158 relations: Acetylcholine, Action potential, Adrenal gland, Adrenaline, Allosteric regulation, Amino acid, Angiotensin, Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, Asian giant hornet, Autocrine signalling, Autoimmunity, Autoinducer, Bacteria, Bacterial outer membrane vesicles, Bacteriophage, Biological functions of nitric oxide, Biosemiotics, Bistability, British English, Caenorhabditis elegans, CAMP-dependent pathway, Cancer, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac pacemaker, Catecholamine, Cell (biology), Cell cycle, Cell division, Cell membrane, Cell Signaling Technology, Cell surface receptor, Cell–cell interaction, Cellular communication (biology), Cellular differentiation, Chemical synapse, Chloride, Cholecalciferol, Circulatory system, Commensalism, Complex system, Crosstalk (biology), Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cytokine, Cytoplasm, Diabetes mellitus, Dormancy, Electrical synapse, Embryo, Emergence, Endocrine system, ..., Endocytosis, Enzyme, Epidermal growth factor, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Epithelium, Estrogen, Estrogen receptor, Eusociality, Evolution, Extracellular, Feedback, GABAA receptor, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gap junction, Gas, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Glucocorticoid, Glycoprotein, Gonad, GRB2, Growth factor, Gut flora, Hedgehog signaling pathway, Homeostasis, Hormone, Host (biology), Host–pathogen interaction, Human iron metabolism, Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Immune system, Immunity (medical), Information processing, Intracellular receptor, Intracrine, Ion channel, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, Juxtacrine signalling, Kinase, Ligand, Ligand (biochemistry), Lipid, Lipid bilayer, Lipid signaling, MAPK/ERK pathway, Mating of yeast, Membrane vesicle trafficking, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Molecular cellular cognition, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Myc, Nanonetwork, Nervous system, Netpath, Neuromodulation, Neuron, Neuropeptide, Neurotransmitter, Nitric oxide, Norepinephrine, Notch signaling pathway, Ovary, Pancreatic islets, Paracrine signalling, Parathyroid hormone-related protein, Peptide, Peptide hormone, Pheromone, Phosphate, Phospholipid, Phosphorylation, Physiology, Protease, Protein, Protein dynamics, Protein family, Protein kinase, Protein–protein interaction, Quorum sensing, Receptor (biochemistry), Regulation of gene expression, Retinoic acid, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Scientific modelling, Second messenger system, Signal transducing adaptor protein, Signal transduction, Simulation, Soliton model in neuroscience, Stem cell, Symbiosis, Synapse, Systems biology, TGF beta signaling pathway, Thermoregulation, Thyroid hormones, Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, Tissue engineering, Transcription factor, Unicellular organism, Uterus, Vasopressin, Vertebrate, Virulence, White blood cell, Wnt signaling pathway, Yeast. Expand index (108 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering reduction–oxidation (redox) signaling and antioxidant research.
The Asian giant hornet (Vespa mandarinia), including the subspecies Japanese giant hornet (V. m. japonica), colloquially known as the yak-killer hornet, is the world's largest hornet, native to temperate and tropical Eastern Asia.
Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
Autoinducers are signaling molecules that are produced in response to changes in cell-population density.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacteria communicate among themselves and with other living forms in their environment via nano-scale membrane vesicles in their bacterial outer membranes.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide) is a molecule and chemical compound with chemical formula of NO.
Biosemiotics (from the Greek βίος bios, "life" and σημειωτικός sēmeiōtikos, "observant of signs) is a field of semiotics and biology that studies the prelinguistic meaning-making, or production and interpretation of signs and codes in the biological realm.
In a dynamical system, bistability means the system has two stable equilibrium states.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
In the field of molecular biology, the cAMP-dependent pathway, also known as the adenylyl cyclase pathway, is a G protein-coupled receptor-triggered signaling cascade used in cell communication.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
Image showing the cardiac pacemaker or SA node, the normal pacemaker within the electrical conduction system of the heart. The contraction of cardiac muscle (heart muscle) in all animals is initiated by electrical impulses known as action potentials.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
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Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the membranes of cells.
