355 relations: A Royal Scandal (film), Adam Laxman, Age of Enlightenment, Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, Aleksandr Bibikov, Aleutian Islands, Alexander Bezborodko, Alexander Dmitriev-Mamonov, Alexander I of Russia, Alexander Nevsky Lavra, Alexander Pushkin, Alexander Radishchev, Alexander Suvorov, Alexander Vasilchikov, Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov, Alexei Razumovsky, Alexey Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Ambassadors and envoys from Russia to Poland (1763–1794), American Revolution, Anders Johan Lexell, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Empire, Anti-Russian sentiment, Antonio Rinaldi (architect), Aras (river), Arthur Young (agriculturist), Assignation ruble, Augusta Marie of Holstein-Gottorp, Augustus III of Poland, Autocracy, Azerbaijan, Azov, Azov campaigns (1695–96), Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, Babylon, Baku, Balkans, Baltic Fleet, Bar Confederation, Battle of Borodino, Battle of Chesma, Battle of Hogland, Battle of Kagul, Battle of Krtsanisi, Battle of Svensksund, Battle of Zorndorf, Black Sea, Bloodletting, Bobrinsky, Bourgeoisie, ..., Brocade, Bureaucracy, Byzantine Empire, Catherine I of Russia, Caucasus, Cesare Beccaria, Charles Hanbury Williams, Charles XIII of Sweden, Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin, Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, Christina Magdalena of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken, Classicism, Collegium of Commerce, Commercial treaty, Constantinople, Constitution of 3 May 1791, Constitutional monarchy, Coronation of the Russian monarch, Cossacks, Count Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff, Coup d'état, Courland, Crimea, Crimean Khanate, Czartoryski, Daikokuya Kōdayū, Daniel Dumaresq, Decembrist revolt, Delirium, Denis Diderot, Denis Fonvizin, Denmark, Derbent, DjVu, Dmitry Levitzky, Dnieper, Dnipro, Dormition Cathedral, Moscow, Duchess Marie Elisabeth of Saxony, Duchy of Schleswig, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecco Press, Egypt, Ekaterina (TV series), Elizabeth of Russia, Elizaveta Vorontsova, Emperor of All Russia, Encyclopédie, Encyclopédistes, Enlightened absolutism, Ernst Lubitsch, European balance of power, Exile, Female education, First League of Armed Neutrality, First Partition of Poland, Forbidden Paradise, Foreign minister, Franz Aepinus, Frederick III of Denmark, Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Frederick the Great, Frederick VI, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, Frederick VII, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, Free Economic Society, French Revolution, Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm, Fyodor Ushakov, Ganja, Azerbaijan, Gatchina, Gavrila Derzhavin, Georgia (country), Germany, Gold, Governorate (Russia), Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia, Great power, Grigory Orlov, Grigory Potemkin, Gustav III of Sweden, Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, Habsburg Monarchy, HarperCollins, Harvard University Press, Haskalah, Henri Troyat, Hermitage Museum, History of the Russo-Turkish wars, Holstein, House of Ascania, House of Bourbon, House of Habsburg, House of Romanov, Imperial Crown of Russia, Ippolit Bogdanovich, Iran, Ivan Betskoy, Ivan Gudovich, Ivan Osterman, Ivan VI of Russia, Izmaylovsky Regiment, Jacques Necker, James Boswell, Jérémie Pauzié, Jean Armand de Lestocq, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Joanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp, John Locke, John Louis I, Prince of Anhalt-Dornburg, John Paul Jones, John VI, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow, Julia Ormond, Kamchatka Peninsula, Kerch, Kherson, Kiev, Kinburn Peninsula, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kizlyar, Kościuszko Uprising, Kremlin Armoury, Kura (Caspian Sea), Kuril Islands, La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein, Lake Ladoga, Last rites, Legends of Catherine the Great, Leonhard Euler, List of cities and towns in Russia, List of Polish monarchs, List of Russian admirals, List of Russian consorts, List of Russian field marshals, List of Russian rulers, Lithuania, Lutheranism, Marc Raeff, Margravine Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach, Maria Feodorovna (Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg), Maria Perekusikhina, Maria Theresa, Marie Antoinette, Mecca, Memoir, Mikhail Kheraskov, Mikhail Shcherbatov, Military strategy, Minsk, Modern Library, Mogilev, Monarchy of Sweden, Montesquieu, Morteza Qoli Khan Qajar, Moscow, Moscow Kremlin, Moscow plague riot of 1771, Mykolaiv, Nakaz, Napoleon, Natalia Alexeievna (Wilhelmina Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt), National Independence Day (Poland), National Library of Russia, Nicholas I of Russia, Nicholas II of Russia, Nicholas Repnin, Nikita Ivanovich Panin, Nikolai Gagarin, Nomad, Novomoskovsk, Russia, Novorossiya, Ochakiv, Odessa, Old Believers, Old Style and New Style dates, Oranienbaum, Russia, Order of Saint Catherine, Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly, Orthodoxy, Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, Partitions of Poland, Patronymic, Paul I of Russia, Pavlovsk Palace, PDF, Peasant, Penguin Books, Permanent Council, Persian Expedition of 1796, Peter and Paul Fortress, Peter III of Russia, Peter Simon Pallas, Peter the Great, Phlebotomy, Platon Zubov, Pleurisy, Pneumonia, Poland, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish–Russian War of 1792, Polotsk, Pomerania, Potemkin village, Prince Henry of Prussia (1726–1802), Princess Frederica Amalia of Denmark, Princess Tarakanova, Principality of Anhalt, Prussia, Pugachev's Rebellion, Pyotr Rumyantsev, Pyotr Zavadovsky, Queen consort, Queen regnant, Riga, Right-bank Ukraine, Ropsha, Royal family, Royal Navy, Rudolph, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, Rulers of Russia family tree, Runivers, Rurik dynasty, Russia-1, Russian America, Russian Armed Forces, Russian colonization of the Americas, Russian Empire, Russian Enlightenment, Russian language, Russian nobility, Russian opera, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian ruble, Russians, Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790), Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792), Saint Michael's Castle, Saint Petersburg, Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral, Saint Petersburg, Samoylov, Sea of Azov, Semiramis, Serfdom, Serfdom in Russia, Sergei Saltykov (1726–1765), Seven Years' War, Shamakhi, Shlisselburg, Siberia, Silver, Simon Sebag Montefiore, Smallpox, Smolny Institute, Society of Jesus, Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Sophie Augusta of Holstein-Gottorp, Southern Bug, Stanisław August Poniatowski, Steppe, Stockholm, Storming of Derbent, Streltsy uprising, Stroke, Sultan, Suppression of the Society of Jesus, Suzerainty, Szczecin, Targowica Confederation, The New York Sun, Theatre War, Tokugawa shogunate, Treaty of Åbo, Treaty of Georgievsk, Treaty of Jassy, Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, Treaty of Värälä, Tsar, Tsarskoye Selo, Tuberculosis, Tula, Russia, Turin, Ukase, Ukraine, Usurper, Valerian Zubov, Vanessa Redgrave, Vasily Klyuchevsky, Vincent Cronin, Volga Germans, Voltaire, War of the Bavarian Succession, Winter Palace, World history, Yakov Bulgakov, Yedisan, Yekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova, Yemelyan Pugachev, Yeni-Kale, Young Catherine. Expand index (305 more) » « Shrink index
A Royal Scandal, also known as Czarina, is a 1945 film about the love life of Russian Empress (Czarina) Catherine the Great.
