112 relations: Active transport, American Society for Cell Biology, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Apoptosis, Archaea, Autophagy, Bacillus, Bacteria, Biochemistry, Biological life cycle, Biology, Biomedical sciences, Cancer, Cell (biology), Cell adhesion, Cell biophysics, Cell cycle, Cell death, Cell disruption, Cell division, Cell growth, Cell membrane, Cell physiology, Cell signaling, Cellular compartment, Cellular microbiology, Cellular respiration, Chemosynthesis, Chemotaxis, Christian de Duve, Cilium, Coccus, Confocal microscopy, Cork (material), Cytokinesis, Cytometry, Cytoplasm, Dark-field microscopy, Developmental biology, Diffusion, DNA repair, DNA replication, Edmund Beecher Wilson, Eukaryote, Flagellum, Fluorescence microscope, Gamete, Günter Blobel, Gene, Genetics, ..., Geoffrey M. Cooper, George Emil Palade, Glycolysis, Greek language, Green fluorescent protein, H. Robert Horvitz, Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Immunology, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Ira Mellman, Jan Evangelista Purkyně, Jean Baptiste Carnoy, Keith R. Porter, Kenneth R. Miller, Kinase, Lipid bilayer, Marc Kirschner, Matthias Jakob Schleiden, Meiosis, Membrane, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Michael Swann, Microbiologist, Microbiology, Microorganism, Microscope, Mitosis, Molecular biology, Molecule, Muscle contraction, Necrosis, Organelle, Osmotic pressure, P53, Passive transport, Paul Nurse, Peter Agre, Peter D. Mitchell, Phase-contrast microscopy, Photosynthesis, Physiology, Ploidy, Prokaryote, Ray Rappaport, Ribosome, RNA splicing, Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773), Robert Hooke, Roger Y. Tsien, Rudolf Virchow, Senescence, Spirochaete, Structural biology, Theodor Schwann, Tissue (biology), Transcription (biology), Transmission electron microscopy, Vibrio, Virus, Yoshinori Ohsumi. Expand index (62 more) » « Shrink index
Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.
The American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) is a professional society that was founded in 1960.
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Autophagy (or autophagocytosis) (from the Ancient Greek αὐτόφαγος autóphagos, meaning "self-devouring" and κύτος kýtos, meaning "hollow") is the natural, regulated, destructive mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components.
Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomedical sciences are a set of applied sciences applying portions of natural science or formal science, or both, to knowledge, interventions, or technology that are of use in healthcare or public health.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell adhesion is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell surface.
Cell biophysics (or cellular biophysics) is a sub-field of biophysics that focuses on physical principles underlying cell function.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
Cell death is the event of a biological cell ceasing to carry out its functions.
Cell disruption is a method or process for releasing biological molecules from inside a cell.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In the context of human physiology, the term cell physiology often specifically applies to the physiology of membrane transport, neuron transmission, and (less frequently) muscle contraction.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
Cellular compartments in cell biology comprise all of the closed parts within the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell, usually surrounded by a single or double lipid layer membrane.
Cellular microbiology is a discipline that bridges microbiology and cell biology.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
In biochemistry, chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis.
Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus.
Christian René Marie Joseph, Viscount de Duve (2 October 1917 – 4 May 2013) was a Nobel Prize-winning Belgian cytologist and biochemist.
A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
A coccus (plural cocci) is any bacterium or archaeon that has a spherical, ovoid, or generally round shape.
Confocal microscopy, most frequently confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) or laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM), is an optical imaging technique for increasing optical resolution and contrast of a micrograph by means of using a spatial pinhole to block out-of-focus light in image formation.
Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue that is harvested for commercial use primarily from Quercus suber (the cork oak), which is endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa.
Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process during which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells.
