137 relations: Abkhazia, Adjara, Ailama, Alpine climate, Alpine orogeny, Alpine tundra, Alps, Andesite, Arabian Plate, Aras (river), Armenia, Armenian Highlands, Asia, Avalanche, Azerbaijan, Baku, Basalt, Beech, Biome, Birch, Black Sea, Buxus, Caspian Depression, Caspian Sea, Caucasus, Cenozoic, Chechnya, Chestnut, Cimmerian Orogeny, Circassia, Colchis, Continental divide, Crater lake, Cretaceous, Dagestan, Darial Gorge, Deciduous, Derbent, Didi Abuli, Diklosmta, Dykh-Tau, Earthquake, Eastern Anatolia Region, Elm, Eurasia, Eurasian Plate, Europe, Fir, Fraxinus, Fumarole, ..., Gates of Alexander, Georgia (country), Georgian Military Road, Gistola, Glacier, Grassland, Greater Caucasus, Gyumri, Hornbeam, Ingushetia, Iran, Iranian Plate, Janga (mountain), Javakheti Plateau, Jurassic, Kabardino-Balkaria, Kakheti, Kartli, Katyn-Tau, Khevi, Koshtan-Tau, Kur-Araz Lowland, Late Jurassic, Late Triassic, Lava, Lesser Caucasus, Likhi Range, Mamison Pass, Maple, Meskheti Range, Miocene, Mont Blanc, Mount Addala-Shukhgelmeer, Mount Aragats, Mount Ararat, Mount Bazardüzü, Mount Dyultydag, Mount Dzhimara, Mount Elbrus, Mount Kaputjugh, Mount Kazbek, Mount Samsari, Mount Shahdagh, Mount Shani, Mountain range, NASA Earth Observatory, Oak, Ossetia, Ossetian Military Road, Paleogene, Paleozoic, Pine, Pinophyta, Plate tectonics, Pleistocene, Pliocene, Precambrian, Roki Tunnel, Russia, Russian conquest of the Caucasus, Semi-arid climate, Shkhara, Shota Rustaveli Peak, Silk Road, Sochi, Spitak, Spruce, Steppe, Sukhumi, Svaneti, Talysh Mountains, Tebulosmta, Tethys Ocean, Tetnuldi, Topographic prominence, Transcaucasia, Turkey, Ultra-prominent peak, Ushba, Vanadzor, Volcanic cone, Volcanic plateau, Volcano, Western Asia, Western Caucasus, Yerevan, 2014 Winter Olympics. Expand index (87 more) » « Shrink index
Abkhazia (Аҧсны́; აფხაზეთი; p) is a territory on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, south of the Greater Caucasus mountains, in northwestern Georgia.
Adjara (აჭარა), officially known as the Autonomous Republic of Adjara (Georgian: აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), is a historical, geographic and political-administrative region of Georgia.
Ailama or Ahlama (აილამა, აჰლამა) is a peak in the central part of the Svaneti section of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range, located in the Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti region of Georgia, at the source of the river Koruldashi.
Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.
The Alpine orogeny or Alpide orogeny is an orogenic phase in the Late Mesozoic (Eoalpine) and the current Cenozoic that has formed the mountain ranges of the Alpide belt.
Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high altitude.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Andesite is an extrusive igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture.
The Arabian Plate is a tectonic plate in the northern and eastern hemispheres.
The Aras or Araxes is a river flowing through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian Highlands (Haykakan leṙnašxarh; also known as the Armenian Upland, Armenian plateau, Armenian tableland,Hewsen, Robert H. "The Geography of Armenia" in The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. Richard G. Hovannisian (ed.) New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997, pp. 1-17 or simply Armenia) is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus that together form the northern sector of the Middle East.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
An avalanche (also called a snowslide) is a cohesive slab of snow lying upon a weaker layer of snow in the snowpack that fractures and slides down a steep slope when triggered.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Buxus is a genus of about 70 species in the family Buxaceae.
