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Cell membrane

Index Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space). [1]

170 relations: Actin, Active transport, Alpha helix, Ammonia transporter, Amphiphile, Annular lipid shell, Antigen, AP2 adaptor complex, Aquaporin, Archaea, Artificial cell, Axolemma, Axon, Bacteria, Bacterial cell structure, Bacterial outer membrane, Bangstad syndrome, Beta sheet, Biological membrane, Bleb (cell biology), Cadherin, Carbohydrate, Caveolae, Cell (biology), Cell adhesion, Cell cortex, Cell damage, Cell junction, Cell signaling, Cell theory, Cell wall, Cerebroside, Chemical polarity, Cholesterol, Cilium, Compartment (pharmacokinetics), Cytoneme, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Cytosol, Davson–Danielli model, Diffusion, Echinoderm, Efflux (microbiology), Elasticity of cell membranes, Electric charge, Electron microscope, Endocytosis, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endothelium, ..., Epithelium, Ernest Overton, Eukaryote, Exocytosis, Extracellular, Extracellular matrix, Facilitated diffusion, Filopodia, Flippase, Fluid mosaic model, Fluorescence microscope, Focal adhesion, Fungus, G protein, G protein–coupled receptor, Galactose, Ganglioside, Garth L. Nicolson, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Glycocalyx, Glycolipid, Glycoprotein, Glycosylation, Golgi apparatus, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, History of cell membrane theory, Homeoviscous adaptation, Hugh Davson, Hugo de Vries, Hydrophobic effect, Integral membrane protein, Integrin, Interstitium, Intracellular, Invadopodia, Ion, Ion channel, Ion transporter, Ionic conductivity (solid state), James Danielli, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Lipid bilayer, Lipid raft, Lipid-anchored protein, Lipopolysaccharide, Lipoprotein, Liposome, Liquid crystal, List of distinct cell types in the adult human body, Lumen (anatomy), Lymphocyte homing receptor, Macromolecule, Melting point, Membrane fluidity, Membrane models, Membrane potential, Membrane transport, Membrane transport protein, Microtubule, Microvillus, Moiety (chemistry), Molar mass, Myocyte, Neuron, Non-covalent interactions, Nuclear envelope, Nuclear pore, Oocyte, Organelle, Organic compound, Osmosis, Osmotic pressure, Passive transport, Peptidoglycan, Peripheral membrane protein, Periplasm, PH partition, Phagocytosis, Phosphatidylethanolamine, Phosphatidylinositol, Phosphatidylserine, Phospholipid, Phospholipid scramblase, Physiological condition, Pinocytosis, Plant, Podosome, Postsynaptic density, Prokaryote, Protein, Protein domain, Proton pump, Ray Kurzweil, Red blood cell, Robert Hooke, Sarcolemma, Science Daily, Self-assembly, Semipermeable membrane, Seymour Jonathan Singer, Sialic acid, Sonication, Sterol, Structural motif, Symbiogenesis, Tight junction, Tissue (biology), Transcription (biology), Transmembrane protein, Trogocytosis, Tunneling nanotube, Two-dimensional liquid, Van der Waals force, Vertebrate, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Wilhelm Hofmeister, Wilhelm Pfeffer, Yeast. Expand index (120 more) »


Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.

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Active transport

Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.

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Alpha helix

The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.

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Ammonia transporter

Ammonia transporters are structurally related membrane transport proteins called Amt proteins (ammonia transporters) in bacteria and plants, methylammonium/ammonium permeases (MEPs) in yeast, or Rhesus (Rh) proteins in chordates.

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An amphiphile (from the Greek αμφις, amphis: both and φιλíα, philia: love, friendship) is a chemical compound possessing both hydrophilic (water-loving, polar) and lipophilic (fat-loving) properties.

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Annular lipid shell

Annular lipids (also called shell lipids or boundary lipids) represent a select set of lipids or lipidic molecules which preferentially bind or stick to the surface of membrane proteins in biological cells.

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In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.

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AP2 adaptor complex

The AP2 adaptor complex is a multimeric protein that works on the cell membrane to internalize cargo in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

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Aquaporins, also called water channels, are integral membrane proteins from a larger family of major intrinsic proteins that form pores in the membrane of biological cells, mainly facilitating transport of water between cells.

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Artificial cell

An artificial cell or minimal cell is an engineered particle that mimics one or many functions of a biological cell.

