63 relations: Alkali metal, Alternating current, Anode, Barium, Cathode bias, Cathode ray tube, Chemistry, Cold cathode, Crookes tube, Daniell cell, Diode, Dipole, Electric battery, Electric current, Electric field, Electrical polarity, Electrochemical cell, Electrochemistry, Electrode, Electrode potential, Electrolysis, Electrolyte, Electrolytic cell, Electron, Electron microscope, Electronics, Field electron emission, Fluorescent lamp, Frequency, Galvanic cell, Gas-discharge lamp, Gas-filled tube, Geomagnetic reversal, Greek language, Image intensifier, Incandescent light bulb, Ion, Michael Faraday, Mnemonic, Neon lamp, Neon lighting, P–n junction, Photoelectric effect, Phototube, Physics, Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), Redox, Refractory metals, Secondary emission, Semiconductor device, ..., Solar cell, Solenoid, Strontium, Thermionic emission, Thorium, Thyratron, Triode, Tungsten, Vacuum tube, William Whewell, Work function, X-ray generator, Zener diode. Expand index (13 more) » « Shrink index
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
In electronics, cathode bias (self-bias, automatic bias) is a technique used with vacuum tubes to make the direct current (dc) cathode voltage positive in relation to the negative side of the plate voltage supply by an amount equal to the magnitude of the desired grid bias voltage.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
A cold cathode is a cathode that is not electrically heated by a filament.
A Crookes tube (also Crookes–Hittorf tube) is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with partial vacuum, invented by English physicist William Crookes and others around 1869-1875, in which cathode rays, streams of electrons, were discovered.
The Daniell cell is a type of electrochemical cell invented in 1836 by John Frederic Daniell, a British chemist and meteorologist, and consisted of a copper pot filled with a copper (II) sulfate solution, in which was immersed an unglazed earthenware container filled with sulfuric acid and a zinc electrode.
A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.
In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
Electrical polarity is a term used throughout industries and fields that involve electricity.
An electrochemical cell (EC) is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
Electrode potential, E, in chemistry or electrochemistry, according to a IUPAC definition, is the electromotive force of a cell built of two electrodes.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
An electrolytic cell is an electrochemical cell that drives a non-spontaneous redox reaction through the application of electrical energy.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Field electron emission (also known as field emission (FE) and electron field emission) is emission of electrons induced by an electrostatic field.
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
A galvanic cell, or voltaic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, or Alessandro Volta respectively, is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reactions taking place within the cell.
Gas-discharge lamps are a family of artificial light sources that generate light by sending an electric discharge through an ionized gas, a plasma.
A gas-filled tube, also known as a discharge tube, is an arrangement of electrodes in a gas within an insulating, temperature-resistant envelope.
A geomagnetic reversal is a change in a planet's magnetic field such that the positions of magnetic north and magnetic south are interchanged, while geographic north and geographic south remain the same.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
An image intensifier or image intensifier tube is a vacuum tube device for increasing the intensity of available light in an optical system to allow use under low-light conditions, such as at night, to facilitate visual imaging of low-light processes, such as fluorescence of materials in X-rays or gamma rays (X-ray image intensifier), or for conversion of non-visible light sources, such as near-infrared or short wave infrared to visible.
An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
A mnemonic (the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory.
A neon lamp (also neon glow lamp) is a miniature gas discharge lamp.
Neon lighting consists of brightly glowing, electrified glass tubes or bulbs that contain rarefied neon or other gases.
A p–n junction is a boundary or interface between two types of semiconductor materials, p-type and n-type, inside a single crystal of semiconductor.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.
A phototube or photoelectric cell is a type of gas-filled or vacuum tube that is sensitive to light.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or PEDOT (or sometimes PEDT; IUPAC name poly(2,3-dihydrothienodioxane-5,7-diyl)) is a conducting polymer based on 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene or EDOT.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Refractory metals are a class of metals that are extraordinarily resistant to heat and wear.
Secondary emission in physics is a phenomenon where primary incident particles of sufficient energy, when hitting a surface or passing through some material, induce the emission of secondary particles.
Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
A solenoid (/ˈsolə.nɔɪd/) (from the French solénoïde, derived in turn from the Greek solen ("pipe, channel") and eidos ("form, shape")) is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
Thermionic emission is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
A thyratron is a type of gas-filled tube used as a high-power electrical switch and controlled rectifier.
A triode is an electronic amplifying vacuum tube (or valve in British English) consisting of three electrodes inside an evacuated glass envelope: a heated filament or cathode, a grid, and a plate (anode).
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
William Whewell (24 May 1794 – 6 March 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science.
In solid-state physics, the work setting (sometimes spelled workfunction) is the minimum thermodynamic work (i.e. energy) needed to remove an electron from a solid to a point in the vacuum immediately outside the solid surface.
An X-ray generator is a device that produces X-rays.
A Zener diode is a particular type of diode that, unlike a normal one, allows current to flow not only from its anode to its cathode, but also in the reverse direction, when the Zener voltage is reached.