Cell–cell interaction refers to the direct interactions between cell surfaces that play a crucial role in the development and function of multicellular organisms.
Cellular communication is an umbrella term used in biology and more in depth in biophysics, biochemistry and biosemiotics to identify different types of communication methods between living cells.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin, found in some foods, and taken as a dietary supplement.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.
Biological crosstalk refers to instances in which one or more components of one signal transduction pathway affects another.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily stopped.
An electrical synapse is a mechanical and electrically conductive link between two neighboring neurons that is formed at a narrow gap between the pre- and postsynaptic neurons known as a gap junction.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB-1; HER1 in humans) is a transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Eusociality (from Greek εὖ eu "good" and social), the highest level of organization of animal sociality, is defined by the following characteristics: cooperative brood care (including care of offspring from other individuals), overlapping generations within a colony of adults, and a division of labor into reproductive and non-reproductive groups.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
A gap junction may also be called a nexus or macula communicans.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 also known as Grb2 is an adaptor protein involved in signal transduction/cell communication.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
The Hedgehog signaling pathway is a signaling pathway that transmits information to embryonic cells required for proper cell differentiation.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
The host-pathogen interaction is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level.
Human iron metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that maintain human homeostasis of iron at the systemic and cellular level.
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer.
Intracellular receptors are receptors located inside the cell rather than on its cell membrane.
Intracrine refers to a hormone that acts inside a cell, regulating intracellular events.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
The JAK-STAT signalling pathway is a chain of interactions between proteins in a cell, and is involved in processes such as immunity, cell division, cell death and tumour formation.
In biology, juxtacrine signalling (or contact-dependent signalling) is a type of cell / cell or cell / extracellular matrix signalling in multicellular organisms that requires close contact.
In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein target, such as a receptor, kinase or phosphatase, which in turn mediate the effects of these lipids on specific cellular responses.
The MAPK/ERK pathway (also known as the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) is a chain of proteins in the cell that communicates a signal from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell.
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a simple single-celled eukaryote with both a diploid and haploid mode of existence.
Membrane vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic animal cells involves movement of important biochemical signal molecules from synthesis-and-packaging locations in the Golgi body to specific 'release' locations on the inside of the plasma membrane of the secretory cell, in the form of Golgi membrane-bound micro-sized vesicles, termed membrane vesicles (MVs).
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).
Molecular cellular cognition (MCC) is a branch of neuroscience that involves the study of cognitive processes with approaches that integrate molecular, cellular and behavioral mechanisms.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
Myc is a family of regulator genes and proto-oncogenes that code for transcription factors.
A nanonetwork or nanoscale network is a set of interconnected nanomachines (devices a few hundred nanometers or a few micrometers at most in size), which are able to perform only very simple tasks such as computing, data storing, sensing and actuation.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
NetPath is a manually curated resource of human signal transduction pathways.
Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell signaling system present in most multicellular organisms.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (or PTHrP) is a protein member of the parathyroid hormone family.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Peptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteins are generally thought to adopt unique structures determined by their amino acid sequences, as outlined by Anfinsen's dogma.
A protein family is a group of evolutionarily-related proteins.
A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation).
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
In biology, quorum sensing is the ability to detect and to respond to cell population density by gene regulation.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.
Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Scientific modelling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Signal transducing adaptor proteins are proteins that are accessory to main proteins in a signal transduction pathway.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.
The soliton hypothesis in neuroscience is a model that claims to explain how action potentials are initiated and conducted along axons based on a thermodynamic theory of nerve pulse propagation.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems.
The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or thyroliberin, is a releasing hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, that stimulates the release of thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH) and prolactin from the anterior pituitary.
Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
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