NUTS2 regions) sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP).
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List of Gaudí buildings
Antoni Gaudí was an architect from Catalonia, Spain, who belonged to the Modernisme (Art Nouveau) movement and was famous for his unique style and highly individualistic designs.
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List of Presidents of the Generalitat of Catalonia
This List of Presidents of the Generalitat of Catalonia was created in 2003 by Josep M. Solé i Sabaté, in his work Historia de la Generalitat de Catalunya i dels seus presidents.
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List of rivers of Catalonia
The rivers of Catalonia can be classified into four groups according to their source.
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List of sovereign states
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
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List of the Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula
This is a list of the Pre-Roman people of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania, i. e., modern Portugal, Spain and Andorra).
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List of Vice Presidents of Catalonia
This article lists the Vice Presidents of Catalonia, the second most senior position in the Government of Catalonia.
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Llançà is a municipality in the ''comarca'' of the Alt Empordà in Catalonia, Spain.
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Lleida (Lérida) is a city in the west of Catalonia, Spain.
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Lleida–Alguaire Airport (Catalan: Aeroport de Lleida-Alguaire) (Spanish: Aeropuerto de Lérida-Alguaire) is an airport located in Alguaire, Spain; about from the centre of Lleida and about from the centre of Barcelona.
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The Llobregat is the second longest river in Catalonia, Spain.
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Lluís Companys i Jover (June 21, 1882 – October 15, 1940) was a Spanish politician from Catalonia.
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Lluís Domènech i Montaner
Lluís Domènech i Montaner (21 December 1850 – 27 December 1923) was a Spanish architect who was highly influential on Modernisme català, the Catalan Art Nouveau/Jugendstil movement.
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Lluís Llach i Grande (born 7 May 1948 in Verges, Catalonia, Spain) is a composer and singer-songwriter.
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Long-finned pilot whale
The long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) is a large species of oceanic dolphin.
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Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
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Malgrat de Mar
Malgrat de Mar is a municipality in the ''comarca'' of the Maresme, in the province of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Manuel de Pedrolo
Manuel de Pedrolo i Molina (1918-1990) was an author of novels, short stories, poetry and plays.
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Manuel Vázquez Montalbán
Manuel Vázquez Montalbán (14 June 1939 in Barcelona – 18 October 2003 in Bangkok) was a prolific Spanish writer: journalist, novelist, poet, essayist, anthologue, prologist, humorist, critic and political prisoner as well as a gastronome and a FC Barcelona supporter.
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The Marca Hispanica (Marca Hispánica, Marca Hispànica, Aragonese and Marca Hispanica, Hispaniako Marka, Marche d'Espagne), also known as the March of Barcelona, was a military buffer zone beyond the former province of Septimania, created by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier between the Umayyad Moors of Al-Andalus and the Frankish Carolingian Empire (Duchy of Gascony, the Duchy of Aquitaine and Carolingian Septimania).
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Maresme is a comarca (county) located along the Catalan Mediterranean coast in Spain, between the comarques of Barcelonès (at the Southwest) and Selva (at the Northeast), and also bordering with Vallès Oriental (at the west).
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Margalef is a village in Catalonia, Spain.
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Mariano Rajoy Brey (born 27 March 1955) is a Spanish politician who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 2011 to 2018, when a vote of no confidence ousted his government.
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Marià Josep Maria Bernat Fortuny i Marsal (Mariano José María Bernardo Fortuny y Marsal; June 11, 1838 – November 21, 1874), known more simply as Marià Fortuny or Mariano Fortuny, was the leading Spanish painter of his day, with an international reputation.
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Martin of Aragon
Martin the Humane (29 July 1356 – 31 May 1410), also called the Elder and the Ecclesiastic, was King of Aragon, Valencia, Sardinia and Corsica and Count of Barcelona from 1396 and King of Sicily from 1409 (as Martin II).
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The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
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Mataró is the capital and largest town of the comarca of the Maresme, in the province of Barcelona, Catalonia Autonomous Community, Spain.
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Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.
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Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
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In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
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A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
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In terrestrial zoology, megafauna (from Greek μέγας megas "large" and New Latin fauna "animal life") are large or giant animals.
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Mercè Rodoreda i Gurguí (10 October 1908 – 13 April 1983) was a Catalan novelist, who wrote in Catalan.
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In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
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Metathesis (from Greek, from "I put in a different order"; Latin: trānspositiō) is the transposition of sounds or syllables in a word or of words in a sentence.
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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
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In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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Miguel Primo de Rivera
Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, 2nd Marquess of Estella, 22nd Count of Sobremonte, GE, OIC, OSH, LCSF, OMC, OTS, KOC (8 January 1870 – 16 March 1930) was a dictator, aristocrat, and military officer who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 1923 to 1930 during Spain's Restoration era.
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Miquel Martí i Pol
Miquel Martí i Pol (19 March 1929 – 11 November 2003) was one of the most popular poets in Catalan in the 20th century.
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Modernisme (Catalan for "modernism"), also known as Catalan modernism, is the historiographic denomination given to an art and literature movement associated with the search of a new entitlement of Catalan culture, one of the most predominant cultures within Spain.
