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Cell wall

Index Cell wall

A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane. [1]

204 relations: Abundance (chemistry), Acetabularia, Achlya, Acid, Acid growth, Actinobacteria, Agar, Algae, Alginic acid, Amino acid, Amoeba, Animal, Apoplast, Arabinogalactan, Archaea, Aromatic sulfonation, Ascomycota, Atmospheric pressure, Autotroph, Bacteria, Bacterial cell structure, Bacteriocin, Bangia, Bark (botany), Basidiomycota, Biogenic silica, Biosynthesis, Brown algae, Calcium, Calcium carbonate, Carbohydrate, Carl Nägeli, Carrageenan, Casparian strip, Cell (biology), Cell cycle, Cell membrane, Cell plate, Cell wall, Cellulase, Cellulose, Cellulose synthase (UDP-forming), Chemical composition, Chitin, Chitosan, Chlamydomonadales, Choanoflagellate, Ciliate, Coccolith, Coccolithophore, ..., Codium, Collagen, Coralline algae, Cork (material), Cork cambium, Cross-link, Cutin, Cytokinesis, Cytolysis, Dasycladales, Dasycladus, Desulfurococcus, Diatom, Dictyochales, Dictyostelid, Dinoflagellate, Eduard Strasburger, Embryophyte, Endodermis, Epidermis (botany), Ernst Münch, Eukaryote, Expansin, Extracellular matrix, Extracellular polymeric substance, Firmicutes, Foraminifera, Frustule, Fungus, Genus, Glucan, Glycan, Glycoprotein, Glycosylation, Golden algae, Gram stain, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Green algae, Haemophilus influenzae, Halimeda, Halobacterium, Halococcus, Hemicellulose, Heterokont, Hugo von Mohl, Hydroxyproline, Hyperthermophile, Inorganic compound, Ion, Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link, Julius Wiesner, Karl Rudolphi, L-form bacteria, Lamella (cell biology), Lignin, Lipopolysaccharide, Lipoprotein, Lorica (biology), Lysozyme, Magnesium, Mannan, Mannose, Methanobacterium, Methanogen, Methanomicrobium, Methanosarcina, Methanothermus, Microfibril, Middle lamella, Mineral, Molecular biology, Morphogenesis, Mucilage, Multicellular organism, Mycoplasma, Myxogastria, N-Acetylglucosamine, N-Acetylmuramic acid, N-Acetyltalosaminuronic acid, Neutralization (chemistry), Ocean, Ocean current, Oomycete, Organelle, Orthosilicic acid, Osmosis, Osmotic pressure, Pear, Pectic acid, Pectin, Penicillin, Peptide, Peptidoglycan, Petiole (botany), Phlorotannin, Photosynthesis, Pit (botany), Plant, Plant cell, Plant cuticle, Plant pathology, Plasmodesma, Polymer, Polysaccharide, Porphyra, Prokaryote, Pronase, Protein, Protist, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudopeptidoglycan, Quince, Radiolaria, Red algae, Robert Hooke, S-layer, Salinity, Saprolegnia, Saprotrophic nutrition, Sclereid, Seaweed, Secondary cell wall, Secretion, Silicic acid, Silicon dioxide, Slime mold, Sodium, Sporangium, Spore, Sporopollenin, Structural rigidity, Suberin, Sulfate, Symplast, Taxonomy (biology), Teichoic acid, Test (biology), Testate amoebae, Theca, Thomas D. Brock, Tree, Tropaeolum majus, Turgor pressure, Ultimate tensile strength, Unified atomic mass unit, Vancomycin, Waterproofing, Wax, Wood, Xylan, Xylem, Xyloglucan, Zygomycota. Expand index (154 more) »

Abundance (chemistry)

In a chemical reaction, a reactant is considered to be in abundance if the quantity of that substance is high and virtually unchanged by the reaction.

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Acetabularia is a genus of green algae in the family Polyphysaceae, Typically found in subtropical waters, Acetabularia is a single-celled organism, but gigantic in size and complex in form, making it an excellent model organism for studying cell biology.

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Achlya is a genus of Oomycete (water mold).

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An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

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Acid growth

Acid growth refers to the ability of plant cells and plant cell walls to elongate or expand quickly at low (acidic) pH.

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The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria.