Adam Kirillovich (Erikovich) Laxman (Адам Кириллович (Эрикович) Лаксман) (1766 – 1806?) was a Finnish–Swedish military officer and one of the first subjects of Imperial Russia to set foot in Japan.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar (translit; 14 March 1742 – 17 June 1797), also known by his regnal name of Agha Mohammad Shah (آقا محمد شاه), was the founder of the Qajar dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1789 to 1797 as king (shah).
Aleksandr Ilyich Bibikov (Алекса́ндр Ильи́ч Би́биков) (Moscow –, Bugulma) was a Russian statesman and military officer.
The Aleutian Islands (Tanam Unangaa, literally "Land of the Aleuts", possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to both the U.S. state of Alaska and the Russian federal subject of Kamchatka Krai.
Prince Alexander Andreyevich Bezborodko (Алекса́ндр Андре́евич Безборо́дко; Олександр Андрійович Безбородько; – 6 April 1799) was the Grand Chancellor of Russia and chief architect of Catherine the Great's foreign policy after the death of Nikita Panin.
Count Alexander Matveyevich Dmitriev-Mamonov (Russian: Александр Матвеевич Дмитриев-Мамонов, 30 September 1758 – 11 October 1803, buried in Donskoy Monastery) was a lover of Catherine II of Russia from 1786 to 1789.
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
Saint Alexander Nevsky Lavra or Saint Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter I of Russia in 1710 at the eastern end of the Nevsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg supposing that that was the site of the Neva Battle in 1240 when Alexander Nevsky, a prince, defeated the Swedes; however, the battle actually took place about away from that site.
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
Alexander Nikolayevich Radishchev (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Ради́щев; –) was a Russian author and social critic who was arrested and exiled under Catherine the Great.
Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Суво́ров, r Aleksandr Vasil‘evich Suvorov; or 1730 –) was a Russian military leader, considered a national hero.
Alexander Semyonovich Vasilchikov (Александр Семёнович Васильчиков; 1744–1813) was a Russian aristocrat who became the lover of Catherine the Great from 1772 to 1774.
Count Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov (Алексей Григорьевич Орлов; –) was a Russian soldier and statesman, who rose to prominence during the reign of Catherine the Great.
Count Alexei Grigorievich Razumovsky (Алексе́й Григо́рьевич Разумо́вский, Олексій Григорович Розумовський, Oleksii Hryhorovych Rozumovskyi; 1709– 1771), was a Ukrainian-born Russian Registered Cossack who rose to become the lover and, it was even suggested, the morganatic spouse of the Russian Empress Elizaveta Petrovna.
Count Alexey Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin (Алексе́й Петро́вич Бесту́жев-Рю́мин) (1 June 1693 – 21 April 1768), Chancellor of the Russian Empire, was one of the most influential and successful European diplomats of the 18th century.
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (Universal German Biography) is one of the most important and most comprehensive biographical reference works in the German language.
Ambassadors and envoys from Russia to Poland–Lithuania in the years 1763–1794 were among the most important characters in the politics of Poland.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Anders Johan Lexell (24 December 1740 &ndash) was a Finnish-Swedish astronomer, mathematician, and physicist who spent most of his life in Imperial Russia, where he was known as Andrei Ivanovich Leksel (Андрей Иванович Лексель).
The territory of Crimea, previously controlled by the Crimean Khanate, was annexed by the Russian Empire on.
Anti-Russian sentiment or Russophobia is a diverse spectrum of negative feelings, dislikes, fears, aversion, derision and/or prejudice of Russia, Russians or Russian culture.
Antonio Rinaldi (c. 1710 – April 10, 1794) was an Italian architect, trained by Luigi Vanvitelli, who worked mainly in Russia.
The Aras or Araxes is a river flowing through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.
Arthur Young (11 September 1741 – 12 April 1820) was an English writer on agriculture, economics, social statistics, and campaigner for the rights of agricultural workers.
Assignation ruble (ассигнационный рубль; assignatsionny rubl) was the first paper currency of Russia.
Augusta Marie of Holstein-Gottorp (1649–1728) was a German noblewoman.
Augustus III (August III Sas, Augustas III; 17 October 1696 5 October 1763) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II (Friedrich August II).
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
Azov (Азов), formerly known as Azoff, is a town in Rostov Oblast, Russia, situated on the Don River just from the Sea of Azov, which derives its name from the town.
The Azov campaigns of 1695–96 (Азо́вские похо́ды, Azovskiye Pokhody), were two Russian military campaigns during the Russo-Turkish War of 1686–1700, led by Peter the Great and aimed at capturing the Turkish fortress of Azov (garrison - 7,000 men), which had been blocking Russia's access to the Azov Sea and the Black Sea.
Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun (16 April 1755 – 30 March 1842), also known as Madame Lebrun or Madame Le Brun, was a prominent French portrait painter of the late eighteenth century.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Baltic Fleet (Балтийский флот) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Baltic Sea.
The Bar Confederation (Konfederacja barska; 1768–1772) was an association of Polish nobles (szlachta) formed at the fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against Russian influence and against King Stanisław II Augustus with Polish reformers, who were attempting to limit the power of the Commonwealth's wealthy magnates.
