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Cell envelope

Index Cell envelope

The cell envelope comprises the inner cell membrane and the cell wall of a bacterium, if present, plus a bacterial outer membrane (i.e. in gram-negative bacteria). [1]

44 relations: Acid-fastness, Actinobacteria, Amino acid, Antigen, Bacteria, Bacterial capsule, Bacterial outer membrane, Cell membrane, Cell wall, Chlamydiaceae, Deinococcus–Thermus, Firmicutes, Gram stain, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Hydrolysis, Ion, L-form bacteria, Lipid bilayer, Lipopolysaccharide, Lipoteichoic acid, Mollicutes, Mycobacterium, Mycolic acid, Mycoplasma, Mycoplasmataceae, N-Acetylglucosamine, N-Acetylmuramic acid, Passive transport, Pathogenic bacteria, Peptidoglycan, Periplasm, Phosphodiester bond, Phospholipid, Polysaccharide, Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria, Porin (protein), Prokaryote, S-layer, Sugar, Teichoic acid, Turgor pressure, Viral envelope, Ziehl–Neelsen stain.


Acid-fastness is a physical property of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells, as well as some sub-cellular structures, specifically their resistance to decolorization by acids during laboratory staining procedures.

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The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bacterial capsule

Some bacterial cells are surrounded by a viscous substance forming a covering layer or envelope around the cell wall.

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Bacterial outer membrane

The bacterial outer membrane is found in gram-negative bacteria.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Cell wall

A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.

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The Chlamydiaceae are a family of bacteria that belongs to the phylum Chlamydiae, order Chlamydiales.

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Deinococcus–Thermus is a phylum of bacteria that are highly resistant to environmental hazards, also known as extremophiles.

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The Firmicutes (Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure.

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Gram stain

Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram-negative).

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Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.

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Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.

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Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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L-form bacteria

L-form bacteria, also known as Sam Cannon, L-phase variants, and cell wall-deficient (CWD) bacteria, are strains of bacteria that lack cell walls.

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Lipid bilayer

The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.

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Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.

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Lipoteichoic acid

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a major constituent of the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria.

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Mollicutes is a class of bacteria distinguished by the absence of a cell wall.

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Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae.

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Mycolic acid

Mycolic acids are long fatty acids found in the cell walls of the Mycolata taxon, a group of bacteria that includes Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of the disease tuberculosis.

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Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall around their cell membrane.

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Mycoplasmataceae is a family of bacteria in the order Mycoplasmatales.

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N-Acetylglucosamine (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, or GlcNAc, or NAG) is a monosaccharide and a derivative of glucose.

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N-Acetylmuramic acid

N-Acetylmuramic acid, or MurNAc, is the ether of lactic acid and ''N''-acetylglucosamine with a chemical formula of C11H19NO8.

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Passive transport

Passive transport is a movement of ions and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input.

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Pathogenic bacteria

Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.

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Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall.

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The periplasm is a concentrated gel-like matrix in the space between the inner cytoplasmic membrane and the bacterial outer membrane called the periplasmic space in gram-negative bacteria.

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Phosphodiester bond

A phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds.

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Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.

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Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria

Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria, frequently referred to simply as encapsulated bacteria and less precisely called encapsulated organisms, are a group of bacteria that have an outer covering, a bacterial capsule, made of polysaccharide.

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Porin (protein)

Porins are beta barrel proteins that cross a cellular membrane and act as a pore, through which molecules can diffuse.

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A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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An S-layer (surface layer) is a part of the cell envelope found in almost all archaea, as well as in many types of bacteria.

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Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Teichoic acid

Teichoic acids (cf. Greek τεῖχος, teīkhos, "wall", to be specific a fortification wall, as opposed to τοῖχος, toīkhos, a regular wall) are bacterial copolymers of glycerol phosphate or ribitol phosphate and carbohydrates linked via phosphodiester bonds.

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Turgor pressure

Turgor pressure is the force within the cell that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall.

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Viral envelope

Some viruses (e.g. HIV and many animal viruses) have viral envelopes covering their protective protein capsids.

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Ziehl–Neelsen stain

The Ziehl–Neelsen stain, also known as the acid-fast stain, was first described by two German doctors: the bacteriologist Franz Ziehl (1859–1926) and the pathologist Friedrich Neelsen (1854–1898).

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Bacterial envelope.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_envelope

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