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Agar (pronounced, sometimes) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Alginic acid

Alginic acid, also called algin or alginate, is a polysaccharide distributed widely in the cell walls of brown algae, where through binding with water it forms a viscous gum.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Inside a plant, the apoplast is the space outside the plasma membrane within which material can diffuse freely.

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Arabinogalactan is a biopolymer consisting of arabinose and galactose monosaccharides.

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Aromatic sulfonation

Aromatic sulfonation is an organic reaction in which a hydrogen atom on an arene is replaced by a sulfonic acid functional group in an electrophilic aromatic substitution.

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Ascomycota is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya.

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Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).

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An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bacterial cell structure

Bacteria, despite their simplicity, contain a well-developed cell structure which is responsible for some of their unique biological structures and pathogenicity.

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Bacteriocins are proteinaceous or peptidic toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strain(s).

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Bangia is an extant genus of division Rhodophyta that grows in marine or freshwater habitats.

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Bark (botany)

Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants.

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Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya (often referred to as the "higher fungi") within the kingdom Fungi.

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Biogenic silica

Biogenic silica (bSi), also referred to as opal, biogenic opal, or amorphous opaline silica, forms one of the most widespread biogenic minerals.

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Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.

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Brown algae

The brown algae (singular: alga), comprising the class Phaeophyceae, are a large group of multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder waters within the Northern Hemisphere.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carl Nägeli

Carl Wilhelm von Nägeli (26 or 27 March 1817 – 10 May 1891) was a Swiss botanist.

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Carrageenans or carrageenins (from Irish, "little rock") are a family of linear sulfated polysaccharides that are extracted from red edible seaweeds.

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Casparian strip

In plant anatomy, the Casparian strip is a band of cell wall material deposited in the radial and transverse walls of the endodermis, and is chemically different from the rest of the cell wall - the cell wall being made of lignin and without suberin - whereas the Casparian strip is made of suberin and sometimes lignin.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell cycle

The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Cell plate

Phragmoplast and cell plate formation in a plant cell during cytokinesis. Left side: Phragmoplast forms and cell plate starts to assemble in the center of the cell. Towards the right: Phragmoplast enlarges in a donut-shape towards the outside of the cell, leaving behind mature cell plate in the center. The cell plate will transform into the new cell wall once cytokinesis is complete. Cytokinesis in terrestrial plants occurs by cell plate formation.

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Cell wall

A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.

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Cellulase is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the decomposition of cellulose and of some related polysaccharides.

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Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.

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Cellulose synthase (UDP-forming)

In enzymology, a cellulose synthase (UDP-glucose:(1→4)-β-D-glucan 4-β-D-glucosyltransferase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP-glucose and n, whereas its two products are UDP and n+1.

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Chemical composition

Chemical composition refers to the identity and relative number of the chemical elements that make up any particular compound.

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Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.

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Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1→4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and ''N''-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit).

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Chlamydomonadales, also known as Volvocales, are an order of flagellated or pseudociliated green algae, specifically of the Chlorophyceae.

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The choanoflagellates are a group of free-living unicellular and colonial flagellate eukaryotes considered to be the closest living relatives of the animals.

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The ciliates are a group of protozoans characterized by the presence of hair-like organelles called cilia, which are identical in structure to eukaryotic flagella, but are in general shorter and present in much larger numbers, with a different undulating pattern than flagella.

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Coccoliths are individual plates of calcium carbonate formed by coccolithophores (single-celled algae such as Emiliania huxleyi) which are arranged around them in a coccosphere.

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A coccolithophore (or coccolithophorid, from the adjective) is a unicellular, eukaryotic phytoplankton (alga).

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Codium is a genus of seaweed in the Chlorophyta of the order Bryopsidales.

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Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.

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Coralline algae

Coralline algae are red algae in the order Corallinales.

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Cork (material)

Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue that is harvested for commercial use primarily from Quercus suber (the cork oak), which is endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa.

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Cork cambium

Cork cambium (pl. cambia or cambiums) is a tissue found in many vascular plants as part of the epidermis.

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A cross-link is a bond that links one polymer chain to another.

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Cutin is one of two waxy polymers that are the main components of the plant cuticle, which covers all aerial surfaces of plants.

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Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process during which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells.

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Cytolysis, or osmotic lysis, occurs when a cell bursts due to an osmotic imbalance that has caused excess water to diffuse into the cell.

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Dasycladales is an order of large unicellular green algae in the class Ulvophyceae.

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Dasycladus is a genus of green algae in the family Dasycladaceae.