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The axolemma is the cell membrane surrounding an axon.

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An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bacterial cell structure

Bacteria, despite their simplicity, contain a well-developed cell structure which is responsible for some of their unique biological structures and pathogenicity.

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Bacterial outer membrane

The bacterial outer membrane is found in gram-negative bacteria.

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Bangstad syndrome

Bangstad syndrome is a severe, inherited congenital disorder associated with abnormalities of the cell membrane.

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Beta sheet

The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.

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Biological membrane

A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.

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Bleb (cell biology)

In cell biology, a bleb is a bulge or protrusion of the plasma membrane of a cell, human bioparticulate or abscess with an internal environment similar to that of a simple cell, characterized by a spherical, bulky morphology.

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Cadherins (named for "calcium-dependent adhesion") are a type of cell adhesion molecule (CAM) that is important in the formation of adherens junctions to bind cells with each other.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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In biology, caveolae (Latin for "little caves"; singular, caveola), which are a special type of lipid raft, are small (50–100 nanometer) invaginations of the plasma membrane in many vertebrate cell types, especially in endothelial cells, adipocytes and embryonic notochord cells.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell adhesion

Cell adhesion is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell surface.

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Cell cortex

The cell cortex, also known as the actin cortex or actomyosin cortex, is a specialized layer of cytoplasmic protein on the inner face of the plasma membrane of the cell periphery.

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Cell damage

Cell injury is a variety or changes of stress that a cell suffers due to external as well internal environmental changes, is also known as Cell Injury.

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Cell junction

A cell junction (or intercellular bridge) is a type of structure that exists within the tissue of some multicellular organisms, such as animals.

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Cell signaling

Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.

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Cell theory

In biology, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.

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Cell wall

A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.

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Cerebrosides is the common name for a group of glycosphingolipids called monoglycosylceramides which are important components in animal muscle and nerve cell membranes.

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Chemical polarity

In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.

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Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

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A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Compartment (pharmacokinetics)

In pharmacokinetics, a compartment is a defined volume of body fluids, typically of the human body, but also those of other animals with multiple organ systems.

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Cytonemes are thin, cellular projections that are specialized for exchange of signaling proteins between cells.

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In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).

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The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.

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Davson–Danielli model

The Davson–Danielli model (or paucimolecular model) was a model of the plasma membrane of a cell, proposed in 1935 by Hugh Davson and James Danielli.

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Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

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Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.

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Efflux (microbiology)

Active efflux is a mechanism responsible for moving compounds, like neurotransmitters, toxic substances, and antibiotics, out of the cell; this is considered to be a vital part of xenobiotic metabolism.

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Elasticity of cell membranes

A cell membrane defines a boundary between the living cell and its environment.

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Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.

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Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.

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Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

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Ernest Overton

Charles Ernest Overton (1865–1933) was a British physiologist and biologist, now regarded as a pioneer of the theory of the cell membrane.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process.

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In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".

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Extracellular matrix

In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.

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Facilitated diffusion

Facilitated diffusion (also known as facilitated transport or passive-mediated transport) is the process of spontaneous passive transport (as opposed to active transport) of molecules or ions across a biological membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins.

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Filopodia (also microspikes) are slender cytoplasmic projections that extend beyond the leading edge of lamellipodia in migrating cells.

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Flippases (rarely spelled flipases) are transmembrane lipid transporter proteins located in the membrane responsible for aiding the movement of phospholipid molecules between the two leaflets that compose a cell's membrane (transverse diffusion, also known as a "flip-flop" transition).

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Fluid mosaic model

The fluid mosaic model explains various observations regarding the structure of functional cell membranes.

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Fluorescence microscope

A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope that uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to study properties of organic or inorganic substances.

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Focal adhesion

In cell biology, focal adhesions (also cell–matrix adhesions or FAs) are large macromolecular assemblies through which mechanical force and regulatory signals are transmitted between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and an interacting cell.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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G protein

G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.

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G protein–coupled receptor

G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.

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Galactose (galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar"), sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 30% as sweet as sucrose.

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A ganglioside is a molecule composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (e.g. n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain.

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Garth L. Nicolson

Garth L. Nicolson (born October 1, 1943) is an American biochemist who made a landmark scientific model for cell membrane, known as the Fluid Mosaic Model.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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The glycocalyx, also known as the pericellular matrix, is a glycoprotein and glycolipid covering that surrounds the cell membranes of some bacteria, epithelia, and other cells.