Cytometry is the measurement of the characteristics of cells.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Dark-field microscopy (dark-ground microscopy) describes microscopy methods, in both light and electron microscopy, which exclude the unscattered beam from the image.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Edmund Beecher Wilson (19 October 1856 – 3 March 1939) was a pioneering American zoologist and geneticist.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope that uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to study properties of organic or inorganic substances.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
Günter Blobel (May 21, 1936 – February 18, 2018) was a Silesian German and American biologist and 1999 Nobel Prize laureate in Physiology for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Geoffrey M. Cooper is professor of biology at Boston University.
George Emil Palade ForMemRS HonFRMS (November 19, 1912 – October 8, 2008) was a Romanian-American cell biologist.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.
Howard Robert Horvitz (born May 8, 1947) is an American biologist best known for his research on the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, for which he was awarded the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, together with Sydney Brenner and John E. Sulston.
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology may refer to.
Ira Mellman, Ph.D. is an American cell biologist who discovered endosomes.
Jan Evangelista Purkyně (also written Johann Evangelist Purkinje) (17 or 18 December 1787 – 28 July 1869) was a Czech anatomist and physiologist.
Jean Baptiste Carnoy (11 January 1836 – 6 September 1899), born in Rumillies (Belgium), was a Roman Catholic priest and a scientist in the field of cytology.
Keith Roberts Porter (June 11, 1912 – May 2, 1997) was a Canadian-American cell biologist.
Kenneth Raymond Miller (born July 14, 1948) is an American cell biologist and molecular biologist who is currently Professor of Biology and Royce Family Professor for Teaching Excellence at Brown University.
In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
Marc W. Kirschner (born February 28, 1945) is an American cell biologist and biochemist and the founding chair of the Department of Systems Biology at Harvard Medical School. His research involves problems in cell and developmental biology, such as the dynamics and function of the cytoskeleton, the regulation of the cell cycle, and the process of signaling in embryos, as well as the evolution of the vertebrate body plan, and applying mathematical approaches to biology.
Matthias Jakob Schleiden (5 April 1804 23 June 1881) was a German botanist and co-founder of cell theory, along with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Michael Meredith Swann, Baron Swann, FRS, FRSE (1 March 1920 – 22 September 1990) was a distinguished molecular and cell biologist.
A microbiologist (from Greek μῑκρος) is a scientist who studies microscopic life forms and processes.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.
Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
Passive transport is a movement of ions and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input.
Sir Paul Maxime Nurse (born 25 January 1949), is an English geneticist, former President of the Royal Society and Chief Executive and Director of the Francis Crick Institute.
Peter Agre (born January 30, 1949) is an American physician and molecular biologist, Bloomberg Distinguished Professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and director of the.
Peter Dennis Mitchell, FRS (29 September 1920 – 10 April 1992) was a British biochemist who was awarded the 1978 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his discovery of the chemiosmotic mechanism of ATP synthesis.
Phase-contrast microscopy is an optical microscopy technique that converts phase shifts in light passing through a transparent specimen to brightness changes in the image.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Ray Rappaport (May 1922 – December 14, 2010) was an American cell biologist.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
In molecular biology, splicing is the editing of the nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) transcript into a mature messenger RNA (mRNA).
Robert Brown FRSE FRS FLS MWS (21 December 1773 – 10 June 1858) was a Scottish botanist and palaeobotanist who made important contributions to botany largely through his pioneering use of the microscope.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
Roger Yonchien Tsien (February 1, 1952 – August 24, 2016) was a Han Chinese/Taiwanese-American biochemist.
Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German physician, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health.
Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.
A spirochaete or spirochete is a member of the phylum Spirochaetes, which contains distinctive diderm (double-membrane) bacteria, most of which have long, helically coiled (corkscrew-shaped or spiraled, hence the name) cells.
Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules (especially proteins, made up of amino acids, and RNA or DNA, made up of nucleic acids), how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function.
Theodor Schwann (7 December 1810 – 11 January 1882) was a German physiologist.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image.
Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod shape (comma shape), several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
is a Japanese cell biologist specializing in autophagy, the process that cells use to destroy and recycle cellular components.
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