The Caspian Depression (p, Caspian Lowland) or Pricaspian/Peri-Caspian Depression/Lowland is a low-lying flatland region encompassing the northern part of the Caspian Sea, the largest enclosed body of water on Earth.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.
The chestnut (Castanea) group is a genus of eight or nine species of deciduous trees and shrubs in the beech family Fagaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
The Cimmerian Orogeny was an orogeny that created mountain ranges that now lie in Central Asia.
Circassia (Адыгэ Хэку, Черке́сия, ჩერქეზეთი, شيركاسيا, Çerkesya) is a region in the and along the northeast shore of the Black Sea.
Colchis (კოლხეთი K'olkheti; Greek Κολχίς Kolkhís) was an ancient Georgian kingdom and region on the coast of the Black Sea, centred in present-day western Georgia.
A continental divide is a drainage divide on a continent such that the drainage basin on one side of the divide feeds into one ocean or sea, and the basin on the other side either feeds into a different ocean or sea, or else is endorheic, not connected to the open sea.
A crater lake is a lake that forms in a volcanic crater or caldera, such as a maar; less commonly and with lower association to the term a lake may form in an impact crater caused by a meteorite, or in the crater left by an artificial explosion caused by humans.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
The Darial Gorge (დარიალის ხეობა, Darialis Kheoba; Дарьяльское ущелье; Арвыком, Arvykom; Башлоам-Чу) is a river gorge on the border between Russia and Georgia.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
Derbent (Дербе́нт; دربند; Dərbənd; Кьвевар; Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend, is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, north of the Azerbaijani border.
Didi Abuli (დიდი აბული) is one of the highest peak of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the nation of Georgia.
Diklosmta or simply Diklo (დიკლოსმთა) is a peak in the eastern part of the Caucasus Mountains in between border of the Russian Republics of Chechnya and Dagestan and the Tusheti region of Georgia.
Dykh-Tau or Dykhtau (Дыхтау, Дых тау that is derived from Turkic "dik dagh" which means Jagged Mount), is a mountain located in Kabardino-Balkaria, Russia; its peak stands about north of the border with Georgia.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
The Eastern Anatolia Region (Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Firs (Abies) are a genus of 48–56 species of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae.
Fraxinus, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae.
A fumarole (or fumerole – the word ultimately comes from the Latin fumus, "smoke") is an opening in a planet's crust, often in areas surrounding volcanoes, which emits steam and gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen sulfide.
The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog) from invading the land to the south.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Georgian Military Road (Арвыкомы фæндаг) is the historic name for a major route through the Caucasus from Georgia to Russia.
Gestola (გისტოლა) is a peak in the central part of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range in Svaneti, Georgia.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
Greater Caucasus (Böyük Qafqaz, Бөјүк Гафгаз, بيوک قافقاز; დიდი კავკასიონი, Didi K’avk’asioni; Большой Кавказ, Bolshoy Kavkaz, sometimes translated as "Caucasus Major", "Big Caucasus" or "Large Caucasus") is the major mountain range of the Caucasus Mountains.
Gyumri (Գյումրի), is an urban municipal community and the second largest city in Armenia, serving as the administrative centre of Shirak Province in the northwestern part of the country.
Hornbeams are hardwood trees in the flowering plant genus Carpinus in the birch family Betulaceae.
The Republic of Ingushetia (rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə ɪnɡʊˈʂetʲɪjə; Гӏалгӏай Мохк), also referred to as simply Ingushetia, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), located in the North Caucasus region.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Plate is thought to underlie Iran and Afghanistan, and parts of Pakistan and Iraq.
Janga or Jangi-Tau (ჯანღა;, Džangi-Tau) is a summit in the central part of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range.