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Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic bond or covalently bonded.

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Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.

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Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).

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Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

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Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.

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Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.

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History of cell membrane theory

Cell theory has its origins in seventeenth century microscopy observations, but it would be nearly two hundred years before a complete cell membrane theory be developed to explain what separates cells from the outside world.

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Homeoviscous adaptation

Homeoviscous adaptation is the adaptation of the cell membrane lipid composition to keep the adequate membrane fluidity.

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Hugh Davson

Hugh Davson (1909–1996) was a 20th-century English physiologist who worked on membrane transport and ocular fluids.

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Hugo de Vries

Hugo Marie de Vries ForMemRS (16 February 1848 – 21 May 1935) was a Dutch botanist and one of the first geneticists.

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Hydrophobic effect

The hydrophobic effect is the observed tendency of nonpolar substances to aggregate in an aqueous solution and exclude water molecules.

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Integral membrane protein

An integral membrane protein (IMP) is a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane.

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Integrins are transmembrane receptors that facilitate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion.

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The interstitium is a contiguous fluid-filled space existing between the skin and the body organs, including muscles and the circulatory system.

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In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".

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Invadopodia are actin-rich protrusions of the plasma membrane that are associated with degradation of the extracellular matrix in cancer invasiveness and metastasis.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ion channel

Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.

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Ion transporter

In biology, an ion transporter (or ion pump) is a transmembrane protein that moves ions across a plasma membrane against their concentration gradient through active transport.

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Ionic conductivity (solid state)

Ionic conduction (denoted by -lambda) is the movement of an ion from one site to another through defects in the crystal lattice of a solid or aqueous solution.

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James Danielli

James Frederic Danielli FRS (1911–1984) was an English biologist.

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Journal of the American Chemical Society

The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.

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Lipid bilayer

The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.

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Lipid raft

The plasma membranes of cells contain combinations of glycosphingolipids and protein receptors organised in glycolipoprotein microdomains termed lipid rafts.

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Lipid-anchored protein

Lipid-anchored proteins (also known as lipid-linked proteins) are proteins located on the surface of the cell membrane that are covalently attached to lipids embedded within the cell membrane.

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Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.

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A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly whose purpose is to transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in water, as in blood or extracellular fluid.

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A liposome is a spherical vesicle having at least one lipid bilayer.

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Liquid crystal

Liquid crystals (LCs) are matter in a state which has properties between those of conventional liquids and those of solid crystals.

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List of distinct cell types in the adult human body

There are many different types of cell in the human body.

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Lumen (anatomy)

In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.

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Lymphocyte homing receptor

Lymphocyte homing receptors are cell adhesion molecules expressed on lymphocyte cell membranes that recognize addressins on target tissues.

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A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

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Melting point

The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.

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Membrane fluidity

In biology, membrane fluidity refers to the viscosity of the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane or a synthetic lipid membrane.

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Membrane models

Before the emergence of electron microscopy in the 1950s, scientists did not know the structure of a cell membrane or what its components were; biologists and other researchers used indirect evidence to identify membranes before they could actually be visualized.

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Membrane potential

The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.

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Membrane transport

In cellular biology, membrane transport refers to the collection of mechanisms that regulate the passage of solutes such as ions and small molecules through biological membranes, which are lipid bilayers that contain proteins embedded in them.

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Membrane transport protein

A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.

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Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.

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Microvilli (singular: microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area for diffusion and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction.

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Moiety (chemistry)

In organic chemistry, a moiety is a part of a molecule.

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Molar mass

In chemistry, the molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by the amount of substance.

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A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Non-covalent interactions

A non-covalent interaction differs from a covalent bond in that it does not involve the sharing of electrons, but rather involves more dispersed variations of electromagnetic interactions between molecules or within a molecule.

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Nuclear envelope

The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes which surrounds the nucleus, and in eukaryotic cells it encases the genetic material.

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Nuclear pore

Nuclear pore complexes are large protein complexes that span the nuclear envelope, which is the double membrane surrounding the eukaryotic cell nucleus.

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An oocyte, oöcyte, ovocyte, or rarely ocyte, is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction.

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In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.

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Osmotic pressure

Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.