The Battle of Borodino (la Moskova) was a battle fought on 7 September 1812 in the Napoleonic Wars during the French invasion of Russia.
The naval Battle of Chesme took place on 5–7 July 1770 during the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774) near and in Çeşme (Chesme or Chesma) Bay, in the area between the western tip of Anatolia and the island of Chios, which was the site of a number of past naval battles between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice.
The naval Battle of Hogland took place on 17 July (6 July OS) 1788 during the Russo-Swedish War (1788-1790).
The Battle of Kagul (Сражение при Кагуле, Turkish language:Kartal Ovasi Muharebesi) was the most important land battle of the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774 and one of the largest battles of the 18th century.
The Battle of Krtsanisi (კრწანისის ბრძოლა, k'rts'anisis brdzola) was fought between the Qajars of Iran and the Georgian armies of the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti and Kingdom of Imereti at the place of Krtsanisi near Tbilisi, Georgia, from September 8 to September 11, 1795, as part of Qajar Emperor Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar's war in response to King Heraclius II of Georgia’s alliance with the Russian Empire.
The Battle of Svensksund (Finnish: Ruotsinsalmi, Russian: Rochensalm) was a naval battle fought in the Gulf of Finland outside the present day city of Kotka on 9 and 10 July 1790.
The Battle of Zorndorf, fought on August 25, 1758 during the Seven Years' War, was fought between Russian troops commanded by Count William Fermor and a Prussian army commanded by King Frederick the Great. The battle was tactically inconclusive, with both armies holding their ground and claiming victory.Franz A.J. Szabo. The Seven Years War in Europe: 1756–1763. Routledge. 2013. P. 167 The site of the battle was the Prussian village of Zorndorf (now Sarbinowo, Poland).
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bloodletting (or blood-letting) is the withdrawal of blood from a patient to prevent or cure illness and disease.
The Counts Bobrinsky or Bobrinskoy (Бобринские) are a Russian noble family descending from Count Aleksey Grigorievich Bobrinsky (1762–1813), who was Catherine the Great's natural son by Count Grigory Orlov.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Brocade is a class of richly decorative shuttle-woven fabrics, often made in colored silks and with or without gold and silver threads.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Catherine I (Yekaterina I Alekseyevna, born, later known as Marta Samuilovna Skavronskaya; –) was the second wife of Peter the Great and Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Cesare Bonesana-Beccaria, Marquis of Gualdrasco and Villareggio (15 March 173828 November 1794) was an Italian criminologist, jurist, philosopher, and politician, who is widely considered as the most talented jurist and one of the greatest thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment.
Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, KB (8 December 1708 – 2 November 1759) was a Welsh diplomat, writer and satirist.
Charles XIII & II also Carl, Karl XIII (7 October 1748 – 5 February 1818), was King of Sweden (as Charles XIII) from 1809 and King of Norway (as Charles II) from 1814 until his death.
Christian Albert (Gottorp –, Gottorp) was a duke of Holstein-Gottorp and bishop of Lübeck.
Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp-Eutin (11 January 1673 – 24 April 1726) was a cadet of the reigning ducal House of Holstein-Gottorp who became prince of Eutin, prince-bishop of Lübeck and regent of the Duchy of Holstein-Gottorp.
Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (29 November 1690, in Dornburg – 16 March 1747, in Zerbst) was a German prince of the House of Ascania.
Countess Palatine Christina Magdalena of Kleeburg (27 May 1616– 14 August 1662) of the House of Wittelsbach, Margravine of Baden-Durlach.
Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.
The Collegium of Commerce (also College, Коммерц-коллегия) was a Russian executive body (collegium), created in the government reform of 1717.
A commercial treaty is a formal agreement between states for the purpose of establishing mutual rights and regulating conditions of trade.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Constitution of 3 May 1791 (Konstytucja 3 Maja, Gegužės trečiosios konstitucija) was adopted by the Great Sejm (parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Coronations in Russia involved a highly developed religious ceremony in which the Emperor of Russia (generally referred to as the Tsar) was crowned and invested with regalia, then anointed with chrism and formally blessed by the church to commence his reign.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
Count Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff (Johann Hartwig Ernst Graf von Bernstorff; 13 May 1712 – 18 February 1772) was a German-Danish statesman and a member of the Bernstorff noble family of Mecklenburg.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Courland, or Kurzeme (in Latvian; Kurāmō; German and Kurland; Curonia/Couronia; Курляндия; Kuršas; Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
Czartoryski (feminine form: Czartoryska, plural: Czartoryscy; Чарторийські, Chartoryisky; Чорторийські, Chortoryisky; Čartoriskiai) is a Polish princely family of Lithuanian-Ruthenian origin, also known as the Familia.
(1751 - May 28, 1828) was a Japanese castaway who spent eleven years in Russia.
Daniel Dumaresq FRS (1712–1805) was an educational consultant to Russian and Polish monarchs.
The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (r) took place in Imperial Russia on.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin (Дени́с Ива́нович Фонви́зин, from von Wiesen) was a playwright of the Russian Enlightenment, whose plays are still staged today.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Derbent (Дербе́нт; دربند; Dərbənd; Кьвевар; Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend, is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, north of the Azerbaijani border.
DjVu (like English "déjà vu") is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned documents, especially those containing a combination of text, line drawings, indexed color images, and photographs.
Dmytro Levytsky (Dmitry Grigoryevich Levitsky) (Дмитро Григорович Левицький; Дмитрий Григорьевич Левицкий; May 1735 – 17 April 1822) was a Russian-Ukrainian portrait painter.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
Dnipro (Дніпро), until May 2016 Dnipropetrovsk (Дніпропетро́вськ) also known as Dnepropetrovsk (Днепропетро́вск), is Ukraine's fourth largest city, with about one million inhabitants.
The Cathedral of the Dormition (Успенский Собор, or Uspensky sobor), also known as the Assumption Cathedral or Cathedral of the Assumption is a Russian Orthodox church dedicated to the Dormition of the Theotokos.
Duchess Marie Elisabeth of Saxony (22 November 1610 – 24 October 1684) was duchess consort of Holstein-Gottorp as the spouse of Duke Friedrich III of Holstein-Gottorp.