Javalkheti Plateau (ჯავახეთის პლატო) is a volcanic plateau within the Caucasus Mountains that covers the Samtskhe-Javakheti region of Georgia, along the border with Turkey and Armenia.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
The Kabardino-Balkar Republic (Кабарди́но-Балка́рская Респу́блика, Kabardino-Balkarskaya Respublika; Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ, Ķêbêrdej-Baĺķêr Respublikê; Karachay-Balkar: Къабарты-Малкъар Республика, Qabartı-Malqar Respublika), or Kabardino-Balkaria (Кабарди́но-Балка́рия, Kabardino-Balkariya), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in the North Caucasus.
Kakheti (კახეთი) is a region (Georgian: Mkhare) formed in the 1990s in eastern Georgia from the historical province of Kakheti and the small, mountainous province of Tusheti.
Kartli (ქართლი) is a historical region in central-to-eastern Georgia traversed by the river Mtkvari (Kura), on which Georgia's capital, Tbilisi, is situated.
Katyn-Tau (კათინთაუ; Катын-Тау) is a summit in the central part of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range (Bezengi Wall).
Khevi (ხევი) is a small historical-geographic area in northeastern Georgia.
Koshtan-Tau (Коштан-тау; Karachay-Balkar: Къоштан-тау, means paired mountain) is the highest peak (5,144m) of the Koshtan massif of the central Caucasus Mountains in the Kabardino-Balkaria Republic of Russia, near the border with Georgia.
The Kura-Aras Lowland, Kura-Aras Depression or Kura-Aras Basin (Kür-Araz ovalığı) is a vast depression in central-southern Azerbaijan defined by the valleys of the Kura River and Aras River.
The Late Jurassic is the third epoch of the Jurassic period, and it spans the geologic time from 163.5 ± 1.0 to 145.0 ± 0.8 million years ago (Ma), which is preserved in Upper Jurassic strata.
The Late Triassic is the third and final of three epochs of the Triassic Period in the geologic timescale.
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.
Lesser Caucasus (Փոքր Կովկաս Pʿokʿr Kovkas, Azerbaijani: Kiçik Qafqaz Dağları, მცირე კავკასიონი, Малый Кавказ, Persian: Arankuh, Küçük Kafkasya, sometimes translated as "Caucasus Minor") is second of the two main mountain ranges of Caucasus mountains, of length about.
Likhi Range (tr) or Surami Range (tr) is a mountain range in Georgia, a part of the Caucasus mountains.
Mamison Pass (მამისონის უღელტეხილი, Мамысоны æфцæг, Мамисонский перевал) is a high mountainous pass in the central Greater Caucasus crest, on the Georgian-Russian border.
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.
Meskheti Range (მესხეთის ქედი) (Meskh/Meskhet/Meskhetian Range, Adzhar-Imereti Range, Adzhar-Akhaltsikh Range also Moschian Mountains) is a part of the Lesser Caucasus mountain range in Meskheti region, in southwestern Georgia.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco), meaning "White Mountain", is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe west of Russia's Caucasus peaks.
Gora Addala-Shukhgelmeer or simply Addala-Shukhgelmeer (translit; عَدَّلا شوحْگِڵْمِەر), is a mountain located in Dagestan, Russia.
Mount Aragats (Արագած,; formerly Ալագյազ, Alagyaz via Alagöz) is an isolated four-peaked volcano massif in Armenia.
Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı; Մասիս, Masis and Արարատ, Ararat) is a snow-capped and dormant compound volcano in the extreme east of Turkey.
Mount Bazardüzü (КичIен сув., Базардюзю) is a mountain peak in the Greater Caucasus range on the border between Russia and Azerbaijan.
Gora Dyultydag, or simply Dyultydag (Дюльтыдаг), is a mountain located in Dagestan, Russia.
Mount Dzhimara or Jimara (Джимарайы хох — Jimarayy khokh, ჯიმარა) is the second highest point of North Ossetia–Alania, a Russian republic, with an altitude of.
