272 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Achaemenid Empire, Adam T. Smith, Agathangelos, Agdam District, Airyanem Vaejah, Al-Maqdisi, Alans, Alazani, Albania, Alp Iluetuer, Amaras Monastery, Anania Shirakatsi, Ancient Greek, Ancient history, Ancient Mesopotamian Underworld, Ancient Rome, Anti-Armenian sentiment, Antoninus Pius, Arabic, Arabs, Aramaic alphabet, Ararat Plain, Aras (river), Armenia, Armenian alphabet, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian cemetery in Julfa, Armenian language, Armenian National Academy of Sciences, Armenian nobility, Armenians, Arran (Caucasus), Arrian, Arsacid dynasty of Caucasian Albania, Arts of Caucasian Albania, Artsakh (historic province), Atropatene, Atropates, Augustus, Avesta, Azat, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Azerbaijanis, Baku, Balash, Barda, Azerbaijan, Battle of Avarayr, Battle of Gaugamela, ..., Beylagan (city), Byzantine Empire, Byzantium, Caliphate, Cappadocia, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Caspian expeditions of the Rus', Caspian Sea, Caspiane, Caspians, Catholicos, Caucasian Albania, Caucasian Albanian alphabet, Caucasian Albanian language, Caucasus, Chalcedonian Definition, Charles Dowsett, Chobanids, Christianity, Church of Caucasian Albania, Church of Kish, Classical Armenian, Claude Mutafian, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Colchis, Coptic alphabet, Cultural genocide, Current members of the United States Senate, Cyril Toumanoff, Dagestan, Darius I, David Gareja monastery complex, David IV of Georgia, Davtak Kertogh, Denarius, Derbent, Dionysius Periegetes, Domitian, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eldiguzids, Elisha, Encyclopædia Iranica, Ethnogenesis, Exonym and endonym, Farida Mammadova, Gagik Sargsyan, Ganja, Azerbaijan, Gates of Alexander, Georgia (country), Georgian language, Georgian Orthodox Church, Georgian scripts, Georgians, Ghevont Alishan, Gilan Province, Greater Caucasus, Greek alphabet, Gregory the Illuminator, Hadrian, Hayk, Hellenistic period, Heraclius, Hereti, Herodotus, Historical region, Holy Land, Ibn Hawqal, Igrar Aliyev, Ilia Abuladze, Ilkhanate, Interpretatio graeca, Iran, Iranian peoples, Ishag Jafarzadeh, Islam, Israel (bishop of Caucasian Albania), Istakhri, Jalairid Sultanate, James Darmesteter, James S. Olson, Japheth, Javanshir, Julfa, Azerbaijan (city), Julius Caesar, Kakheti, Kamilla Trever, Kartvelian languages, Khachkar, Khazars, Khwarazmian dynasty, Kilometre, Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Kingdom of Georgia, Kingdom of Iberia, Koryun, Kura (Caspian Sea), Laks (Caucasus), Latin, Latin alphabet, Legio XII Fulminata, Lesser Caucasus, Lezgic languages, Lezgins, List of Catholicoi of all Armenians, Lucullus, Luna (goddess), Malatya, Marzban, Matenadaran, Medes, Media (region), Mesrop Mashtots, Middle Persian, Mihranids, Mikayel Chamchian, Mil plain, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Norway), Mint (facility), Monk, Mount Sinai, Movses Kaghankatvatsi, Movses Khorenatsi, Mugan plain, Muslim conquest of Persia, Nagorno-Karabakh, Nagorno-Karabakh War, Nakharar, Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Naqsh-e Rustam, Noah, Norsemen, North Caucasian Huns, Northeast Caucasian languages, Orontid Dynasty, Otho, Paganism, Palimpsest, Parasang, Parchment, Parthia, Parthian Empire, Parthian language, Peroz I, Persian people, Peter Ackroyd (biblical scholar), Plagiarism, Pliny the Elder, Plutarch, Polysemy, Pompey, Principality of Khachen, Qabala, Qabala treasures, Qalagah, Qazakh District, Qobustan, Baku, Rashidun Caliphate, Rawadid dynasty, Religious conversion, Reptile, Robert H. Hewsen, Roman currency, Ronald Grigor Suny, Rowan University, Rus' people, Safavid dynasty, Saint Catherine's Monastery, Sajid dynasty, Sallarid dynasty, Sarmatians, Sasanian Empire, Satrapy of Armenia, Seljuq dynasty, Shaddadids, Shah, Shaki, Azerbaijan, Shamakhi, Shapur I, Shirvan, Shirvanshah, Sol (mythology), Strabo, Suren Yeremian, Syriac alphabet, Syunik Province, Tbilisi, Thaddeus of Edessa, The History of the Country of Albania, Theology, Theophanes of Mytilene, Third Perso-Turkic War, Thomas de Waal, Thomas J. Samuelian, Tigranes the Great, Timurid dynasty, Titular see, Tong Yabghu Qaghan, Toreutics, Trajan, Transcaucasia, Translation, Tsakhur people, Turkic peoples, Udi language, Udi people, UNESCO, University of Chicago, University of Chicago Press, Uthman, Utik, Vachagan III, Varaz Grigor, Vassal state, Vespasian, Victor Schnirelmann, Vladimir Minorsky, Vologases III of Parthia, Yazdegerd II, Yevgeni Pakhomov, Zeus, Ziya Bunyadov, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (222 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Adam T. Smith is Goldwin Smith Professor of Anthropology in the Department of Anthropology, Cornell University.