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Moianès is a ''comarca'' in the centre of Catalonia, Spain.
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Monarchy of Spain
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
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Montblanc is the capital of the Catalan comarca Conca de Barberà, in the province of Tarragona.
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Montjuïc Castle (Castell de Montjuïc, Castillo de Montjuich) is an old military fortress, with roots dating back from 1640, built on top of Montjuïc hill in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Montsant is a Spanish Denominación de Origen, DO (Denominació d'Origen) for wine located in the province of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain) and covers 12 municipalities.
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Montseny is a mountain range west of the coastal hills north of Barcelona.
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Montserrat is a multi-peaked mountain range near Barcelona, in Spain.
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Montserrat Caballé (born 12 April 1933) is a Spanish operatic soprano.
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Montsià is the southernmost comarca (county) of Catalonia in Spain.
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Moody's Investors Service
Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating business of Moody's Corporation, representing the company's traditional line of business and its historical name.
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Moroccan Arabic or Moroccan Darija (الدارجة, in Morocco) is a member of the Maghrebi Arabic language continuum spoken in Morocco.
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The Mossos d'Esquadra (in English: Troopers, literally "Squad Lads", "Squaddies") are the police force of Catalonia, largely replacing the Policía Nacional of other regions of Spain.
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Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.
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Municipalities of Spain
The municipalities of Spain (municipios,, municipis, concellos, udalerriak; sing. municipio)In other languages of Spain.
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A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
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Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya
The Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya (English: "National Art Museum of Catalonia"), abbreviated as MNAC, is the national museum of Catalan visual art located in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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The Museu Picasso ("Picasso Museum"), located in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, houses one of the most extensive collections of artworks by the 20th-century Spanish artist Pablo Picasso.
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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
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The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
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Narcís Oller i Moragas (10 August 1846 in Valls – 26 July 1930 in Barcelona) was a Catalan writer, most noted for the novels La papallona (The Butterfly) which appeared with a foreword by Émile Zola in the French translation; his most well-known work L'Escanyapobres (The Usurer); and La febre d'or (Gold Fever) which is set in Barcelona during the period of promoterism.
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A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
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National Day of Catalonia
The National Day of Catalonia (Diada Nacional de Catalunya) is a day-long festival in Catalonia and one of its official national symbols.
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National Police Corps
The National Police Corps (Cuerpo Nacional de Policía, CNP) is the national civilian police force of Spain.
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Nationalities and regions of Spain
Spain is a diverse country integrated by different contrasting entities that show varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical, political and cultural traditions.
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Navarre (Navarra, Nafarroa; Navarra), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France.
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Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
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Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
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Noguera is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain.
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Noucentisme (noucentista being its adjective) was a Catalan cultural movement of the early 20th century that originated largely as a reaction against Modernisme, both in art and ideology, and was, simultaneously, a perception of art almost opposite to that of avantgardists.
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The Nova Cançó (meaning in English "The New Song") was an artistic movement that promoted Catalan music in Francoist Spain.
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Nueva Planta decrees
The Nueva Planta decrees (Decretos de Nueva Planta, Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V—the first Bourbon King of Spain—during and shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession by the Treaty of Utrecht.
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Nuevo León, or New Leon, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León (Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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OBK is a Spanish synthpop music group from Barcelona (Spain) composed of Jordi Sánchez and Miguel Arjona.
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Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
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Occitania (Occitània,,,, or) is the historical region and a nation, in southern Europe where Occitan was historically the main language spoken, and where it is sometimes still used, for the most part as a second language.
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An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
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An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
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Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
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Olot is the capital city of the comarca of Garrotxa, in the Province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Open University of Catalonia
The Open University of Catalonia (Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, UOC) is an Internet-centered open university based in Barcelona, Spain.
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Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
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Oriol Junqueras i Vies (born 11 April 1969) is a Spanish politician, historian and academic from Catalonia.
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Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
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Osona is a ''comarca'' situated in central Catalonia, Spain.
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Outline of Catalonia
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Catalonia: Catalonia – nationality and one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain, located on the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula.
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Pa amb tomàquet
Pa amb tomàquet, or Pan con tomate ("Bread with tomato"), pa amb oli (Majorcan:, "Bread with olive oil") is a traditional food of Valencian, Andalusian, Aragonian, Balearic, Catalan and Murcian cuisines in Spain.
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Pau Casals i Defilló (Catalan:; 29 December 187622 October 1973), usually known in English as Pablo Casals,, The New York Times, 1911-04-09, retrieved 2009-08-01 was a cellist, composer, and conductor from Catalonia, Spain.
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Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.
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Palamós is a town and municipality in the Mediterranean Costa Brava, located in the comarca of Baix Empordà, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Palau de la Generalitat de Catalunya
The Palau de la Generalitat de Catalunya is a historic palace in Barcelona, Catalonia.
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Palau de la Música Catalana
The Palau de la Música Catalana (Palacio de la Música Catalana, Palace of Catalan Music) is a concert hall in Barcelona, Spain.
