83 relations: Adrenal gland, Adrenal medulla, Adrenaline, Alkaloid, Amine, Amino acid, AMPT, Area postrema, Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, Benzene, Biopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylase, Blood pressure, Blood sugar level, Brainstem, Carcinoid syndrome, Catechol, Catechol-O-methyltransferase, Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, Central nervous system, Chromaffin cell, Clinical urine tests, Cofactor (biochemistry), Dopamine, Dopamine beta-hydroxylase, Emergency medicine, Ethyl group, Ethylene, Ferrous, Fight-or-flight response, Gibberellin, Health effects from noise, Heart rate, History of catecholamine research, Homovanillic acid, Hormone, Hydroxy group, Hydroxylation, Hypoglycemia, Iron, Julius Axelrod, L-DOPA, Light pollution, Locus coeruleus, Medicinal plants, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase, Monoamine oxidase A, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Neuroendocrine tumor, Neuromelanin, ..., Neuromodulation, Neurotransmitter, Norepinephrine, Nucleus (neuroanatomy), Organic compound, Oxygen, Peptide hormone, Phenethylamine, Phenylalanine, Phenylalanine hydroxylase, Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, Pheochromocytoma, Postganglionic nerve fibers, Pyridoxal phosphate, S-Adenosyl methionine, Side chain, Solitary tract, Steroid hormone, Stimulant, Stress (biology), Substantia nigra, Substituent, Substituted amphetamine, Sympathetic nervous system, Sympathomimetic drug, Synapse, Tetrahydrobiopterin, Tolcapone, Tyrosine, Tyrosine hydroxylase, Vanillylmandelic acid, Ventral tegmental area, Vitamin C. Expand index (33 more) » « Shrink index
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
The adrenal medulla (medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) is a tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme inhibitor.
The area postrema is a medullary structure in the brain that controls vomiting.
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC or AAAD), also known as DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), tryptophan decarboxylase, and 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase, is a lyase enzyme.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Biopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAH) are a family of aromatic amino acid hydroxylase enzymes which includes phenylalanine 4-hydroxylase, tyrosine 3-hydroxylase, and tryptophan 5-hydroxylase.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Carcinoid syndrome is a paraneoplastic syndrome comprising the signs and symptoms that occur secondary to carcinoid tumors.
Catechol, also known as pyrocatechol or 1,2-dihydroxybenzene, is an organic compound with the molecular formula C6H4(OH)2.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines (such as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), catecholestrogens, and various drugs and substances having a catechol structure.
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an inherited disorder that predisposes those affected to potentially life-threatening abnormal heart rhythms or arrhythmias.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chromaffin cells, also pheochromocytes, are neuroendocrine cells found mostly in the medulla of the adrenal glands in mammals.
Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), also known as dopamine beta-monooxygenase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DBH gene.
Emergency medicine, also known as accident and emergency medicine, is the medical specialty concerned with caring for undifferentiated, unscheduled patients with illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention.
In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane (C2H6).
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
In chemistry, ferrous (Fe2+), indicates a divalent iron compound (+2 oxidation state), as opposed to ferric, which indicates a trivalent iron compound (+3 oxidation state).
The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.
Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that regulate various developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, flower development and leaf and fruit senescence.
Noise health effects are the physical and psychological health consequences of regular exposure, to consistent elevated sound levels.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
The catecholamines comprise the endogenous substances dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) as well as numerous artificially synthesized compounds such as isoprenaline.
Homovanillic acid (HVA) is a major catecholamine metabolite that is produced by a consecutive action of monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase on dopamine.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Julius Axelrod (May 30, 1912 – December 29, 2004) was an American biochemist.
L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.
Light pollution, also known as photopollution, is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment.
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.
Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
Monoamine oxidase A, also known as MAO-A, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOA gene.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous systems.
Neuromelanin (NM) is a dark pigment found in the brain which is structurally related to melanin.
Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
In neuroanatomy, a nucleus (plural form: nuclei) is a cluster of neurons in the central nervous system, located deep within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Peptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the aromatic side-chain of phenylalanine to generate tyrosine.
Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is an enzyme found primarily in the adrenal medulla that converts norepinephrine (noradrenaline) to epinephrine (adrenaline).
Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth, that secretes high amounts of catecholamines, mostly norepinephrine, plus epinephrine to a lesser extent.
In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the ganglion to the effector organ are called postganglionic fibers.
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, P5P), the active form of vitamin B6, is a coenzyme in a variety of enzymatic reactions.
S-Adenosyl methionineSAM-e, SAMe, SAM, S-Adenosyl-L-methionine, AdoMet, ademetionine is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone.
The solitary tract (tractus solitarius, or fasciculus solitarius) is a compact fiber bundle that extends longitudinally through the posterolateral region of the medulla.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, THB), also known as sapropterin, is a naturally occurring essential cofactor of the three aromatic amino acid hydroxylase enzymes, used in the degradation of amino acid phenylalanine and in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), melatonin, dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), epinephrine (adrenaline), and is a cofactor for the production of nitric oxide (NO) by the nitric oxide synthases.
Tolcapone (brand name Tasmar) is a drug used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD).
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA).
Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) is a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of artificial vanilla flavorings and is an end-stage metabolite of the catecholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
A-methyltyrosine, Adrenergic fibers, Catchecholamines, Catecholamine hormone, Catecholamine hypothesis, Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins, Catecholamine synthesis, Catecholamine synthetis, Catecholamines, Catecolamine, Methyltyrosine, Receptors, catecholamine, Α-methyltyrosine.