Agathangelos (in Ագաթանգեղոս Agatʿangełos, in Greek Ἀγαθάγγελος "bearer of good news" or angel, 4thEncyclopædia Britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge: Volume 2- 1961, p. 383. or 5th centuries AD) was a supposed secretary of Tiridates III, King of Armenia, under whose name there has come down a life of the first apostle of Armenia, Gregory the Illuminator, who died about 332.
Agdam (Ağdam) is a rayon in southwestern Azerbaijan.
Airyanem Vaejah (Airyanəm Vaējah, approximately “expanse of the Aryans”, i.e. Iranians) is the homeland of the early Iranians and a reference in the Zoroastrian Avesta (Vendidad, Farg. 1) to one of Ahura Mazda's "sixteen perfect lands.".
Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi, (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), as well as author of the book, Description of Syria (Including Palestine).
The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
The Alazani (ალაზანი, Qanıx) is a river that flows through the Caucasus.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alp Ilutuer was the Ilutuer (vassal ruler) of the North Caucasian Huns during the 680's CE.
Amaras Monastery (Ամարաս վանք) is an Armenian monastery in the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh, near the village of Sos in the Martuni Province of the Artsakh Republic, de jure in the Khojavend District of Azerbaijan.
Anania Shirakatsi (Anania Širakac'i, Անանիա Շիրակացի; 610–685 AD), also known as Ananias of Shirak or Širak) was an Armenian philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, geographer and alchemist. His most famous works are Ashkharatsuyts (Geography) and Cosmography and the Calendar. Robert H. Hewsen describes him as "Armenia's First Scientist".
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
The ancient Mesopotamian Underworld, known in Sumerian as Kur and in Akkadian as Irkalla, was a dark, dreary cavern located deep below the ground, where inhabitants were believed to continue "a shadowy version of life on earth".
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anti-Armenian sentiment, also known as Anti-Armenianism and Armenophobia, is a diverse spectrum of negative feelings, dislikes, fears, aversion, derision and/or prejudice towards Armenians, Armenia, and Armenian culture.
Antoninus Pius (Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius; 19 September 867 March 161 AD), also known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BCE.
The Ararat plain (Արարատյան դաշտ Araratyan dašt) is one of the largest of the Armenian Plateau.
The Aras or Araxes is a river flowing through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
The Armenian cemetery in Julfa (Ջուղայի գերեզմանատուն, Jughayi gerezmanatun) was a cemetery near the town of Julfa (known as Jugha in Armenian), in the Nakhchivan exclave of Azerbaijan that originally housed around 10,000 funerary monuments.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
The National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (NAS RA) (Հայաստանի Հանրապետության գիտությունների ազգային ակադեմիա, ՀՀ ԳԱԱ, Hayastani Hanrapetut’yan gitut’yunneri azgayin akademia) is the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science and social sciences in Armenia.
The Armenian nobility (Հայ ազնվականություն) was a class of persons which enjoyed certain privileges relative to other members of society under the laws and customs of various regimes of Armenia.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Arran (Middle Persian form), also known as Aran, Ardhan (in Parthian), Al-Ran (in Arabic), Aghvank and Alvank (in Armenian), (რანი-Ran-i) or Caucasian Albania (in Latin), was a geographical name used in ancient and medieval times to signify the territory which lies within the triangle of land, lowland in the east and mountainous in the west, formed by the junction of Kura and Aras rivers, including the highland and lowland Karabakh, Mil plain and parts of the Mughan plain, and in the pre-Islamic times, corresponded roughly to the territory of modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan.
Arrian of Nicomedia (Greek: Ἀρριανός Arrianos; Lucius Flavius Arrianus) was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period.
The Arsacid Dynasty was a dynasty of Parthian origin, which ruled the kingdom of Caucasian Albania from the 1st to the 5th century AD.
Arts of Caucasian Albania – is the historical and regional type of arts related to Ancient East.
Artsakh (Արցախ) was the tenth province (nahang) of the Kingdom of Armenia from 189 BC until 387 AD and afterwards a region of the Caucasian Albanian satrapy of Sasanid Persia from 387 to the 7th century.
