44 relations: Acid-fastness, Actinobacteria, Amino acid, Antigen, Bacteria, Bacterial capsule, Bacterial outer membrane, Cell membrane, Cell wall, Chlamydiaceae, Deinococcus–Thermus, Firmicutes, Gram stain, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Hydrolysis, Ion, L-form bacteria, Lipid bilayer, Lipopolysaccharide, Lipoteichoic acid, Mollicutes, Mycobacterium, Mycolic acid, Mycoplasma, Mycoplasmataceae, N-Acetylglucosamine, N-Acetylmuramic acid, Passive transport, Pathogenic bacteria, Peptidoglycan, Periplasm, Phosphodiester bond, Phospholipid, Polysaccharide, Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria, Porin (protein), Prokaryote, S-layer, Sugar, Teichoic acid, Turgor pressure, Viral envelope, Ziehl–Neelsen stain.
Acid-fastness is a physical property of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells, as well as some sub-cellular structures, specifically their resistance to decolorization by acids during laboratory staining procedures.
The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Some bacterial cells are surrounded by a viscous substance forming a covering layer or envelope around the cell wall.
The bacterial outer membrane is found in gram-negative bacteria.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
The Chlamydiaceae are a family of bacteria that belongs to the phylum Chlamydiae, order Chlamydiales.
Deinococcus–Thermus is a phylum of bacteria that are highly resistant to environmental hazards, also known as extremophiles.
The Firmicutes (Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure.
Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram-negative).
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.
Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
L-form bacteria, also known as Sam Cannon, L-phase variants, and cell wall-deficient (CWD) bacteria, are strains of bacteria that lack cell walls.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a major constituent of the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria.
Mollicutes is a class of bacteria distinguished by the absence of a cell wall.
Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae.
Mycolic acids are long fatty acids found in the cell walls of the Mycolata taxon, a group of bacteria that includes Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of the disease tuberculosis.
Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall around their cell membrane.
Mycoplasmataceae is a family of bacteria in the order Mycoplasmatales.
N-Acetylglucosamine (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, or GlcNAc, or NAG) is a monosaccharide and a derivative of glucose.
N-Acetylmuramic acid, or MurNAc, is the ether of lactic acid and ''N''-acetylglucosamine with a chemical formula of C11H19NO8.
Passive transport is a movement of ions and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall.
The periplasm is a concentrated gel-like matrix in the space between the inner cytoplasmic membrane and the bacterial outer membrane called the periplasmic space in gram-negative bacteria.
A phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria, frequently referred to simply as encapsulated bacteria and less precisely called encapsulated organisms, are a group of bacteria that have an outer covering, a bacterial capsule, made of polysaccharide.
Porins are beta barrel proteins that cross a cellular membrane and act as a pore, through which molecules can diffuse.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
An S-layer (surface layer) is a part of the cell envelope found in almost all archaea, as well as in many types of bacteria.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Teichoic acids (cf. Greek τεῖχος, teīkhos, "wall", to be specific a fortification wall, as opposed to τοῖχος, toīkhos, a regular wall) are bacterial copolymers of glycerol phosphate or ribitol phosphate and carbohydrates linked via phosphodiester bonds.
Turgor pressure is the force within the cell that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall.
Some viruses (e.g. HIV and many animal viruses) have viral envelopes covering their protective protein capsids.
The Ziehl–Neelsen stain, also known as the acid-fast stain, was first described by two German doctors: the bacteriologist Franz Ziehl (1859–1926) and the pathologist Friedrich Neelsen (1854–1898).