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The Palau Güell (Güell Palace) is a mansion designed by the architect Antoni Gaudí for the industrial tycoon Eusebi Güell and built between 1886 and 1888.
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Pallars Jussà is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain.
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Pallars Sobirà is a comarca (comparable to a county or shire in much of the English-speaking world) in the mountainous northwest of Catalonia, Spain.
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The Park Güell (Parc Güell) is a public park system composed of gardens and architectonic elements located on Carmel Hill, in Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain).
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In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
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Parliament of Catalonia
The Parliament of Catalonia (Parlament de Catalunya) is the unicameral regional legislature of Catalonia.
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Pasqual Maragall i Mira (born 13 January 1941 in Barcelona) is a Spanish politician and was the 127th President of Generalitat de Catalunya (the autonomous government of Catalonia).
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A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
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Patum de Berga
The Patum de Berga, or simply La Patum, is a popular and traditional festival that is celebrated each year in the Catalan city of Berga (Barcelona) during Corpus Christi.
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Pau Claris i Casademunt
Pau Claris i Casademunt (January 1, 1586 – February 27, 1641) was a Catalan lawyer, clergyman and 94th President of the Deputation of the General of Catalonia at the beginning of the Catalan Revolt.
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The PBS NewsHour is an American daily evening television news program that is broadcast on the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), airing seven nights a week on more than 350 of the public broadcaster's member stations.
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Peace and Truce of God
The Peace and Truce of God (Pax et treuga Dei; Gottesfrieden; Paix de Dieu; Pau i Treva de Déu) was a movement in the Middle Ages led by the Catholic Church.
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Penedès is a natural and historical region of the autonomous community of Catalonia, Spain.
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Penedès is a Spanish Denominación de Origen, DO (Catalan: Denominació d'Origen), for wines in Catalonia (Spain).
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People's Party (Spain)
The People's Party (Partido Popular; known mostly by its acronym, PP) is a conservative and Christian democratic political party in Spain.
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Pere Calders i Rossinyol (Barcelona, 29 September 1912 - 21 July 1994) was a Catalan writer and cartoonist.
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Pedro Pubill Calaf (24 March 1935 – 27 August 2014), better known as Peret, was a Spanish Romani singer, guitar player and composer of Catalan rumba from Mataró (Barcelona).
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Perpignan–Barcelona high-speed rail line
The Perpignan–Barcelona high-speed line is an international high-speed rail line between France and Spain.
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The Perthus Tunnel is a twin-bore railway tunnel between France and Spain under the Eastern Pyrenees, built as part of the high-speed railway line Perpignan-Figueres.
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Petronilla of Aragon
Petronilla (29 June/11 August 1136 – 15 October 1173), whose name is also spelled Petronila or Petronella (Aragonese Peyronela or Payronella, and Peronella), was the Queen of Aragon from the abdication of her father in 1137 until her own abdication in 1164.
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Philip V of Spain
Philip V (Felipe V, Philippe, Filippo; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 15 January 1724, and from his reascendancy of the throne upon his son's death on 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746.
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Pla d'Urgell is a comarca (county) in the interior of Catalonia, Spain.
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Pla de l'Estany
Pla de l'Estany is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain.
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Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
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Plain of Vic
The Plain of Vic (Catalan Plana de Vic) is a 30 km long depression located at the eastern end of the Catalan Central Depression in the Osona comarca.
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Plataforma per la Llengua
La Plataforma per la Llengua (the Pro-Language Platform) is a non-governmental organisation born in 1993 in Barcelona (Catalonia), in order to defend and promote Catalan language all over the Catalan-speaking territories in the European States where it is spoken: Spain, France, Andorra and Italy.
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The Royal Abbey of Santa Maria de Poblet (Reial Monestir de Santa Maria de Poblet) is a Cistercian monastery, founded in 1151, located at the foot of the Prades Mountains, in the comarca of Conca de Barberà, in Catalonia (Spain).
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Ponent, Lleida or Terres de Lleida is one of the seven territories defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia.
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Pop rock (also typeset as pop/rock) is rock music with a greater emphasis on professional songwriting and recording craft, and less emphasis on attitude.
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Popular Unity Candidacy
The Popular Unity Candidacy (Candidatura d'Unitat Popular, CUP) is a left-wing pro-Catalan independence political party active primarily in Catalonia where it has political representation, but also in other Autonomous Communities in Spain it considers to belong to the Catalan Countries.
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Port of Barcelona
The Port of Barcelona (Port de Barcelona,; Puerto de Barcelona) has a 2000-year history and great contemporary commercial importance as one of Europe's ports in the Mediterranean, as well as Catalonia's largest port, tying with Tarragona.
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Portbou is a town in the Alt Empordà county, in the Province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Ports de Tortosa-Beseit
Ports de Tortosa-Beseit, also known as Ports de Beseit, or simply as Els Ports or Lo Port by locals, is a limestone mountain massif located at the north-eastern end of the Sistema Ibérico, a complex system of mountain ranges and massifs in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula.
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The Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista, POUM; Partit Obrer d'Unificació Marxista) was a Spanish communist political party formed during the Second Republic and mainly active around the Spanish Civil War.