Atropatene (in Ἀτροπατηνή; in Middle Iranian: Atropatkan and Atorpatkan) was an ancient kingdom established and ruled under local ethnic Iranian dynasties, first with Darius III of Persia and later Alexander the Great of Macedonia starting in the 4th century BC and includes the territory of modern-day Iranian Azerbaijan, Iranian Kurdistan, and a small part of the contemporary Azerbaijan Republic.
Atropates (Greek Aτρoπάτης, from Old Persian Athurpat "protected by fire"; c. 370 BC – after 321 BC) was a Persian trader and nobleman who served Darius III, then Alexander the Great, and eventually founded an independent kingdom and dynasty that was named after him.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.
Azat (ազատ; plural ազատք azatkʿ, collective ազատանի azatani) was a class of Armenian nobility; the term came to designate the middle and lower nobility originally, in contrast to the naxararkʿ who were the great lords.
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS) (Azərbaycan Milli Elmlər Akademiyası (AMEA)), located in Baku, is the main state research organization and the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science and social sciences in Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
Balash (بلاش یکم.; in the Greek authors, Balas; the later form of the name Vologases) was the nineteenth king of the Sasanian Empire from 484 to 488.
Barda (Bərdə) is the capital city of the Barda Rayon in Azerbaijan, located south of Yevlax and on the left bank of the Tartar river.
The Battle of Avarayr (Ավարայրի ճակատամարտ Avarayri čakatamart) was fought on 26 May 451 AD on the Avarayr Plain in Vaspurakan between the Armenian Army under Vardan Mamikonian and Sassanid Persia.
The Battle of Gaugamela (Γαυγάμηλα), also called the Battle of Arbela (Ἄρβηλα), was the decisive battle of Alexander the Great's invasion of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Beylagan (Beyləqan, Бейләган/بیلقان; also Beyläqan, Bejlagan, and Beilagan) is the capital city of Beylagan rayon of Azerbaijan.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a foreign-policy think tank with centers in Washington D.C., Moscow, Beirut, Beijing, Brussels, and New Delhi.
The Caspian expeditions of the Rus' were military raids undertaken by the Rus' between 864 and 1041 on the Caspian Sea shores,Logan (1992), p. 201 of what are nowadays Iran, Dagestan, and Azerbaijan.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Caspiane, or Kaspiane (Կասպք Kaspkʿ) was the land populated by the tribe of Caspians, after whom it received its name.
The Caspians (Κάσπιοι Kaspioi, Aramaic: kspy, კასპიელები kaspielebiʿ, կասպք kaspkʿ, کاسپیان Kāspiān) were a people of antiquity who dwelled along the southern and southwestern shores of the Caspian Sea, in the region known as Caspiane.
Catholicos, plural Catholicoi, is a title used for the head of certain churches in some Eastern Christian traditions.
Albania, usually referred to as Caucasian Albania for disambiguation with the modern state of Albania (the endonym is unknownRobert H. Hewsen. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians", in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Ed.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: 1982, pp. 27-40.Bosworth, Clifford E.. Encyclopædia Iranica.), is a name for the historical region of the eastern Caucasus, that existed on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and partially southern Dagestan.
The Caucasian Albanian alphabet was an alphabet used by the Caucasian Albanians, one of the ancient and indigenous Northeast Caucasian peoples whose territory comprised parts of present-day Azerbaijan and Daghestan.
Caucasian Albanian, Aghwan or Old Udi, is an extinct member of the Northeast Caucasian languages.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Chalcedonian Definition (also called the Chalcedonian Creed) was adopted at the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451.
Charles James Frank Dowsett (2 January 1924 – 8 January 1998) was the first Calouste Gulbenkian Professor of Armenian at the University of Oxford from 1965 to 1991.
The Chobanids or the Chupanids (سلسله امرای چوپانی), were descendants of a Mongol family of the Suldus clan that came to prominence in 14th century Persia.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Albanian Apostolic Church or the Church of Caucasian Albania was an ancient briefly independent autocephalous Igor Kuznetsov.
The Church of Kish (Kiş kilsəsi), also known by different sources as Church of Saint Elishe (Müqəddəs Yelisey kilsəsi, Սուրբ Եղիշէ եկեղեցի) or Holy Mother of God Church (Սուրբ Աստուածածին եկեղեցի), is an inactive 12th or 13th century Caucasian Albanian church located in the village of Kiş approximately 5 km north of Shaki, Azerbaijan.
Classical Armenian (grabar, Western Armenian krapar, meaning "literary "; also Old Armenian or Liturgical Armenian) is the oldest attested form of the Armenian language.
Armen (Claude) Z. Moutafian (Կլոդ Մութաֆյան; born July 21, 1942) is a mathematician and a historian who specializes in Armenian history.
Clifford Edmund Bosworth FBA (29 December 1928 – 28 February 2015) was an English historian and Orientalist, specialising in Arabic and Iranian studies.
Colchis (კოლხეთი K'olkheti; Greek Κολχίς Kolkhís) was an ancient Georgian kingdom and region on the coast of the Black Sea, centred in present-day western Georgia.
The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language.
