83 relations: Acetyl group, Adrenaline, Adrenergic receptor, Alkaloid, Amine, Amino acid, Amphetamine, Anorexia nervosa, Antagonist, Antidepressant, Arabian Peninsula, Aromaticity, Bath salts (drug), Benzaldehyde, Benzoic acid, Benzoyl-CoA, Blood–brain barrier, Bupropion, Caffeine, Carboxylic acid, Cardiovascular disease, Cathine, Central nervous system, Chemical synapse, Cinnamic acid, Coenzyme A, Condensation reaction, Constipation, Controlled Substances Act, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, Depression (mood), Dimer (chemistry), Djibouti, Dopamine, Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug withdrawal, East Africa, Ephedrine, Ethiopia, Euphoria, Friedel–Crafts reaction, Functional group, Heartburn, Hot flash, Hydration reaction, Hydrophobe, Insomnia, Irritability, Kenya, Ketone, ..., Khat, Lethargy, Madagascar, MDMA, Mephedrone, Meta- (chemistry), Methamphetamine, Methcathinone, Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, Methylone, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Neuron, Neurotransmitter, Norepinephrine, Optical rotation, Oral cancer, Oral mucosa, Oxygen, Periodontal disease, Peripheral nervous system, Phosphorus pentachloride, Placebo, Propiophenone, Pyruvic acid, Serotonin, Shrub, Small intestine, Smooth muscle tissue, Stimulant, Stomach, Substituted amphetamine, Substituted cathinone, Yemen. Expand index (33 more) » « Shrink index
In organic chemistry, acetyl is a moiety, the acyl with chemical formula CH3CO.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
An antagonist is a character, group of characters, institution or concept that stands in or represents opposition against which the protagonist(s) must contend.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
"Bath salts" (also called "psychoactive bath salts" or "PABS") is a term used to describe a number of recreational designer drugs.
Benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO) is an organic compound consisting of a benzene ring with a formyl substituent.
Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid.
Benzoyl-CoA is a molecule implied in the activity of the different enzymes 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase, benzoyl-CoA reductase, benzoyl-CoA 3-monooxygenase, benzoate-CoA ligase, 2alpha-hydroxytaxane 2-O-benzoyltransferase, anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase, biphenyl synthase, glycine N-benzoyltransferase, ornithine N-benzoyltransferase and phenylglyoxylate dehydrogenase (acylating).
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Cathine, also known as -norpseudoephedrine and (+)-norpseudoephedrine, is a psychoactive drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes which acts as a stimulant.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Cinnamic acid is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CHCHCO2H.
Coenzyme A (CoA,SCoA,CoASH) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.
A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation).
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
The Friedel–Crafts reactions are a set of reactions developed by Charles Friedel and James Crafts in 1877 to attach substituents to an aromatic ring.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Heartburn, also known as acid indigestion, is a burning sensation in the central chest or upper central abdomen.
Hot flashes (American English) or hot flushes (British English) are a form of flushing due to reduced levels of estradiol.
In chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Irritability is the excitatory ability that living organisms have to respond to changes in their environment.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
Khat or qat (Catha edulis, qat from القات) is a flowering plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
Lethargy is a state of tiredness, weariness, fatigue, or lack of energy.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
Mephedrone, also known as 4-methyl methcathinone (4-MMC) or 4-methyl ephedrone, is a synthetic stimulant drug of the amphetamine and cathinone classes.
In chemistry, meta is a prefix, used for systematic names in IUPAC nomenclature.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methcathinone (α-methylamino-propiophenone or ephedrone) (sometimes called "cat" or "jeff" or "catnip" or "intash") is a monoamine alkaloid and psychoactive stimulant, a substituted cathinone.
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a stimulant of the cathinone class which acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI).
Methylone (also known as "3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone", "MDMC", "βk-MDMA" and by the slang term "M1") is an empathogen and stimulant psychoactive drug.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Optical rotation or optical activity (sometimes referred to as rotary polarization) is the rotation of the plane of polarization of linearly polarized light as it travels through certain materials.
Oral cancer, also known as mouth cancer, is a type of head and neck cancer and is any cancerous tissue growth located in the oral cavity.
The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane lining the inside of the mouth and consists of stratified squamous epithelium termed oral epithelium and an underlying connective tissue termed lamina propria.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Phosphorus pentachloride is the chemical compound with the formula PCl5.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Propiophenone (shorthand: benzoylethane or BzEt) is an aryl ketone.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
A shrub or bush is a small to medium-sized woody plant.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
Substituted cathinones, which include some stimulants and entactogens, are derivatives of cathinone.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.