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The Pre-Pyrenees are the foothills of the Pyrenees.
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President of the Generalitat of Catalonia
The President of the Generalitat of Catalonia (President de la Generalitat de Catalunya) is one of the bodies that the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia stipulates as part of the Generalitat de Catalunya, others being the Parliament, the government, the Consell de Garanties Estatutàries and the Síndic de Greuges.
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Primary sector of the economy
An industry involved in the extraction and collection of natural resources, such as copper and timber, as well as by activities such as farming and fishing.
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Prime Minister of Spain
The Prime Minister of Spain, officially the President of the Government of Spain (Presidente del Gobierno de España), is the head of the government of Spain.
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A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.
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Principality of Catalonia
The Principality of Catalonia (Principat de Catalunya, Principatus Cathaloniæ, Principautat de Catalonha, Principado de Cataluña) was a medieval and early modern political entity or state in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula.
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Priorat is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain.
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Priorat is a Spanish Denominació d'Origen Qualificada (DOQ) for wines produced in the Priorat county in the province of Tarragona to the south-west of Catalonia.
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Private banks are the banks owned by either the individual or a general partner(s) with limited partner(s).
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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
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The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.
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Proto-industrialization (also spelled proto-industrialisation) was a possible phase in the development of modern industrial economies that preceded, and created conditions for, the establishment of fully industrial societies.
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A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state.
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Province of Barcelona
Barcelona is a province of eastern Spain, in the center of the autonomous community of Catalonia.
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Province of Girona
Girona (Gerona) is a province of Spain, in the northeastern part of the autonomous community of Catalonia.
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Province of Lleida
Monastery of Santa Maria de Bellpuig de les Avellanes. The Province of Lleida (Lérida; Lhèida) is one of the four provinces of Catalonia.
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Province of Tarragona
Tarragona is a province of eastern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of Catalonia.
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Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces (provincias,; sing. provincia).
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Puigcerdà (informally:,; Puigcerdá) is the capital of the Catalan comarca of Cerdanya, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, northern Spain, near the Segre River and on the border with France (it abuts directly onto the French town of Bourg-Madame).
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Purchasing power parity
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
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Pyrénées-Orientales (Pirineus Orientals; Pirenèus Orientals; "Eastern Pyrenees") is a department of southern France adjacent to the northern Spanish frontier and the Mediterranean Sea.
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The Pyrenean chamois (French: izard or isard, Spanish: rebeco or gamuza, Catalan: isard, Italian: camoscio dei Pirenei, camoscio appenninico, Basque: Pirinioetako sarrioa, Aragonese: sarrio or chizardo), Rupicapra pyrenaica, is a goat antelope that lives in the Pyrenees, Cantabrian Mountains and Apennine Mountains.
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The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
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The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
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Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
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Joaquim Monzó i Gómez, also known as Quim Monzó (born 24 March 1952 in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain), is a contemporary Spanish writer of novels, short stories and discursive prose, mostly in Catalan.
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Joaquim Torra i Pla (born 28 December 1962), known as Quim Torra, is a lawyer and journalist from Catalonia, Spain.
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Raül Romeva i Rueda (born 12 March 1971) is a Spanish politician from Catalonia and a former Member of the European Parliament with the Iniciativa per Catalunya Verds, part of the European Greens.
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RAC 1 is the main Catalan language private radio station.
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Ramiro II of Aragon
Ramiro II (24 April 1086 – 16 August 1157), called the Monk, was King of Aragon from 1134 until withdrawing from public life in 1137 (although he used the royal title until his death).
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Ramon Berenguer I, Count of Barcelona
Ramon Berenguer I (1023–1076), called the Old (el Vell, le Vieux), was Count of Barcelona in 1035–1076.
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Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona
Ramon Berenguer IV (c. 1114 – 6 August 1162, Anglicized Raymond Berengar IV), sometimes called the Saint, was the Count of Barcelona who brought about the union of his County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon to form the Crown of Aragon.
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Ramon Casas i Carbó (4 January 1866 – 29 February 1932) was a Spanish artist.
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Ranked lists of Spanish autonomous communities
This article includes several ranked indicators for Spain's autonomous communities, as well as for the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla.
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In architecture, rationalism is an architectural current which mostly developed from Italy in the 1920s-1930s.
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Reial Club Deportiu Espanyol de Barcelona (Royal Spanish Sports Club of Barcelona), commonly known as RCD Espanyol, or simply as Espanyol, is a professional sports club based in Barcelona, Spain.
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The Reapers' War (Guerra dels Segadors) affected a large part of the Principality of Catalonia between the years of 1640 and 1659.
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In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.
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Region of Murcia
The Region of Murcia (Región de Murcia, Regió de Múrcia) is an autonomous community of Spain located in the southeast of the state, between Andalusia and Valencian Community, on the Mediterranean coast.