Cultural genocide or cultural cleansing is a concept that lawyer Raphael Lemkin distinguished in 1944 as a component of genocide.
The United States Senate consists of 100 members, two from each of the 50 states.
Cyril Leo Heraclius, Prince Toumanoff (Кирилл Львович Туманов; 13 October 1913 – 4 February 1997) was a Russian-born American historian and genealogist who mostly specialized in the history and genealogies of medieval Georgia, Armenia, Iran and the Byzantine Empire.
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
David Gareja (tr) is a rock-hewn Georgian Orthodox monastery complex located in the Kakheti region of Eastern Georgia, on the half-desert slopes of Mount Gareja, some 60–70 km southeast of Georgia's capital Tbilisi.
David IV, also known as David the Builder (დავით აღმაშენებელი) (1073– 24 January 1125), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of Georgia from 1089 until his death in 1125.
Davtak Kertogh (Davtak the Poet) was a 7th-century Armenian poet, the first secular writer in Armenian literature.
The denarius (dēnāriī) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus.
Derbent (Дербе́нт; دربند; Dərbənd; Кьвевар; Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend, is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, north of the Azerbaijani border.
Dionysius Periegetes (Διονύσιος ὁ Περιηγητής, literally Dionysius the Voyager or Traveller, often Latinized to Dionysius Periegeta), also known as Dionysius of Alexandria or Dionysius the African, was the author of a description of the then-known world in Greek hexameter verse.
Domitian (Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96 AD) was Roman emperor from 81 to 96.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Ildegizids, EldiguzidsC.E. Bosworth, "Ildenizids or Eldiguzids", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Edited by P.J. Bearman, Th.
Elisha (Greek: Ἐλισαῖος, Elisaîos or Ἐλισαιέ, Elisaié) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a wonder-worker.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
Ethnogenesis (from Greek ethnos ἔθνος, "group of people, nation", and genesis γένεσις, "beginning, coming into being"; plural ethnogeneses) is "the formation and development of an ethnic group." This can originate through a process of self-identification as well as come about as the result of outside identification.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
Farida Jafar gizi Mammadova (Fəridə Cəfər qızı Məmmədova.) (born 8 August 1936, Shirvan) is an Azerbaijani historian who specialises in the history of ancient Caucasian Albania.
Gagik Sargsyan (Գագիկ Խորենի Սարգսյան, April 6, 1926 in Yerevan – August 25, 1998 in Yerevan) was an Armenian Historian, Academic, Vice-president of the Armenian Academy of Sciences.
Ganja (Gəncə) is Azerbaijan's second largest city, with a population of around 331,400.
The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog) from invading the land to the south.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
The Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church (საქართველოს სამოციქულო ავტოკეფალური მართლმადიდებელი ეკლესია, sakartvelos samotsikulo avt’ok’epaluri martlmadidebeli ek’lesia) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in full communion with the other churches of Eastern Orthodoxy.
The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Father Ghevont Alishan (1820-1901; also spelled Ghevond Alishan) was an ordained Armenian Catholic priest, historian and a poet.
Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Greater Caucasus (Böyük Qafqaz, Бөјүк Гафгаз, بيوک قافقاز; დიდი კავკასიონი, Didi K’avk’asioni; Большой Кавказ, Bolshoy Kavkaz, sometimes translated as "Caucasus Major", "Big Caucasus" or "Large Caucasus") is the major mountain range of the Caucasus Mountains.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Saint Gregory the Illuminator (classical reformed: Գրիգոր Լուսավորիչ; Grigor Lusavorich) (&ndash) is the patron saint and first official head of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
Hayk the Great (Հայկ),, or The Great Hayk, also known as Hayk Nahapet (Հայկ Նահապետ,, Hayk the "head of family" or patriarch), is the legendary patriarch and founder of the Armenian nation.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
The Kingdom of Hereti (ჰერეთის სამეფო), was a medieval monarchy which emerged in Caucasus on the Iberian-Albanian frontier.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Historical regions (or historical countries) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural, ethnic, linguistic or political basis, regardless of present-day borders.
The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
Muḥammad Abū’l-Qāsim Ibn Ḥawqal (محمد أبو القاسم بن حوقل, born in Nisibis, Upper Mesopotamia; travelled 943-969 CE) was a 10th-century Arab Muslim writer, geographer, and chronicler.
Igrar Habib oglu Aliyev (İqrar Əliyev.) (14 March 1924, Baku – 11 June 2004, Baku) was a Soviet and Azerbaijani historian.
Ilia Abuladze (ილია აბულაძე.) (November 24, 1901 – October 9, 1968) was a distinguished Georgian historian, philologist and public figure, a Corresponding Member of the Georgian Academy of Sciences (GAS) (1950), Meritorious Science Worker of Georgia (1961), Doctor of Philological Sciences (1938), Professor (1947).