The Duchy of Schleswig (Hertugdømmet Slesvig; Herzogtum Schleswig; Low German: Sleswig; North Frisian: Slaswik) was a duchy in Southern Jutland (Sønderjylland) covering the area between about 60 km north and 70 km south of the current border between Germany and Denmark.
Holstein-Gottorp or Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp is the historiographical name, as well as contemporary shorthand name, for the parts of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, also known as Ducal Holstein, that were ruled by the dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Ecco Press is a New York-based publishing imprint of HarperCollins.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Released in 2014, Ekaterina is a Russia-1 historical television biographical film starring Marina Aleksandrova as the eventual Russian empress Catherine the Great.
Elizabeth Petrovna (Елизаве́та (Елисаве́та) Петро́вна) (–), also known as Yelisaveta or Elizaveta, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death.
Elizaveta Romanovna Vorontsova (Елизавета Романовна Воронцова) (13 August 1739 – 2 February 1792) was a mistress of Emperor Peter III of Russia.
The Emperor or Empress of All Russia ((pre 1918 orthography) Императоръ Всероссійскій, Императрица Всероссійская, (modern orthography) Император Всероссийский, Императрица всероссийская, Imperator Vserossiyskiy, Imperatritsa Vserossiyskaya) was the absolute and later the constitutional monarch of the Russian Empire.
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.
The Encyclopédistes were members of the Société des gens de lettres, a French writer's society, who contributed to the development of the Encyclopédie from June 1751 to December 1765 under editors Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
Enlightened absolutism refers to the conduct and policies of European absolute monarchs during the 18th and 19th centuries who were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment.
Ernst Lubitsch (January 29, 1892November 30, 1947) was a German American film director, producer, writer, and actor.
The European balance of power referred to European international relations before the First World War, which evolved into the present states of Europe.
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
Female education is a catch-all term of a complex set of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education, secondary education, tertiary education, and health education in particular) for girls and women.
The first League of Armed Neutrality was an alliance of European naval powers between 1780 and 1783 which was intended to protect neutral shipping against the Royal Navy's wartime policy of unlimited search of neutral shipping for French contraband.
The First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in 1772 as the first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
Forbidden Paradise is a 1924 American silent drama film produced by Famous Players-Lasky and distributed by Paramount Pictures.
A foreign minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state's foreign policy and relations.
Franz Ulrich Theodor Aepinus (December 13, 1724August 10, 1802) was a German and Russian Empire natural philosopher.
Frederick III (Frederik; 18 March 1609 – 9 February 1670) was king of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death in 1670.
Frederick III of Holstein-Gottorp (22 December 1597 – 10 August 1659) was a Duke of Holstein-Gottorp.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Frederick VI, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (16 November 1617 – 10 or 31 January 1677Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888 says he died on 31 January) was the Margrave of Baden-Durlach from 1659 until his death.
Friedrich VII Magnus of Zähringen (23 September 1647 – 25 June 1709) was the Margrave of Baden-Durlach from 1677 until his death.
Free Economic Society for the Encouragement of Agriculture and Husbandry (Вольное экономическое общество) was Russia's first learned society which formally did not depend on the government and as such came to be regarded as a bulwark of Russian liberalism.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm (26 December 172319 December 1807) was a German-born French-language journalist, art critic, diplomat and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers.
Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov (p; &ndash) was the most illustrious Russian naval commander and admiral of the 18th century.
Ganja (Gəncə) is Azerbaijan's second largest city, with a population of around 331,400.
Gatchina (Га́тчина) is a town and the administrative center of Gatchinsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
Gavriil (Gavrila) Romanovich Derzhavin (a; 14 July 1743 – 20 July 1816) was one of the most highly esteemed Russian poets before Alexander Pushkin, as well as a statesman.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
A governorate, or a guberniya (p; also romanized gubernia, guberniia, gubernya), was a major and principal administrative subdivision of the Russian Empire and the early Russian SFSR and Ukrainian SSR.
Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia, Tsesarevna of Russia (Anna Petrovna Romanova) Анна Петровна; 27 January 1708, in Moscow – 4 March 1728, in Kiel) was the elder daughter of Emperor Peter I of Russia and Empress Catherine I of Russia. Her sister, Elizabeth of Russia, ruled as Empress between 1741 and 1762. While a potential heir in the reign of her father and her mother, she never acceded to the throne due to political reasons. However, her son Peter would rule as Emperor in 1762, succeeding Elizabeth. She was the Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp by marriage.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
Count Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov (1734–1783) was the favorite of Empress Catherine the Great of Russia who presumably fathered her son.
Prince Grigory Aleksandrovich Potemkin-Tavricheski (Григо́рий Алекса́ндрович Потёмкин-Таври́ческий; r Grigoriy Aleksandrovich Potyomkin-Tavricheskiy; A number of dates as late as 1742 have been found on record; the veracity of any one is unlikely to be proved. This is his "official" birth-date as given on his tombstone. –) was a Russian military leader, statesman, nobleman and favourite of Catherine the Great.
Gustav III (– 29 March 1792) was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792.
Gustav IV Adolf or Gustav IV Adolph (1 November 1778 – 7 February 1837) was King of Sweden from 1792 until his abdication in 1809.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
The Haskalah, often termed Jewish Enlightenment (השכלה; literally, "wisdom", "erudition", Yiddish pronunciation Heskole) was an intellectual movement among the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe, with certain influence on those in Western Europe and the Muslim world.
Henri Troyat (1 November 1911 – 2 March 2007) was a Russian-born French author, biographer, historian and novelist.
The State Hermitage Museum (p) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The Russo–Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries.
Holstein (Northern Low Saxon: Holsteen, Holsten, Latin and historical Holsatia) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider.
The House of Ascania (Askanier) is a dynasty of German rulers.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Romanov (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. also Romanoff; Рома́новы, Románovy) was the second dynasty to rule Russia, after the House of Rurik, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.
The Imperial Crown of Russia, also known as the Great Imperial Crown, was used by the monarchs of Russia from 1762 until the monarchy's abolition in 1917.
Ippolit Fyodorovich Bogdanovich (a;, Perevolochna –, Kursk) was a Russian classicist author of light poetry, best known for his long poem Dushenka (1778).
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Ivan Ivanovich Betskoi or Betskoy (Ива́н Ива́нович Бе́цкой) was a Russian school reformer who served as Catherine II's advisor on education and President of the Imperial Academy of Arts for thirty years (1764–94).