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Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
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The Renaixença, Catalan Renaissance, ((also written Renaixensa before spelling standardisation) was an early 19th-century romantic revivalist movement in Catalan language and culture, akin to the Galician Rexurdimento or the Occitan Félibrige movements. The movement dates to the 1830s and 1840s, but lasted into the 1880s, when it branched out into other cultural movements. Even though it primarily followed a romantic impulse, it incorporated stylistic and philosophical elements of other 19th century movements such as Naturalism or Symbolism. The name does not indicate a particular style, but rather the cultural circumstances in which it bloomed.
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Renfe Operadora is the state-owned company which operates freight and passenger trains on the, the and the networks of the Spanish national railway infrastructure company Adif (Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias—Railway Infrastructure Administration).
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Republican Left of Catalonia
The Republican Left of Catalonia (Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, ERC) is a Catalan nationalist and democratic socialist political party in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia.
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Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
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Reus Airport is located by the beaches of Costa Daurada, equidistant in relation to the town of Constantí and the city of Reus and approximately from the city center of Tarragona, in Catalonia, Spain.
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Ribera d'Ebre is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain.
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Ricardo Bofill Leví (born 5 December 1939) is a Spanish architect, who, since 1963, continues to lead the international architectural and urban design practice Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura.
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Riffian, Rif Berber or Riffian Berber (native local name: Tmaziɣt; external name: Tarifit) is a Zenati Northern Berber language.
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Ripoll is the capital of the comarca of Ripollès, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Ripollès is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain.
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Road bicycle racing
Road bicycle racing is the cycle sport discipline of road cycling, held on paved roads.
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Rock català ("Catalan Rock") is a type of music popular in the late 1980s and early 1990s involving Catalan lyrics and many different musical styles.
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Rodalies de Catalunya
Rodalies de Catalunya ("Commuter Rail of Catalonia") is the main commuter and regional rail system in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia.
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The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.
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Roger Torrent i Ramió (born 19 July 1979) is a Catalan nationalist politician and urban planner.
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Roller hockey (quad)
Roller hockey (in British English), rink hockey (in American English) or quad hockey is a team sport that enjoys significant popularity in a number of Latin countries.
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Citizenship in ancient Rome was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance.→.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
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In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
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The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
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Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
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Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
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Roses (Rosas) is a municipality in the ''comarca'' of the Alt Empordà, located on the Costa Brava, in Catalonia, Spain.
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Roussillon (or;; Rosselló, Occitan: Rosselhon) is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrénées-Orientales (Eastern Pyrenees).
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Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field.
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Sabadell (Latin: Sabatellum) is the second largest city in the comarca of the Vallès Occidental in Catalonia, Spain.
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Sabadell Airport is located next to the city of Sabadell, from Barcelona's city centre, in Catalonia.
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The Basílica i Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Família (Templo Expiatorio de la Sagrada Familia; Expiatory Church of the Holy Family) is a large unfinished Roman Catholic church in Barcelona, designed by Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí (1852–1926).
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Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.
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Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquess of Dalí de Púbol (11 May 190423 January 1989), known professionally as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish surrealist born in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain.
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Salvador Espriu i Castelló (July 10, 1913 – February 22, 1985) was a Spanish poet who wrote most of his works in Catalan.
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Sangtraït was a hard rock and heavy metal group with mediaeval reminiscences, from La Jonquera, in Catalonia, Spain.
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Santa Coloma de Cervelló
Santa Coloma de Cervelló is a municipality situated in the comarca of Baix Llobregat, at the province of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Santa Coloma de Gramenet
Santa Coloma de Gramenet (Santa Coloma de Gramanet), informally simply known as Santa Coloma (historically also known as Gramenet de Besòs) is a municipality in Catalonia, Spain.
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The sardana (plural sardanes) is a type of circle dance typical of Catalan culture.
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Sau was a music group from Catalonia, Spain, which rose to fame in this area in the 1990s, being among the first groups to write pop music with Catalan lyrics, known as rock català.
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A savings bank is a financial institution whose primary purpose is accepting savings deposits and paying interest on those deposits.
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Second Punic War
The Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides.
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Second Spanish Republic
The Spanish Republic (República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española), was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939.
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Secondary sector of the economy
The secondary sector of the economy includes industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction.
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Segarra is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain, situated on a high plain.
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The Segre (Sègre) is a river tributary to the Ebro (Ebre in Catalan) with a basin comprising territories across three states: France, Andorra and Spain.
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Segrià is a comarca (county) in the west of Catalonia, Spain, bordering Aragon.
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Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.
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Selva is a coastal comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain, located between the mountain range known as the Serralada Transversal or Puigsacalm and the Costa Brava (part of the Mediterranean coast).
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Senate of Spain
The Senate (Senado) is the upper house of Spain's parliament, the Cortes Generales.
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The Senyera (meaning "pennon", "standard", "banner", "ensign", or, more generically, "flag" in Catalan) is a vexillological symbol based on the coat of arms of the Crown of Aragon, which consists of four red stripes on a yellow field.
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Septimania (Septimanie,; Septimània,; Septimània) was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462, when Septimania was ceded to their king, Theodoric II.
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Serra del Cadí
The Serra del Cadí is a mountain range in the north of Catalonia, Spain, part of the Pre-Pyrenees.