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
Interpretatio graeca (Latin, "Greek translation" or "interpretation by means of Greek ") is a discourse in which ancient Greek religious concepts and practices, deities, and myths are used to interpret or attempt to understand the mythology and religion of other cultures.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Ishag Mammadrza oglu Jafarzadeh (İshaq Məmmədrza oğlu Cəfərzadə, August 14, 1895, Ganja–January 5, 1982, Baku) was one of the pioneers of Azerbaijan archaeology and ethnography.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Israel was the bishop of Caucasian Albania in the latter part of the 7th century.
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Farisi al-Istakhri (آبو إسحاق إبراهيم بن محمد الفارسي الإصطخري) (also Estakhri, استخری, i.e. from the Iranian city of Istakhr, b. - d. 957 AD) was a Persian medieval geographer in medieval Islam and traveler of the 10th century.
The Jalairids were a Mongol Jalayir dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol khanate of Persia in the 1330s.
James Darmesteter (28 March 184919 October 1894) was a French author, orientalist, and antiquarian.
James Stuart Olson is an academic and Pulitzer Prize-nominated author.
Japheth (Ἰάφεθ; Iafeth, Iapheth, Iaphethus, Iapetus), is one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis, where he plays a role in the story of Noah's drunkenness and the curse of Ham, and subsequently in the Table of Nations as the ancestor of the peoples of Europe and Anatolia.
Javanshir (Ջիվանշիր, Jivanshir; Jūvānšīr; meaning "young lion"), was the prince of Caucasian Albania from 637 to 680, hailing from the region of Gardman.
Julfa (Culfa, Ҹулфа, جولفا), formerly Jugha (Ջուղա, sometimes transliterated as Djugha) and also rendered as Djulfa, Dzhul’fa, Jolfa, Dzhulfa, Džulfa, Jolfā, Jolfā-ye Nakhjavān (جلفای نخجوان), is the administrative capital of the Julfa Rayon administrative region of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic in Azerbaijan.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Kakheti (კახეთი) is a region (Georgian: Mkhare) formed in the 1990s in eastern Georgia from the historical province of Kakheti and the small, mountainous province of Tusheti.
Kamilla Vasilyevna Trever (Камилла Васильевна Тревер; 25 January 1892, Saint Petersburg – 11 November 1974, Leningrad) was a Russian historian and orientalist, and a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences since 29 September 1943.
The Kartvelian languages (ქართველური ენები, Kartveluri enebi, also known as Iberian and formerly South CaucasianBoeder (2002), p. 3) are a language family indigenous to the Caucasus and spoken primarily in Georgia, with large groups of native speakers in Russia, Iran, the United States, the European Union, Israel, and northeastern parts of Turkey.
A khachkar, also known as an Armenian cross-stone (խաչքար,, խաչ xačʿ "cross" + քար kʿar "stone") is a carved, memorial stele bearing a cross, and often with additional motifs such as rosettes, interlaces, and botanical motifs.
The Khazars (خزر, Xəzərlər; Hazarlar; Хазарлар; Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; כוזרים, Kuzarim;, Xazar; Хоза́ри, Chozáry; Хаза́ры, Hazáry; Kazárok; Xazar; Χάζαροι, Cházaroi; p./Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.
The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from ("Kings of Khwarezmia") was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth:. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian." Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and Qara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty",.
The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; or) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.
The Kingdom of Georgia (საქართველოს სამეფო), also known as the Georgian Empire, was a medieval Eurasian monarchy which emerged circa 1008 AD.
In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.
Koryun (Armenian: Կորյուն or Կորիւն, also transliterated as Koriwn, Koriun, Goriun or Gorune) was the earliest Armenian-language historian.
The Kura (Kura; Kür; მტკვარი, Mt’k’vari; Կուր, Kur; Κῦρος, Cyrus; کوروش, Kuruš) is an east-flowing river south of the Greater Caucasus Mountains which drains the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus east into the Caspian Sea.
The Laks or Laki (self-designation: Lak) are an Northeast Caucasian ethnic group native to an inland region known as Lakia within Dagestan in the North Caucasus.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
The Legio duodecima Fulminata ("Thunderbolt Twelfth Legion"), also known as Paterna, Victrix, Antiqua, Certa Constans, and Galliena, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army.
Lesser Caucasus (Փոքր Կովկաս Pʿokʿr Kovkas, Azerbaijani: Kiçik Qafqaz Dağları, მცირე კავკასიონი, Малый Кавказ, Persian: Arankuh, Küçük Kafkasya, sometimes translated as "Caucasus Minor") is second of the two main mountain ranges of Caucasus mountains, of length about.
The Lezgic languages are one of seven branches of the Northeast Caucasian language family.
Lezgins (лезгияр, lezgiyar, Russian: лезгины, lezginy; Azerbaijani: "Ləzgilər"; also called Lezgins, Lezgi, Lezgis, Lezgs, Lezgin) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group native predominantly to southern Dagestan and northeastern Azerbaijan and who speak the Lezgian language.
