92 relations: Acetylcholine, Acetylcholine receptor, Adrenergic receptor, Agonist, Bacteriorhodopsin, Biochemical cascade, CD28, Cell (biology), Cell adhesion molecule, Cell membrane, Cell signaling, Crystallography, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cytokine, Cytoplasm, Drug design, Enzyme, Enzyme-linked receptor, Ephrin receptor, Epidermal growth factor, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Eukaryote, Extracellular, Extracellular matrix, Fibroblast growth factor, Fibroblast growth factor 23, Fibroblast growth factor receptor, G protein, G protein–coupled receptor, Glycoprotein, Growth factor, Guanosine diphosphate, Guanosine triphosphate, Guanylate cyclase, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hepatocyte growth factor, Histidine kinase, Hormone, Immune receptor, Insulin, Insulin receptor, Integral membrane protein, Integrin, Ion channel, Kinase, Klotho (biology), Ligand (biochemistry), Ligand-gated ion channel, Lipid bilayer, Lipoprotein, ..., Low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor, Membrane topology, Metabolism, Monomer, Myristic acid, Nature (journal), Nerve growth factor, Neuromodulation, Neuron, Neurotransmitter, NMDA receptor, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Nutrient, Odor, Olfactory receptor, Organelle, Peptide, Pheromone, Phosphatidylinositol, Phosphorylation, Platelet-derived growth factor, Poliovirus, Protein, Protein dimer, Protein tyrosine phosphatase, Receptor (biochemistry), Receptor tyrosine kinase, SCIMP protein, Second messenger system, Serine, Signal transduction, T-cell receptor, Threonine, TM4SF5, Toll-like receptor, Transmembrane domain, Transmembrane protein, Trends (journals), Tropomyosin receptor kinase A, Tyrosine, Tyrosine kinase, X-ray crystallography. Expand index (42 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Bacteriorhodopsin is a protein used by Archaea, most notably by Halobacteria, a class of the Euryarchaeota.
A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus.
CD28 (Cluster of Differentiation 28) is one of the proteins expressed on T cells that provide co-stimulatory signals required for T cell activation and survival.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process called cell adhesion.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Drug design, often referred to as rational drug design or simply rational design, is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An enzyme-linked receptor, also known as a catalytic receptor, is a transmembrane receptor, where the binding of an extracellular ligand causes enzymatic activity on the intracellular side.
Eph receptors (Ephs, after erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular receptors) are a group of receptors that are activated in response to binding with Eph receptor-interacting proteins (Ephrins).
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB-1; HER1 in humans) is a transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
The fibroblast growth factors are a family of cell signalling proteins that are involved in a wide variety of processes, most notably as crucial elements for normal development.
Fibroblast growth factor 23 or FGF23 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF23 gene.
The fibroblast growth factor receptors are, as their name implies, receptors that bind to members of the fibroblast growth factor family of proteins.
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
Guanosine diphosphate, abbreviated GDP, is a nucleoside diphosphate.
Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.
Guanylate cyclase (also known as guanyl cyclase, guanylyl cyclase, or GC) is a lyase enzyme.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults, and is the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (or scatter factor (SF) is a paracrine cellular growth, motility and morphogenic factor. It is secreted by mesenchymal cells and targets and acts primarily upon epithelial cells and endothelial cells, but also acts on haemopoietic progenitor cells and T cells. It has been shown to have a major role in embryonic organ development, specifically in myogenesis, in adult organ regeneration, and in wound healing.
Histidine kinases (HK) are multifunctional, and in non-animal kingdoms, typically transmembrane, proteins of the transferase class of enzymes that play a role in signal transduction across the cellular membrane.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
An immune receptor (or immunologic receptor) is a receptor, usually on a cell membrane, which binds to a substance (for example, a cytokine) and causes a response in the immune system.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
The insulin receptor (IR) is a transmembrane receptor that is activated by insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II and belongs to the large class of tyrosine kinase receptors.
An integral membrane protein (IMP) is a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane.
Integrins are transmembrane receptors that facilitate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.
Klotho is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the KL gene.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly whose purpose is to transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in water, as in blood or extracellular fluid.
The low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (nerve growth factor receptor (TNFR superfamily, member 16), also called the LNGFR or p75 neurotrophin receptor) is one of the two receptor types for the neurotrophins, a family of protein growth factors that stimulate neuronal cells to survive and differentiate.
Topology of a transmembrane protein refers to orientations (locations of N- and C-termini) of membrane-spanning segments with respect to the inner or outer sides of the biological membrane occupied by the protein.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
Myristic acid (IUPAC systematic name: 1-tetradecanoic acid) is a common saturated fatty acid with the molecular formula CH3(CH2)12COOH.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance, proliferation, and survival of certain target neurons.
Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
An odor, odour or fragrance is always caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds.
Olfactory receptors (ORs), also known as odorant receptors, are expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons and are responsible for the detection of odorants (i.e., compounds that have an odor) which give rise to the sense of smell.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
Phosphatidylinositol consists of a family of lipids as illustrated on the right, a class of the phosphatidylglycerides.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of numerous growth factors that regulate cell growth and division.
Poliovirus, the causative agent of poliomyelitis (commonly known as polio), is a human enterovirus and member of the family of Picornaviridae.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
Protein tyrosine phosphatases are a group of enzymes that remove phosphate groups from phosphorylated tyrosine residues on proteins.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are the high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones.
SLP65/SLP76, Csk-interacting membrane protein, termed SCIMP, belongs to family of transmembrane adaptor proteins (TRAP) which do not directly associate with a receptor, such as LAT, NTAL, LIME or LAX.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Transmembrane 4 L6 family member 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TM4SF5 gene.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system.
Transmembrane domain usually denotes a transmembrane segment of single alpha helix of a transmembrane protein.
A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached.
Trends is a series of scientific journals owned by Elsevier that publish review articles in a range of areas of biology.
Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA), also known as high affinity nerve growth factor receptor, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1, or TRK1-transforming tyrosine kinase protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NTRK1 gene.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
A tyrosine kinase is an enzyme that can transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein in a cell.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.