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The Seville Fair (officially and in Feria de abril de Sevilla, "Seville April Fair") is held in Andalusian capital of Seville, Spain.
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Siege of Barcelona (1713–14)
The Siege of Barcelona (Setge de Barcelona) was a battle at the end of the War of Spanish Succession, which pitted Archduke Charles of Austria (backed by Great Britain and the Netherlands, i.e. the Grand Alliance), against Philip V of Spain, backed by France in a contest for the Spanish crown.
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The Société nationale des chemins de fer français (SNCF, "French National Railway Company") is France's national state-owned railway company.
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Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
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Socialists' Party of Catalonia
The Socialists' Party of Catalonia (Partit dels Socialistes de Catalunya, PSC–PSOE official acronym) is a social-democratic political party in Catalonia, Spain resulting from the merger of two parties Socialist Party of Catalonia–Regrouping led by Josep Pallach i Carolà and Socialist Party of Catalonia–Congress and also the Catalan Federation of the PSOE.
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Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
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Solsonès is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain.
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Sopa de Cabra
Sopa de Cabra ('Goat Soup') was a musical group from Girona (Catalonia), active from 1986 to 2002.
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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
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Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
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Spanish colonization of the Americas
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
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Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
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The Spanish miracle (El Milagro español, literally "The Spanish Miracle") was the name given to a broadly based economic boom in Spain from 1959 to 1974.
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Spanish property bubble
The Spanish property bubble is the collapsed overshooting part of a long-term price increase of Spanish real estate prices.
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Spanish transition to democracy
The Spanish transition to democracy (Transición española a la democracia), known in Spain as the Transition (La Transición), or the Spanish transition (Transición española) is a period of modern Spanish history, that started on 20 November 1975, the date of death of Francisco Franco, who had established a military dictatorship after the victory of the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War.
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The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) or cachalot is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator.
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Standard & Poor's
Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC (S&P) is an American financial services company.
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Statistical Institute of Catalonia
The Statistical Institute of Catalonia (in Catalan: Institut d'Estadística de Catalunya, usually referred to by its acronym IDESCAT) is the official body responsible for collecting and publishing statistics in the autonomous community of Catalonia, Spain.
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Statute of Autonomy
Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy (Estatuto de Autonomía, Estatut d'Autonomia, Estatuto de Autonomía, Estatutu d' Autonomía, Autonomia Estatutua) is a law hierarchically located under the constitution of a country, and over any other form of legislation (including organic laws).
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Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia
The Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 2006 (Estatut d’Autonomia de Catalunya) provides Catalonia's basic institutional regulations under the Spanish Constitution of 1978.
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Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 1932
The Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 1932, also called the Statute of Núria, was the first drafted statute of autonomy for Catalonia.
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Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 1979
The Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (Estatut d'Autonomia de Catalunya; also Statute of Sau, Estatut de Sau, after the location where the statute was first made) is a constitutional law defining the region of Catalonia as an autonomous community within the Kingdom of Spain.
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Summer Olympic Games
The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.
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Super3 is a Catalan public television channel owned by Televisió de Catalunya in Catalan language.
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Swabians (Schwaben, singular Schwabe) are an ethnic German people who are native to or have ancestral roots in the cultural and linguistic region of Swabia, which is now mostly divided between the modern states of Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria, in southwest Germany.
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Synchronised swimming (renamed as artistic swimming since July 2017 by the global governing body FINA), is a hybrid form of swimming, dance, and gymnastics, consisting of swimmers performing a synchronised routine (either solo, duet, mixed duet, free team, free combination, and highlight) of elaborate moves in the water, accompanied by music.
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The tambori (tamborí) is a percussion instrument of about 10 centimetres diameter, a small shallow cylinder formed of metal or wood with a drumhead of skin.
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Tarraco is the ancient name of the current city of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain).
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Tarragona (Phoenician: Tarqon; Tarraco) is a port city located in northeast Spain on the Costa Daurada by the Mediterranean Sea.
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Tarragonès is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain.
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Telecinco is a Spanish commercial television channel operated by Mediaset España Comunicación.
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Telephone numbers in Spain
The Spanish telephone numbering plan is the allocation of telephone numbers in Spain.
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Televisió de Catalunya
Televisió de Catalunya (known by the acronym TVC) is the public broadcasting network of Catalonia, one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain.
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Televisión Española (acronym TVE, on lowercase letters: tve, in English "Spanish Television") is the national state-owned public-service television broadcaster in Spain.
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Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
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The Ter is a river in Catalonia (northeastern of the Iberian Peninsula) that rises in Ulldeter at an approximate elevation of, at the foot of a glacial cirque delimited by the nearby peaks of el Bastiments, el Gra de Fajol, or el Pic de la Dona.
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Terra Alta (comarca)
Terra Alta is a sparsely populated inland comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain.
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Terrassa (Tarrasa) is a city in the east central region of Catalonia, in the province of Barcelona, comarca of Vallès Occidental, of which it is the cocapital along with Sabadell.