This is a list of the Catholicoi of all Armenians, head bishops of the Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի).
Lucius Licinius Lucullus (118 – 57/56 BC) was an optimate politician of the late Roman Republic, closely connected with Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Luna is the divine embodiment of the Moon (Latin luna; cf. English "lunar").
Malatya (Մալաթիա Malat'ya; Meletî; ܡܠܝܛܝܢܐ Malīṭīná; مالاتيا) is a large city in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey and the capital of Malatya Province.
Marzbān, or Marzpān (Middle Persian transliteration: mrzwpn, derived from marz "border, boundary" and the suffix -pān "guardian"; Modern Persian: مرزبان Marzbān) were a class of margraves, warden of the marches, and by extension military commanders, in charge of border provinces of the Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD) and mostly Sasanian Empire (224–651 AD) of Iran.
The Mesrop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts (Մեսրոպ Մաշտոցի անվան հին ձեռագրերի ինստիտուտ (Mesrop Mashtots'i anvan hin dzeragreri institut)), commonly referred to as the Matenadaran (help), is a repository of ancient manuscripts, research institute and museum in Yerevan, Armenia.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
Media (Old Persian: Māda, Middle Persian: Mād) is a region of north-western Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Medes.
Mesrop Mashtots (Մեսրոպ Մաշտոց Mesrop Maštoc'; Mesrobes Mastosius; 362February 17, 440 AD), was an early medieval Armenian linguist, theologian, statesman and hymnologist.
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
The Mihranids were an Iranian family which ruled several regions of Caucasus from 330 to 821.
Mikayel Chamchian (Միքայէլ Չամչեան, 4 December 1738 – 30 November 1823), known also in English as Michael Chamich, was an Armenian Mekhitarist monk and historian.
Mil plain is a plain in Azerbaijan.
The Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Norwegian (Bokmål): Det kongelige Utenriksdepartement; Norwegian (Nynorsk): Det kongelege Utanriksdepartement) is the foreign ministry of the Kingdom of Norway.
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
Mount Sinai (Ṭūr Sīnāʼ or lit; ܛܘܪܐ ܕܣܝܢܝ or ܛܘܪܐ ܕܡܘܫܐ; הַר סִינַי, Har Sinai; Όρος Σινάι; Mons Sinai), also known as Mount Horeb or Gabal Musa, is a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt that is a possible location of the biblical Mount Sinai, which is considered a holy site by the Abrahamic religions.
Movses Kaghankatvatsi (Մովսէս Կաղանկատուացի Movses Kaġankatvac’i), or Movses Daskhurantsi (Մովսէս Դասխուրանցի Movses Dasxuranc’i) is the reputed author (or authors) of a tenth-century Classical Armenian historiographical work on Caucasian Albania and eastern provinces of Armenia, known as The History of the Country of Albania (Պատմութիւն Աղուանից, Patmutʿiwn Ałuanicʿ).
Movses Khorenatsi (ca. 410–490s AD; Խորենացի,, also written as Movsēs Xorenac‘i and Moses of Khoren, Moses of Chorene, and Moses Chorenensis in Latin sources) was a prominent Armenian historian from the period of Late Antiquity and the author of the History of Armenia.
Mugan plain (Azeri: Muğan düzü, دشت مغان) is a plain in northwestern Iran and the southern part of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).
Nagorno-Karabakh, meaning "Mountainous Karabakh," also known as Artsakh, is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, within the mountainous range of Karabakh, lying between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur, and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains.
The Nagorno-Karabakh War was an ethnic and territorial conflict that took place in the late 1980s to May 1994, in the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the majority ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by the Republic of Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Nakharar (նախարար naxarar, from Parthian naxvadār "holder of the primacy") was a hereditary title of the highest order given to houses of the ancient and medieval Armenian nobility.
The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası) is a landlocked exclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Naqsh-e Rustam (نقش رستم) is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran, with a group of ancient Iranian rock reliefs cut into the cliff, from both the Achaemenid and Sassanid periods.
In Abrahamic religions, Noah was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs.
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
The Khuni, Huni or Chuni were a people of the North Caucasus during late antiquity.
The Northeast Caucasian languages, or Nakh-Daghestanian languages, are a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia and in northern Azerbaijan as well as in diaspora populations in Western Europe, Turkey and the Middle East.
The Orontid dynasty, also known by their native name Eruandid or Yervanduni (Երվանդունի), was a hereditary Armenian dynasty and the rulers of the successor state to the Iron Age kingdom of Urartu (Ararat).
Otho (Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus; 28 April 32 – 16 April 69 AD) was Roman emperor for three months, from 15 January to 16 April 69.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
In textual studies, a palimpsest is a manuscript page, either from a scroll or a book, from which the text has been scraped or washed off so that the page can be reused for another document.
The parasang is a historical Iranian unit of itinerant distance, the length of which varied according to terrain and speed of travel.
Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
The Parthian language, also known as Arsacid Pahlavi and Pahlawānīg, is a now-extinct ancient Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Parthia, a region of northeastern ancient Iran.
Peroz I (Middle Persian:; New Persian: پیروز Pirouz, lit. "the Victor") was the eighteenth king of the Sasanian Empire, who ruled from 459 to 484.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Peter Runham Ackroyd (15 September 1917 – 23 January 2005) was a British Biblical scholar, Anglican priest, and former Congregational minister.
Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Polysemy (or; from πολυ-, poly-, "many" and σῆμα, sêma, "sign") is the capacity for a sign (such as a word, phrase, or symbol) to have multiple meanings (that is, multiple semes or sememes and thus multiple senses), usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
The Principality of Khachen (Խաչենի իշխանություն) was a medieval Armenian principality on the territory of historical Artsakh (present-day Nagorno-Karabakh).
Gabala (Qəbələ, Гәбәлә; Кьвепеле, Q̇wepele, قوهپهله), also known as Qabala, is a city in Azerbaijan and the capital of the Qabala Rayon.
Qabala treasures (Qəbələ dəfinələri) are monetary treasure troves, unearthed in different years near the remnants of Qabala (Azerbaijan), the capital of Caucasian Albania.
Qalagah (also 'Qələyə', Qalaya, Kalaga, and Kalagyakh) is a village and municipality in the Ismailli Rayon of Azerbaijan, situated 28 km to the south-west from the rayon centre, on the forepart of Ajinohur mountain.
Gazakh (Qazax; also known as Kazakh or Qazakh) is a rayon of Azerbaijan.
Qobustan (also, Duvannaya, Duvanny, Duvannyy, Duyannaya, and Gobustan) is a settlement and municipality in Baku, Azerbaijan.
The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Rawwadid or Ravvadid (also Revend or Revendi) or Banū rawwād (955–1071), was a Muslim ruling family of Arab descent during the Medieval era, centered on Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan).
Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Robert H. Hewsen (born 1934) is an American historian and Professor Emeritus of History at Rowan University.
Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, orichalcum and copper coinage.
Ronald Grigor Suny (born September 25, 1940) is director of the Eisenberg Institute for Historical Studies, the Charles Tilly Collegiate Professor of Social and Political History at the University of Michigan, and Emeritus Professor of political science and history at the University of Chicago.
Rowan University is a public research university in Glassboro, New Jersey, United States, with a satellite campus in Camden, New Jersey.
The Rus (Русь, Ῥῶς) were an early medieval group, who lived in a large area of what is now Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and other countries, and are the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Saint Catherine's Monastery (دير القدّيسة كاترين; Μονὴ τῆς Ἁγίας Αἰκατερίνης), officially "Sacred Monastery of the God-Trodden Mount Sinai" (Ιερά Μονή του Θεοβαδίστου Όρους Σινά), lies on the Sinai Peninsula, at the mouth of a gorge at the foot of Mount Sinai, near the town of Saint Catherine, Egypt.
The Sajid dynasty (ساجیان), was an Iranian Muslim dynasty that ruled from 889-890 until 929.
The Sallarid dynasty (سالاریان), (also known as the Musafirids or Langarids) was an Iranian Muslim dynasty ruled in Tarom, Samiran, Daylam, Gilan and subsequently Azerbaijan, Arran, some districts in Eastern Armenia in the 2nd half of the 10th century.
The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
The Satrapy of Armenia (Սատրապական Հայաստան Satrapakan Hayastan; Old Persian: Armina or Arminiya), a region controlled by the Orontid Dynasty (Երվանդունիներ Yervanduniner; 570–201 BC) was one of the satrapies of the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC, which later became an independent kingdom.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
The Shaddadids were a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin who ruled in various parts of Armenia and Arran from 951 to 1174 AD.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
Shaki (Şəki; until 1968 Nukha, Azerbaijani: Nuxa) is a city in northwestern Azerbaijan, in the rayon of the same name.
Shamakhi (also spelled Şamaxı) is the capital of the Shamakhi Rayon of Azerbaijan.
Shapur I (𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩; New Persian: rtl), also known as Shapur I the Great, was the second shahanshah (king of kings) of the Sasanian Empire.
Shirvan (from translit; Şirvan; Tat: Şirvan), also spelled as Sharvān, Shirwan, Shervan, Sherwan and Šervān, is a historical region in the eastern Caucasus, known by this name in both Islamic and modern times.
Shirvanshah (شروانشاه, Şirvanşah), also spelled as Shīrwān Shāh or Sharwān Shāh, was the title of the rulers of Shirvan, located in modern Azerbaijan, from the mid-9th century to the early 16th century.
Sol was the solar deity in ancient Roman religion.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Suren Tigrani Yeremian (Սուրեն Տիգրանի Երեմյան; Сурен Тигранович Еремян; – 17 December 1992) was an Armenian historian and cartographer who specialized in the studies concerning the formation of the Armenian nation and pre-medieval Armenia and the Caucasus.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.