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Passive transport

Passive transport is a movement of ions and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input.

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Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall.

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Peripheral membrane protein

Peripheral membrane proteins are membrane proteins that adhere only temporarily to the biological membrane with which they are associated.

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The periplasm is a concentrated gel-like matrix in the space between the inner cytoplasmic membrane and the bacterial outer membrane called the periplasmic space in gram-negative bacteria.

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PH partition

pH partition is the tendency for acids to accumulate in basic fluid compartments, and bases to accumulate in acidic compartments.

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In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.

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Phosphatidylethanolamines are a class of phospholipids found in biological membranes.

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Phosphatidylinositol consists of a family of lipids as illustrated on the right, a class of the phosphatidylglycerides.

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Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is a phospholipid and is a component of the cell membrane.

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Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.

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Phospholipid scramblase

Scramblase is a protein responsible for the translocation of phospholipids between the two monolayers of a lipid bilayer of a cell membrane.

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Physiological condition

Physiological condition or, more often "physiological conditions" is a term used in biology, biochemistry, and medicine.

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In cellular biology, pinocytosis, otherwise known as fluid endocytosis and bulk-phase pinocytosis, is a mode of endocytosis in which small particles suspended in extracellular fluid are brought into the cell through an invagination of the cell membrane, resulting in a suspension of the particles within a small vesicle inside the cell.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Podosomes are conical, actin-rich structures found on the outer surface of the plasma membrane of animal cells.

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Postsynaptic density

The postsynaptic density (PSD) is a protein dense specialization attached to the postsynaptic membrane.

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A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein domain

A protein domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain.

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Proton pump

A proton pump is an integral membrane protein that builds up a proton gradient across a biological membrane.

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Ray Kurzweil

Raymond Kurzweil (born February 12, 1948) is an American author, computer scientist, inventor and futurist.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.

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The sarcolemma (sarco (from sarx) from Greek; flesh, and lemma from Greek; sheath) also called the myolemma, is the cell membrane of a striated muscle fiber cell.

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Science Daily

Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.

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Self-assembly is a process in which a disordered system of pre-existing components forms an organized structure or pattern as a consequence of specific, local interactions among the components themselves, without external direction.

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Semipermeable membrane

A semipermeable membrane is a type of biological or synthetic, polymeric membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion—or occasionally by more specialized processes of facilitated diffusion, passive transport or active transport.

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Seymour Jonathan Singer

Seymour Jonathan Singer (May 23, 1924 – February 2, 2017) was an American cell biologist and professor of biology, emeritus, at the University of California, San Diego.

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Sialic acid

Sialic acid is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid, a monosaccharide with a nine-carbon backbone.

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A sonicator at the Weizmann Institute of Science during sonicationSonication is the act of applying sound energy to agitate particles in a sample, for various purposes such as the extraction of multiple compounds from plants, microalgae and seaweeds.

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Sterols, also known as steroid alcohols, are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules.

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Structural motif

In a chain-like biological molecule, such as a protein or nucleic acid, a structural motif is a supersecondary structure, which also appears in a variety of other molecules.

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Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.

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Tight junction

Tight junctions, also known as occluding junctions or zonulae occludentes (singular, zonula occludens) are multiprotein junctional complex whose general function is to prevent leakage of transported solutes and water and seals the paracellular pathway.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Transmembrane protein

A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached.

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Trogocytosis (trogo; gnaw) is a process whereby lymphocytes (B, T and NK cells) conjugated to antigen-presenting cells extract surface molecules from these cells and express them on their own surface.

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Tunneling nanotube

A tunnelling nanotube or membrane nanotube is a term that has been applied to protrusions that extend from the plasma membrane that enable different animal cells to touch over long distances, sometimes over 100 μm between T cells.

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Two-dimensional liquid

A two-dimensional liquid (2D liquid) is a collection of objects constrained to move in a planar or other two-dimensional space in a liquid state.

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Van der Waals force

In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vesicle (biology and chemistry)

In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.

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Wilhelm Hofmeister

Wilhelm Friedrich Benedikt Hofmeister (18 May 1824 – 12 January 1877) was a German biologist and botanist.

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Wilhelm Pfeffer

Wilhelm Friedrich Philipp Pfeffer (9 March 1845 – 31 January 1920) was a German botanist and plant physiologist born in Grebenstein.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_membrane

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