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Terres de l'Ebre
Les Terres de l'Ebre (literally in English 'The Ebre Lands') is one of the seven territories defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia.
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Tertiary sector of the economy
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
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The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
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The Independent is a British online newspaper.
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Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
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Tió de Nadal
The Tió de Nadal (meaning in English "Christmas Log"), also known simply as Tió ("Trunk" or "Log", a big piece of cut wood) or Tronca ("Log"), is a character in Catalan mythology relating to a Christmas tradition widespread in Catalonia and some regions of Aragon.
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Together for Yes
Together for Yes (TFY) is an abortion rights campaign group in Ireland.
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The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
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Tordera is a city in the comarca of Maresme, province of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, situated 64 km from Barcelona and 36 km from Girona on the edge of the Montnegre natural park.
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Tortosa is the capital of the comarca of Baix Ebre, in Catalonia, Spain.
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Tragic Week (Catalonia)
Tragic Week (in Catalan la Setmana Tràgica, in Spanish la Semana Trágica) (25 July – 2 August 1909) is the name used for a series of violent confrontations between the Spanish army and radicals of the working classes of Barcelona and other cities of Catalonia (Spain), assisted by anarchists, socialists and republicans, during the last week of July 1909.
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Treaty of Corbeil (1258)
The Treaty of Corbeil was an agreement signed on 11 May 1258, in Corbeil (today Corbeil-Essonnes, in the region of Île-de-France) between Louis IX of France and James I of Aragon.
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Treaty of the Pyrenees
The Treaty of the Pyrenees (Traité des Pyrénées, Tratado de los Pirineos, Tractat dels Pirineus, Tratado dos Pirenéus) was signed on 7 November 1659 to end the 1635–1659 war between France and Spain, a war that was initially a part of the wider Thirty Years' War.
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Treaty of Utrecht
The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
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Tribunal de Cassació
Tribunal de Cassació (Catalan for Court of Appeal) was the Generalitat of Catalonia's judicial organization during the Second Spanish Republic founded in 1934, established by the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 1932.
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The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family.
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A trumpet is a brass instrument commonly used in classical and jazz ensembles.
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TV3 is the primary television channel of Catalan public broadcaster Televisió de Catalunya, a subsidiary of the CCMA.
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TV3 CAT was named until 29 May 2009, Televisió de Catalunya Internacional, it was the international channel of Catalonia, Televisió de Catalunya.
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Twenty-foot equivalent unit
The twenty-foot equivalent unit (often TEU or teu) is an inexact unit of cargo capacity often used to describe the capacity of container ships and container terminals.
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UEFA Champions League
The UEFA Champions League is an annual continental club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and contested by top-division European clubs.
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UEFA Europa League
The UEFA Europa League is an annual football club competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs.
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Ullastret is a small historic village on the Bay of Empordà located some 5 km northeast of La Bisbal d'Empordà, in Catalonia.
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The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
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Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia
The Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia (Partit Socialista Unificat de Catalunya, PSUC) was a communist political party active in Catalonia between 1936 and 1997.
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The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
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Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
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Modern-day Urgell, also known as Baix Urgell ("baix" meaning lower), is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain, forming only a borderland portion of the region historically known as Urgell, one of the Catalan counties.
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The Urnfield culture (c. 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe, often divided into several local cultures within a broader Urnfield tradition.
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Aran (previously officially called Val d'Aran) is an administrative entity in Catalonia, Spain, consisting of the Aran Valley, in area, in the Pyrenees mountains, in the northwestern part of the province of Lleida.
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The Valencian Community, or the Valencian Country, is an autonomous community of Spain.
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El Vallès (or simply Vallès) is a historical county in Catalonia, Spain, located in the center of the Catalan Pre-coastal range.
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Vallès Occidental is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain.
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Vallès Oriental is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain.
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Valls is the capital of the comarca of Alt Camp, in Catalonia, Spain.
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The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
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A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
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Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
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The vegueria (pl. vegueries) was the feudal administrative territorial jurisdiction of the Principality of Catalonia (to the Crown of Aragon) during the Middle Ages and into the Modern Era until the Nueva Planta decrees of 1716.
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Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II ''Augusta'' during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's Senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.
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The Via Augusta (also known as the Via Herculea or Via Exterior), was the longest and busiest of the major roads built by the Romans in ancient Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula).
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Victoria de los Ángeles
Victoria de los Ángeles (1 November 192315 January 2005) was a Spanish operatic lyric soprano and recitalist whose career began after the Second World War and reached its height in the years from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s.
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Vilanova i la Geltrú
Vilanova i la Geltrú (Villanueva y Geltrú) is a city in the province of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain and the capital of the Garraf comarca.
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Virgin of Montserrat
Our Lady of Montserrat or the Virgin of Montserrat (Mare de Déu de Montserrat) is a Marian title associated with a venerated statue of the Madonna and Child venerated at the Santa Maria de Montserrat monastery on the Montserrat Mountain in Catalonia, Spain.
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The Visigothic Kingdom or Kingdom of the Visigoths (Regnum Gothorum) was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries.