Count Ivan Vasilyevich Gudovich (Russian: Иван Васильевич Гудович; 1741–1820) was a Russian noble and military leader of Ukrainian descent.
Count Ivan Andreyevich Osterman (Иван Андреевич Остерман) (1725–1811) was a Russian statesman, son of Andrei Osterman.
Ivan VI Antonovich of Russia (Ioann Antonovich; Иоанн VI; Иоанн Антонович; –) was Emperor of Russia in 1740–41.
The Izmaylovsky Regiment (Izmáylovskiy leyb-gvárdii polk) was one of the oldest regiments of the Russian army, a subdivision of the 1st Guards Infantry Division of the Imperial Russian Guard.
Jacques Necker (30 September 1732 – 9 April 1804) was a banker of Genevan origin who became a French statesman and finance minister for Louis XVI.
James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck (29 October 1740 – 19 May 1795), was a Scottish biographer and diarist, born in Edinburgh.
Jérémie Pauzié (1716 – 1779 in Geneva) was a Swiss-French diamond jeweler, artist and memoirist, known for his work for the Russian Imperial court and the Imperial Crown of Russia, which he created with the court's jeweler Georg Friedrich Ekart.
Count Jean Armand de L'Estocq (German: Johann Hermann Lestocq, Russian: Иван Иванович Лесток, 29 April 1692 in Lüneburg – 12 June 1767 in Saint Petersburg) was a French adventurer who wielded immense influence on the foreign policy of Russia during the early reign of Empress Elizabeth.
Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert (16 November 1717 – 29 October 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist.
Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp (24 October 1712 – 30 May 1760) was a German regent, Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst by marriage to Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, and regent of Anhalt-Zerbst from 1747 to 1752 for her minor son, Frederick Augustus.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Louis I, Prince of Anhalt-Dornburg (4 May 1656, in Zerbst – 1 November 1704, in Dornburg), was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Dornburg.
John Paul Jones (born John Paul; July 6, 1747 July 18, 1792) was the United States' first well-known naval commander in the American Revolutionary War.
John VI of Anhalt-Zerbst (Zerbst, 24 March 1621 – Zerbst, 4 July 1667), was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Zerbst.
Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to his death.
Journey From Petersburg to Moscow (in Russian: Путешествие из Петербурга в Москву), published in 1790, was the most famous work by the Russian writer Aleksander Nikolayevich Radishchev.
Julia Karin Ormond (born 4 January 1965) is an English actress.
The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).
Kerch (Керчь, Керч, Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ, Ancient Greek: Παντικάπαιον Pantikapaion, Keriç, Kerç) is a city of regional significance on the Kerch Peninsula in the east of the Crimea.
Kherson is a city in southern Ukraine.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kinburn Peninsula (Кінбурнський півострів, Kinburns'kii pivostriv) is a peninsula in Southern Ukraine that separates Dnieper-Bug Estuary from Black Sea.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
Kizlyar (Кизля́р) is a town in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the border with the Chechen Republic in the delta of the Terek River northwest of Makhachkala, the capital of the republic.
The Kościuszko Uprising was an uprising against Imperial Russia and the Kingdom of Prussia led by Tadeusz Kościuszko in the Commonwealth of Poland and the Prussian partition in 1794.
The Kremlin Armoury,Officially called the "Armou/ory Chamber" but also known as the cannon yard, the "Armou/ory Palace", the "Moscow Armou/ory", the "Armou/ory Museum", and the "Moscow Armou/ory Museum" but different from the Kremlin Arsenal.
The Kura (Kura; Kür; მტკვარი, Mt’k’vari; Կուր, Kur; Κῦρος, Cyrus; کوروش, Kuruš) is an east-flowing river south of the Greater Caucasus Mountains which drains the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus east into the Caspian Sea.
The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p or r; Japanese: or), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the north Pacific Ocean.
La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein (The Grand Duchess of Gerolstein) is an opéra bouffe (a form of operetta), in three acts and four tableaux by Jacques Offenbach to an original French libretto by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy.
Lake Ladoga (p or p; Laatokka;; Ladog, Ladoganjärv) is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia, in the vicinity of Saint Petersburg.
The last rites, in Catholicism, are the last prayers and ministrations given to many Catholics when possible shortly before death.
During and after the reign of the flamboyant and powerful Empress Catherine II of Russia, whose long rule led to the modernization of the Russian Empire, many urban legends arose, some false and others based on true events, concerning her sexual behavior.
Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.
This is a list of cities and towns in Russia.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
This list of Russian admirals includes the admirals of all ranks, serving in the Russian Imperial Navy, the Soviet Navy and the modern Russian Navy.
The Russian consorts were the spouses of the Russian rulers.
The following sixty-four officers held the rank of field marshal during the Russian Empire.
This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Marc Raeff (1923-2008) (pronounced RY-eff) was a specialist in Russian history who taught at Columbia University in New York, 1961-88.
Margravine Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach (3 July 1682 – 22 December 1755) was a German princess.
Maria Feodorovna (Мария Фёдоровна; née Duchess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg; 25 October 1759 – 5 November 1828) was Empress consort of Russia as the second wife of Tsar Paul I. Born Duchess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg, she was a daughter of Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg and his wife, Friederike Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt.
Maria Savvishna Perekusikhina (Марья Саввишна Перекусихина) (1739–1824), was a Russian memoirist, a lady's maid of Empress Catherine the Great of Russia.
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
Marie Antoinette (born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last Queen of France before the French Revolution.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
A memoir (US: /ˈmemwɑːr/; from French: mémoire: memoria, meaning memory or reminiscence) is a collection of memories that an individual writes about moments or events, both public or private, that took place in the subject's life.
Mikhail Matveyevich Kheraskov (Михаи́л Матве́евич Хера́сков; –) was Russian poet and playwright.
Prince Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov (Михаи́л Миха́йлович Щерба́тов, July 22, 1733 – December 12, 1790) was a leading ideologue and exponent of the Russian Enlightenment, on the par with Mikhail Lomonosov and Nikolay Novikov.
Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
The Modern Library is an American publishing company.
Mogilev (or Mahilyow; Магілёў,; Łacinka: Mahiloŭ; Могилёв,; מאָליעוו, Molyev) is a city in eastern Belarus, about from the border with Russia's Smolensk Oblast and from the border with Russia's Bryansk Oblast.