Syunik (Սյունիք), is the southernmost province of Armenia.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
According to some Eastern Christian traditions, Thaddeus, Syriac-Aramaic Addai or Aday (ܐܕܝ) (sometimes Latinized as Addeus), was one of the seventy disciples of Christ, possibly identical with Thaddeus (Jude the Apostle) of the Twelve Apostles.
The History of the Country of Albania (or Land of Aghvank) (Armenian: Պատմութիւն Աղուանից աշխարհի) by Movses Kaghankatvatsi is a history of eastern territories of Armenia, (Artsakh and Utik), as well as other territories in Southeastern Caucasus usually described as Caucasian Albania.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Theophanes of Mytilene (Θεοφάνης ὁ Μυτιληναῖος) was an intellectual and historian from the town of Mytilene on the island of Lesbos who lived in the middle of the 1st century BC.
The Third Perso-Turkic War was the third and final conflict between the Sassanian Empire and the Western Turkic Khaganate.
Thomas Patrick Lowndes de Waal (born 1966) is a British journalist and writer on the Caucasus.
Thomas J. Samuelian is an American-Armenian linguist and author of a number of books and articles in the field of Armenian language, literature, and history.
Tigranes II, more commonly known as Tigranes the Great (Տիգրան Մեծ, Tigran Mets; Τιγράνης ὁ Μέγας Tigránes ho Mégas; Tigranes Magnus) (140 – 55 BC) was King of Armenia under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state to Rome's east.
The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese".
Tong Yabghu Qaghan (r. 618–628 or 630) (also known as T'ung Yabghu, Ton Yabghu, Tong Yabghu Khagan, Tun Yabghu, and Tong Yabğu, Traditional Chinese 統葉護可汗, Simplified Chinese: 统叶护可汗, pinyin Tǒngyèhù Kěhán, Wade-Giles: t'ung-yeh-hu k'o-han) was khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate from 618 to 628 AD.
Toreutics is a term, relatively rare in English, for artistic metalworking, by hammering gold or silver (or other materials), engraving, Repoussé and chasing to form minute detailed reliefs or small engraved patterns.
Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
The Tsakhur or Caxur (saxurlar, цахурский) people are an ethnic group of northern Azerbaijan and southern Dagestan (Russia).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
The Udi language, spoken by the Udi people, is a member of the Lezgic branch of the Northeast Caucasian language family.
The Udis (self-name Udi or Uti) are a native people of the Caucasus.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".
Utik (Ուտիք, also known as Uti, Utiq, or Outi) was a historic province of the Kingdom of Armenia and a region of Caucasian Albania after the splitting of Armenia in 387 AD by Sassanid Persia.
Vachagan III the Pious was the last king of Caucasian Albania from the Arsacid Dynasty.
Varaz Grigor - was the Mihranid king of Caucasian Albania from 628 until his death in 638, he was Prince of Gardman before his baptism.
A vassal state is any state that is subordinate to another.
Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II ''Augusta'' during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's Senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.
Victor Alexandrovich Schnirelmann (Виктор Александрович Шнирельман, b. 18 May 1949, Moscow; frequently spelled Shnirelman in his English-language publications) is a Russian historian, ethnologist and a member of Academia Europaea (since 1998).
Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky (Владимир Фёдорович Минорский; – March 25, 1966) was a Russian Orientalist best known for his contributions to the study of Kurdish (as one of the foremost Kurdologists of his time) and Persian history, geography, literature, and culture.
Vologases III (Parthian: Walagash, بلاش, Balāsh, Վաղարշ, Vāghārsh) was a Parthian Prince who claimed the throne of the Parthian Empire about 105, in the last days of Pacorus II of Parthia (80–105) and reigned over the eastern portion of the kingdom to 147.
Yazdegerd II (𐭩𐭦𐭣𐭪𐭥𐭲𐭩 Yazdākird, meaning "made by God"; یزدگرد), was the sixteenth Sasanian emperor of Iran.
Yevgeni Alexandrovich Pakhomov (Евгений Александрович Пахомов) (1880–1965) was a Russian, Georgian and Azerbaijani numismatist and archaeologist and a recognized authority in the numismatics of the Caucasus.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
Ziya Musa oglu Bunyadov (Ziya Bünyadov. sometimes spelled in English as Zia Buniatov or Bunyatov) (21 December 1923, Astara – 21 February 1997, Baku) was an Azerbaijani historian, academician, and Vice-President of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Aghbania, Aghuank, Aghvania, Aghvank, Agvania, Albania (Caucasus), Albanian Caucasus, Alwania, Aran (Azerbaijan), Arran (Azerbaijan), Arran (Republic of Azerbaijan), Arran (Transcaucasia), Arranians, Arranis, Azerbaijan and Ancient Rome, Caucasian Aghbania, Caucasian Albanian, Caucasian Albanians, Caucasic Albania, Caucasus Albania, Uties.