Mount Elbrus (ɪlʲˈbrus; Минги тау, Miñi taw,; Ӏуащхьэмахуэ, ’Wāśhamāxwa) is the highest mountain in Europe, and the tenth most prominent peak in the world.
Kaputjugh (Կապուտջուղ, translit: Kaputjuł, trans: "blue branch"; Qapıcıq, trans.: small door, entrance) is a mountain in the Caucasus.
Mount Kazbek (მყინვარწვერი, Mqinvartsveri; Сæна, Sæna; Башлам, Bashlam; Казбек, Kazbek), is a dormant stratovolcano and one of the major mountains of the Caucasus located on the border of Georgia's Kazbegi District and Russia's Republic of North Ossetia–Alania.
Mount Samsari (სამსარი) is a peak of the Abul-Samsari Range in Southern Georgia.
Mount Shahdagh (Şahdağ) is a mountain peak of the Greater Caucasus range, located in Qusar rayon of Azerbaijan, close to the border with Russia.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
NASA Earth Observatory is an online publishing outlet for NASA which was created in 1999.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Ossetia (Ir, Iryston; Osetiya; ოსეთი, translit. Oseti) is an ethnolinguistic region located on both sides of the Greater Caucasus Mountains, largely inhabited by the Ossetians.
The Ossetian Military Road (Военно-Осетинская дорога, ოსეთის სამხედრო გზა) was constructed between 1854 and 1889, by Imperial Russian authorities in the Caucasus.
The Paleogene (also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or Early Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Neogene Period Mya.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.
The Roki Tunnel (also called Roksky Tunnel, როკის გვირაბი; Ossetic: Ручъы тъунел; Рокский туннель) is a mountain tunnel of the Transkam road through the Greater Caucasus Mountains, north of the village Upper Roka.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian conquest of the Caucasus mainly occurred between 1800 and 1864.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Shkhara (შხარა), is the highest point in the nation of Georgia.
Shota Rustaveli (officially known as the Shota Rustaveli Peak) (შოთა რუსთაველის მწვერვალი) is a mountain in the central part of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range, straddling the border of Svaneti (Georgia) and Kabardino-Balkaria (Russia).
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Sochi (a) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia.
Spitak (Սպիտակ), is a town and urban municipal community in the northern Lori Province of Armenia.
A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
Sokhumi or Sukhumi (Аҟәа, Aqwa; სოხუმი,; Сухум(и), Sukhum(i)) is a city on the Black Sea coast.
Svaneti or Svanetia (Suania in ancient sources) (სვანეთი Svaneti) is a historic province in Georgia, in the northwestern part of the country.
Talysh Mountains (Talış dağları, Талыш дағлары, تالش داغلارى; کوههای تالش, Kuhhâye Tâleš) is a mountain range in far southeastern Azerbaijan and far northwestern Iran within Ardabil Province and Gilian Province.
Tebulosmta (Тулой-лам, Tuloy-Lam or Tiebuolt-Lam, ტებულოს მთა, Tebulos mta, Тебулосмта) is the highest mountain of the Eastern Caucasus and the highest mountain of the Chechen Republic at an elevation of 4,493 meters (14,737 feet) above sea level.
The Tethys Ocean (Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.
Tetnuldi is a prominent peak in the central part of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range, located in the Svaneti region of Georgia.
In topography, prominence characterizes the height of a mountain or hill's summit by the vertical distance between it and the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
An ultra-prominent peak, or Ultra for short, is defined as a mountain summit with a topographic prominence of or more.
Ushba (უშბა) is one of the most notable peaks of the Caucasus Mountains.
Vanadzor (Վանաձոր), is an urban municipal community and the third-largest city in Armenia serving as the capital of Lori Province in the northern part of the country.
Volcanic cones are among the simplest volcanic landforms.
A volcanic plateau is a plateau produced by volcanic activity.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
The Western Caucasus is a western region of the Caucasus in Southern Russia, extending from the Black Sea to Mount Elbrus.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (r) and commonly known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014.