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden,See the Instrument of Government, Chapter 1, Article 5.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
Morteza Qoli Khan Qajar (مرتضی قلی خان قاجار, b. 1750/1755 - died either 1798 in St. Petersburg or 1800 at Astrakhan) - was a prince of Persia's Qajar dynasty, and the brother of Agha Mohammad Khan.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.
Plague Riot (Чумной бунт in Russian) was a riot in Moscow in 1771 between September 15 and September 17, caused by an outbreak of bubonic plague.
Mykolaiv (Микола́їв), also known as Nikolaev or Nikolayev (Никола́ев), is a city in southern Ukraine, the administrative center of the Mykolaiv Oblast.
Nakaz, or Instruction, of Catherine the Great (Наказ Екатерины II Комиссии о составлении проекта нового Уложения) was a statement of legal principles written by Catherine II of Russia, and permeated with the ideas of the French Enlightenment.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Tsesarevna Natalia Alexeievna of Russia (25 June 1755 – 15 April 1776) was the first wife of the future Tsar Paul I of Russia, son of the Empress Catherine II.
National Independence Day (Narodowe Święto Niepodległości) is a national day in Poland celebrated on 11 November to commemorate the anniversary of the restoration of Poland's sovereignty as the Second Polish Republic in 1918 from the German, Austrian and Russian Empires.
The National Library of Russia in Saint Petersburg (known as the Imperial Public Library from 1795 to 1917; Russian Public Library from 1917 to 1925; State Public Library from 1925 to 1992 (since 1932 named after M.Saltykov-Shchedrin); NLR), is not only the oldest public library in the nation, but also the first national library in the country.
Nicholas I (r; –) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Prince Nikolai Vasilyevich Repnin (Никола́й Васи́льевич Репни́н; –) was an Imperial Russian statesman and general from the Repnin princely family who played a key role in the dissolution of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Count Nikita Ivanovich Panin (Ники́та Ива́нович Па́нин) was an influential Russian statesman and political mentor to Catherine the Great for the first 18 years of her reign (1762-1780). In that role, he advocated the Northern Alliance, closer ties with Frederick the Great of Prussia and the establishment of an advisory privy council.
Prince (Knyaz) Nikolai Sergeevich Gagarin (князь Николай Сергеевич Гагарин; July 12, 1784—July 25, 1842) Born in London to the Rurikid Gagarin family, Prince Gagarin was appointed to the Highest command of the 1st infantry during a drawing up of the Moscow military force (July 1812).
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Novomoskovsk (Новомоско́вск) is a city and the administrative center of Novomoskovsky District in Tula Oblast, Russia, located at the source of the Don and Shat Rivers.
Novorossiya (a; Noua Rusie), literally New Russia but sometimes called South Russia, is a historical term of the Russian Empire denoting a region north of the Black Sea (Now part of Ukraine).
Ochakiv also known as Ochakov (Очаків, Очаков, Özü, Oceacov and Vozia, and Alektor (Ἀλέκτορος in Greek) is a small city in Mykolaiv Oblast (region) of southern Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of Ochakiv Raion (district), the city itself does not belong to the raion and is designated as a city of regional significance. Population: For many years the city-fortress served as a capital of the Ottoman province (eyalet).
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
In Eastern Orthodox church history, the Old Believers, or Old Ritualists (старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
Oranienbaum (Ораниенба́ум) is a Russian royal residence, located on the Gulf of Finland west of St. Petersburg.
The Order of Saint Catherine (Императорский Орден Святой Екатерины) was an award of Imperial Russia.
The Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly (Оренбургское магометанское духовное собрание) was a state-controlled religious administration in the Russian Empire that had jurisdiction over certain aspects of Islamic activity in Siberia, the Volga-Ural region, and parts of Central Asia, including the Kazakh steppe.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
A patronymic, or patronym, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather (i.e., an avonymic), or an even earlier male ancestor.
Paul I (Па́вел I Петро́вич; Pavel Petrovich) (–) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801.
Pavlovsk Palace (Павловский дворец) is an 18th-century Russian Imperial residence built by the order of Catherine the Great for her son, Grand Duke Paul, in Pavlovsk, within Saint Petersburg.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
The Permanent Council was the highest administrative authority in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth between 1775 and 1789 and the first modern executive government in Europe.
The Persian Expedition of Catherine the Great, alongside the Persian Expedition of Peter the Great, was one of the Russo-Persian Wars of the 18th century which did not entail any lasting consequences for either belligerent.
The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel of St. Petersburg, Russia, founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and built to Domenico Trezzini's designs from 1706 to 1740 as a star fortress.
Peter III (21 February 1728 –) (Пётр III Фëдорович, Pyotr III Fyodorovich) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762.
Peter Simon Pallas FRS FRSE (22 September 1741 – 8 September 1811) was a Prussian zoologist and botanist who worked in Russia (1767–1810).
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Phlebotomy (from the Greek words phlebo-, meaning "pertaining to a blood vessel", and -tomia, meaning "cutting of") is the process of making an incision in a vein with a needle.
Prince (Reichsfürst) Platon Alexandrovich Zubov (Платон Александрович Зубов) was the last of Catherine the Great's favourites and the most powerful man in the Russian Empire during the last years of her reign.
Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is inflammation of the membranes that surround the lungs and line the chest cavity (pleurae).
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Polish–Russian War of 1792 (also, War of the Second Partition, and in Polish sources, War in Defence of the Constitution (wojna w obronie Konstytucji 3 maja)) was fought between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on one side, and the Targowica Confederation (conservative nobility of the Commonwealth opposed to the new Constitution of 3 May 1791) and the Russian Empire under Catherine the Great on the other.
Polack (official transliteration), Polotsk or Polatsk (translit, translit, Połock, Polockas, Polotsk) is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina River.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
In politics and economics, a Potemkin village (also Potyomkin village, derived from the потёмкинские деревни, potyomkinskiye derevni) is any construction (literal or figurative) built solely to deceive others into thinking that a situation is better than it really is.
Frederick Henry Louis (Friedrich Heinrich Ludwig) (18 January 1726 – 3 August 1802), commonly known as Henry (Heinrich), was a Prince of Prussia and the younger brother of Frederick the Great.