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The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
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Volta a Catalunya
The Volta a Catalunya (Tour of Catalonia, Vuelta a Cataluña) is a road bicycle race held annually in Catalonia, Spain.
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War of the Spanish Succession
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
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Water polo is a competitive team sport played in the water between two teams.
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Western Roman Empire
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
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Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
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The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
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Wilfred the Hairy
Wilfred or Wifred, called the Hairy (in Catalan: Guifré el Pilós), was Count of Urgell (from 870), Cerdanya (from 870), Barcelona (from 878), Girona (from 878, as Wilfred II), Besalú (from 878) and Ausona (from 886).
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World Heritage site
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
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1955 Mediterranean Games
The II Mediterranean Games – Barcelona 1955, commonly known as the 1955 Mediterranean Games, were the 2nd Mediterranean Games.
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1992 Summer Olympics
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain in 1992.
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2013 World Aquatics Championships
The 15th FINA World Championships (Campionat Mundial de Natació de 2013, Campeonato Mundial de Natación de 2013) were held from July 20 to August 4 in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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2017–18 Spanish constitutional crisis
The 2017–18 Spanish constitutional crisis, also known as the Catalan crisis, is an ongoing political conflict between the Government of Spain and the Generalitat de Catalunya under former President Carles Puigdemont—the government of the autonomous community of Catalonia until 28 October 2017—over the issue of Catalan independence. It started after the law intending to allow the 2017 Catalan independence referendum was denounced by the Spanish government under Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy and subsequently suspended by the Constitutional Court until it ruled on the issue. Some international media outlets have described the events as "one of the worst political crises in modern Spanish history". Puigdemont's government announced that neither central Spanish authorities nor the courts would halt their plans and that it intended to hold the vote anyway, sparking a legal backlash that quickly spread from the Spanish and Catalan governments to Catalan municipalities—as local mayors were urged by the Generalitat to provide logistical support and help for the electoral process to be carried out—as well as to the Constitutional Court, the High Court of Justice of Catalonia and state prosecutors. By 15 September, as pro-Catalan independence parties began their referendum campaigns, the Spanish government had launched an all-out legal offensive to thwart the upcoming vote, including threats of a financial takeover of much of the Catalan budget, police seizing pro-referendum posters, pamphlets and leaflets which had been regarded as illegal and criminal investigations ordered on the over 700 local mayors who had publicly agreed to help stage the referendum. Tensions between the two sides reached a critical point after Spanish police raided the Catalan government headquarters in Barcelona on 20 September, at the start of Operation Anubis, and arrested fourteen senior Catalan officials. This led to protests outside the Catalan economy department which saw Civil Guard officers trapped inside the building for hours and several vehicles vandalized. The referendum was eventually held, albeit without meeting minimum standards for elections and amid low turnout and police crackdown resulting in hundreds injured. On 10 October, Puigdemont ambiguously declared and suspended independence during a speech in the Parliament of Catalonia, arguing his move was directed at entering talks with Spain. The Spanish government required Puigdemont to clarify whether he had declared independence or not, to which it received no clear answer. A further requirement was met with an implicit threat from the Generalitat that it would lift the suspension on the independence declaration if Spain "continued its repression", in response to the imprisonment of the leaders of pro-independence Catalan National Assembly (ANC) and Òmnium Cultural, accused of sedition by the National Court because of their involvement in the 20 September events. On 21 October, it was announced by Prime Minister Rajoy that Article 155 of the Spanish Constitution would be invoked, leading to direct rule over Catalonia by the Spanish government once approved by the Senate. On 27 October, the Catalan parliament voted in a secret ballot to unilaterally declare independence from Spain, with some deputies boycotting a vote considered illegal for violating the decisions of the Constitutional Court of Spain, as the lawyers of the Parliament of Catalonia warned. As a result, the government of Spain invoked the Constitution to remove the regional authorities and enforce direct rule the next day, with a regional election being subsequently called for 21 December 2017 to elect a new Parliament of Catalonia. Puigdemont and part of his cabinet fled to Belgium after being ousted, as the Spanish Attorney General pressed for charges of sedition, rebellion and embezzlement against them.
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3/24 is the first and only 24-hour rolling news and information service in Catalonia, operated by Televisió de Catalunya (TVC).
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8TV, formerly known as Td8 and then '"Citytv", is a Catalan language private TV station based in Barcelona, Spain.
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Autonomous Community of Catalonia, Autonomous community of Catalonia, Catalania, Catalogne, Catalonha, Catalonia (Autonomous Community), Catalonia (Catalunya), Catalonia (Spain), Catalonia (autonomous community), Catalonia, Spain, Catalonic, Cataluna, Cataluna Autonomous Community, Cataluna Autonomous Community, Spain, Catalunia, Catalunya, Catalunya, Spain, Cataluyna, Cataluña, Cataluña Autonomous Community, Cataluña Autonomous Community, Spain, Cataluña, Spain, Climate of Catalonia, Culture of Catalonia, Etymology of Catalonia, Fauna of Catalonia, Flora and fauna of Catalonia, Geography of Catalonia, Katalunia, Southern Catalonia, Spanish Catalonia.