Princess Frederica Amalia of Denmark (11 April 1649 – 30 October 1704) was the second daughter of King Frederick III of Denmark and Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp from 1667 to 1695 as the consort of Duke Christian Albert.
Princess Tarakanova (c. 1745 &ndash), was a pretender to the Russian throne.
The Principality of Anhalt (Fürstentum Anhalt) was a State of the Holy Roman Empire, located in Central Germany, in what is today part of the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Pugachev's Rebellion (Peasants' War 1773-75, Cossack Rebellion) of 1773-75 was the principal revolt in a series of popular rebellions that took place in the Russian Empire after Catherine II seized power in 1762.
Count Pyotr Alexandrovich Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky (Пётр Алекса́ндрович Румя́нцев-Задунайский; –) was one of the foremost Russian generals of the 18th century.
Pyotr Zavadovsky, (1739–1812) was a Russian favourite and the lover of Catherine the Great from 1776 to 1777.
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor).
A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child's stead.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Right-bank Ukraine (Правобережна Україна, Pravoberezhna Ukrayina; Правобережная Украина, Pravoberezhnaya Ukraina; Prawobrzeżna Ukraina, Pravo breh Ukrajiny, Jobb folyópart Ukrajna) is a historical and territorial name for a part of modern Ukraine on the right (west) bank of the Dnieper River, corresponding to the modern-day oblasts of Vinnytsia, Zhytomyr, Kirovohrad, as well as the western parts of Kiev and Cherkasy.
Ropsha (Ропша) is a settlement in Lomonosovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, situated about south of Peterhof and south-west of central Saint Petersburg, at an elevation of to in elevation.
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Rudolph of Anhalt-Zerbst (Harzgerode, 28 October 1576 – Zerbst, 30 July 1621), was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the unified Principality of Anhalt.
Runivers (Руниверс) is a site devoted to Russian culture and history.
The Rurik dynasty, or Rurikids (Рю́риковичи, Ryúrikovichi; Рю́риковичі, Ryúrykovychi; Ру́рыкавічы, Rúrykavichi, literally "sons of Rurik"), was a dynasty founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year AD 862.
Russia-1 (Россия-1) is a state-owned Russian television channel first aired on 22 March 1951 as Programme One in the Soviet Union.
Russian America (Русская Америка, Russkaya Amerika) was the name of the Russian colonial possessions in North America from 1733 to 1867.
The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the military service of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Russian colonization of the Americas covers the period from 1732 to 1867, when the Russian Empire laid claim to northern Pacific Coast territories in the Americas.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Age of Enlightenment was a period in the 18th century in which the government began to actively encourage the proliferation of arts and sciences, which had a profound impact on Russian culture.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian nobility (дворянство. dvoryanstvo) arose in the 14th century.
Russian opera (Russian: Ру́сская о́пера Rússkaya ópera) is the art of opera in Russia.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
The Russo-Swedish War of 1788–90, known as Gustav III's Russian War in Sweden, Gustav III's War in Finland and Catherine II's Swedish War in Russia, was fought between Sweden and Russia from June 1788 to August 1790.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was an armed conflict that brought Kabardia, the part of the Yedisan between the rivers Bug and Dnieper, and Crimea into the Russian sphere of influence.
The Russo–Turkish War of 1787–1792 involved an unsuccessful attempt by the Ottoman Empire to regain lands lost to the Russian Empire in the course of the previous Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774).
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
The Peter and Paul Cathedral (Петропавловский собор) is a Russian Orthodox cathedral located inside the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Samoylov, Samoilov (Самойлов) or Samoilovs (Latvian transliteration) is a Russian masculine surname, its feminine counterpart is Samoylova Samoilova.
The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре, Azóvskoje móre; Азо́вське мо́ре, Azóvśke móre; Azaq deñizi, Азакъ денъизи, ازاق دﻩﯕىزى) is a sea in Eastern Europe.
Semiramis (Assyrian;ܫܲܡܝܼܪܵܡ Shamiram,; Σεμίραμις, Շամիրամ Shamiram) was the legendary Lydian-Babylonian wife of Onnes and Ninus, succeeding the latter to the throne of Assyria.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
The term serf, in the sense of an unfree peasant of the Russian Empire, is the usual translation of krepostnoi krestyanin (крепостной крестьянин).
Count Sergei Vasilievich Saltykov (p; c. 1726 – 1765) was a Russian officer (chamberlain) who became the first lover of Empress Catherine the Great after her arrival in Russia.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Shamakhi (also spelled Şamaxı) is the capital of the Shamakhi Rayon of Azerbaijan.
Shlisselburg (p; Schlüsselburg; Nöteborg) is a town in Kirovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the head of the Neva River on Lake Ladoga, east of St. Petersburg.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Simon Jonathan Sebag Montefiore (born 27 June 1965) is a British historian, television presenter and award-winning author of popular history books and novels.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
The Smolny Institute (Смольный институт, Smol'niy institut) is a Palladian edifice in St Petersburg that has played a major part in the history of Russia.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg (24 March 1628 – 20 February 1685) was queen of Denmark and Norway as the consort of the King Frederick III of Denmark.
Sophie Augusta of Holstein-Gottorp (5 December 1630 in Gottorp – 12 December 1680 in Coswig) was regent of Anhalt-Zerbst in during the minority of her son from 1667 until 1674.
The Southern Bug, also called Southern Buh (Південний Буг, Pivdennyi Buh; Южный Буг, Yuzhny Bug), and sometimes Boh River, is a navigable river located in Ukraine.
Stanisław II Augustus (also Stanisław August Poniatowski; born Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski; 17 January 1732 – 12 February 1798), who reigned as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1764 to 1795, was the last monarch of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
The Storming of Derbent (Штурм Дербента) took place on 10 May 1796 during the Persian Expedition of 1796.
The Streltsy uprising of 1698 (Стрелецкий бунт 1698 года) was an uprising of the Moscow Streltsy regiments.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
The suppression of the Jesuits in the Portuguese Empire (1759), France (1764), the Two Sicilies, Malta, Parma, the Spanish Empire (1767) and Austria and Hungary (1782) is a complex topic.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.
The Targowica Confederation (konfederacja targowicka,, Targovicos konfederacija) was a confederation established by Polish and Lithuanian magnates on 27 April 1792, in Saint Petersburg, with the backing of the Russian Empress Catherine II.
The New York Sun was an American daily newspaper published in Manhattan from 2002 to 2008.
The Theatre War (Teaterkriget), Cowberry War, Cranberry War or Lingonberry War (Tyttebærkrigen, Tyttebærkrigen), was a brief war between Denmark–Norway and Sweden, starting on 24 September 1788, formally lasting until 9 July 1789.
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868.
The Treaty of Åbo or the Treaty of Turku was a peace treaty signed between the Russian Empire and Sweden in Turku (Åbo) on 7.
The Treaty of Georgievsk (Георгиевский трактат, Georgievskiy traktat; გეორგიევსკის ტრაქტატი, georgievskis trakt'at'i) was a bilateral treaty concluded between the Russian Empire and the east Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti on July 24, 1783.
The Treaty of Jassy, signed at Jassy (Iași) in Moldavia (presently in Romania), was a pact between the Russian and Ottoman Empires ending the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–92 and confirming Russia's increasing dominance in the Black Sea.
The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca Küçük Kaynarca Antlaşması (also spelled Kuchuk Kainarji) was a peace treaty signed on 21 July 1774, in Küçük Kaynarca (today Kaynardzha, Bulgaria) between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
The Treaty of Värälä (sometimes known as the Treaty of Wereloe) was a treaty signed in Värälä, Elimäki Municipality, Finland, between Russia (represented by Otto Heinrich Igelström) and Sweden (represented by Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt).
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
Tsarskoye Selo (a, "Tsar's Village") was the town containing a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility, located south from the center of Saint Petersburg.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tula (p) is an industrial city and the administrative center of Tula Oblast, Russia, located south of Moscow, on the Upa River.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
An ukase, or ukaz (указ, formally "imposition"), in Imperial Russia, was a proclamation of the tsar, government, or a religious leader (patriarch) that had the force of law.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
A usurper is an illegitimate or controversial claimant to power, often but not always in a monarchy.
Count Valerian Aleksandrovich Zubov (1771–1804) was a Russian general who led the Persian Expedition of 1796.
Vanessa Redgrave (born 30 January 1937) is an English actress of stage, screen and television, and a political activist.
Vasily Osipovich Klyuchevsky (Василий Осипович Ключевский; in Voskresnskoye Village, Penza Guberniia, Russia –, Moscow) was a leading Russian historian of the late imperial period.
Vincent Archibald Patrick Cronin FRSL (24 May 1924 – 25 January 2011) was a British historical, cultural, and biographical writer, best known for his biographies of Louis XIV, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, Catherine the Great, and Napoleon, as well as for his books on the Renaissance.
The Volga Germans (Wolgadeutsche or Russlanddeutsche, Povolzhskiye nemtsy) are ethnic Germans who colonized and historically lived along the Volga River in the region of southeastern European Russia around Saratov and to the south.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
A Saxon–Prussian alliance fought the War of the Bavarian Succession (July 1778 – 21 May 1779) against the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy to prevent the Habsburgs from acquiring the Electorate of Bavaria.
The Winter Palace (p, Zimnij dvorets) in Saint Petersburg, Russia, was, from 1732 to 1917, the official residence of the Russian monarchs.
World history or global history (not to be confused with diplomatic, transnational or international history) is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s.
Yakov Ivanovich Bulgakov (Russian: Яков Иванович Булгаков; 15 October 1743 – 7 July 1809) was a Russian diplomat best remembered as Catherine II's emissary in Constantinople in the 1780s.
Yedisan (also Jedisan or Edisan) is a historical territory of the northern coast of Black Sea that appeared sometime in the 17th and 18th centuries as part of the Ottoman Silistra (see Silistra Eyalet) and was named after one of Nogai Hordes.
Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova (Екатери́на Рома́новна Воронцо́ва-Да́шкова; 28 March 1743 – 15 January 1810) was the closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment.
Yemelyan Ivanovich Pugachev (Емелья́н Ива́нович Пугачёв) (c. 1742 –) was a pretender to the Russian throne who led a great popular insurrection during the reign of Catherine II.
Yeni-Kale (Єні-Кале; Еникале; Yenikale; Yeñi Qale, also spelled as Yenikale and Eni-Kale) is a fortress on the shore of Kerch Strait in the city of Kerch.
Young Catherine is a 1991 British TV miniseries based on the early life of Catherine II of Russia.
Cate the Great, Catharina II of Russia, Catharina II the Great, Catharine II of Russia, Catharine II the Great, Catharine of Russia, Catharine the Great, Catherina the II of Russia, Catherine Alexeievna, Catherine Alexeievna of Anhalt, Catherine Alexeievna of Anhalt-Zerbst, Catherine II, Catherine II Alexeyevna, Catherine II of Russia, Catherine II the Great, Catherine II the Great of Russia, Catherine II, Empress of Russia, Catherine II, the Great, of Russia, Catherine II. the Great, Catherine Ii, Catherine The Great, Catherine era, Catherine great, Catherine ii of russia, Catherine of Anhalt-Zerbst, Catherine the Great of Russia, Catherine the great, Catherinian, Catherinian Era, Ekaterina II, Ekaterina II of Russia, Empress Catherine, Empress Catherine II, Empress Catherine II of Russia, Empress Catherine II the Great of Russia, Empress Catherine of Russia, Katharina II, Katherina the Great, Katherine the Great, Princess Sophie von Anhalt-Zerbst, Prinzessin Sophie Auguste Friederike von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg, Prinzessin von Anhalt-Zerbst, Queen Catherine II, Queen Catherine the Great, Russian Empress Catherine II, Russian ancestry of Catherine the Great, Russian roots of Catherine the Great, Sophia Augusta Frederica of Anhalt-Zerbst, Sophia Augusta Fredericka, Sophia Augusta Fredericka of Anhalt-Zerbst, Sophie Augusta Fredericka of Anhalt-Zerbst, Sophie Frederica of Anhalt-Zerbst, Sophie Friederike Auguste, Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg, Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, Tsarina Catherine the Great, Yekaterina II, Yekaterina II Alekseyevna, Yekaterina II Velikaya, Yekaterina II of Russia, Yekaterina II the Great, Yekaterina Velikaya, Yekaterina the Great, Екатерина II.