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In taxonomy, Desulfurococcus is a genus of the Desulfurococcaceae.

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Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.

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Dictyochales (Silicoflagellates, or Dictyochophyceae sensu stricto) are a small group of unicellular heterokont algae, found in marine environments.

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The dictyostelids (Dictyostelia/Dictyostelea, ICZN, or Dictyosteliomycetes, ICBN) are a group of cellular slime molds, or social amoebae.

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The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.

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Eduard Strasburger

Eduard Adolf Strasburger (1 February 1844 – 18 May 1912) was a Polish-German professor and one of the most famous botanists of the 19th century.

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The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.

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The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants.

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Epidermis (botany)

The word'epidermis' is a single layer of cells that covers the leaves, flowers, roots and stems of plants.

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Ernst Münch

Ernst Münch (26 November 1876 – 9 October 1946) was a German plant physiologist who proposed the Pressure Flow Hypothesis in 1930.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Expansin refers to a family of closely related nonenzymatic proteins found in the plant cell wall, with important roles in plant cell growth, fruit softening, abscission, emergence of root hairs, pollen tube invasion of the stigma and style, meristem function, and other developmental processes where cell wall loosening occurs.

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Extracellular matrix

In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.

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Extracellular polymeric substance

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) are natural polymers of high molecular weight secreted by microorganisms into their environment.

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The Firmicutes (Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure.

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Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.

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A frustule is the hard and porous cell wall or external layer of diatoms.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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A glucan molecule is a polysaccharide of D-glucose monomers, linked by glycosidic bonds.

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The terms glycan and polysaccharide are defined by IUPAC as synonyms meaning "compounds consisting of a large number of monosaccharides linked glycosidically".

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Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.

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Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).

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Golden algae

The Chrysophyceae, usually called chrysophytes, chrysomonads, golden-brown algae or golden algae are a large group of algae, found mostly in freshwater.

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Gram stain

Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram-negative).

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Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.

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Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.

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Green algae

The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.

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Haemophilus influenzae

Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.

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Halimeda is a genus of green macroalgae.

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In taxonomy, Halobacterium is a genus of the Halobacteriaceae.

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Halococcus is a genus of the Halobacteriaceae.

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A hemicellulose (also known as polyose) is any of several heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides), such as arabinoxylans, present along with cellulose in almost all plant cell walls.

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The heterokonts or stramenopiles (formally, Heterokonta or Stramenopiles) are a major line of eukaryotes currently containing more than 25,000 known species.

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Hugo von Mohl

Hugo von Mohl FFRS HFRSE (8 April 1805 – 1 April 1872) was a German botanist from Stuttgart.

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(2S,4R)-4-Hydroxyproline, or L-hydroxyproline (C5H9O3N), is a common non-proteinogenic amino acid, abbreviated as Hyp, e.g., in Protein Data Bank.

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A hyperthermophile is an organism that thrives in extremely hot environments—from 60 °C (140 °F) upwards.

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Inorganic compound

An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link

Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link (2 February 1767 – 1 January 1851) was a German naturalist and botanist.

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Julius Wiesner


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Karl Rudolphi

Karl Asmund Rudolphi (14 July 1771 – 29 November 1832) was a Swedish-born naturalist, who is credited with being the "father of helminthology".

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L-form bacteria

L-form bacteria, also known as Sam Cannon, L-phase variants, and cell wall-deficient (CWD) bacteria, are strains of bacteria that lack cell walls.

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Lamella (cell biology)

A lamella (plural: "lamellae") in biology refers to a thin layer, membrane, or plate of tissue.

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Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.

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Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.

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A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly whose purpose is to transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in water, as in blood or extracellular fluid.

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Lorica (biology)

In biology, a lorica is a shell-like protective outer covering, often reinforced with sand grains and other particles that some protozoans and loriciferan animals secrete.

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Lysozyme, also known as muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase is an antimicrobial enzyme produced by animals that forms part of the innate immune system.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Mannan may refer to a plant polysaccharide that is a linear polymer of the sugar mannose.

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Mannose, packaged as the nutritional supplement "d-mannose", is a sugar monomer of the aldohexose series of carbohydrates.

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In taxonomy, Methanobacterium is a genus of the Methanobacteriaceae.

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Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.

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In taxonomy, Methanomicrobium is a genus of the Methanomicrobiaceae.

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Methanosarcina is a genus of euryarchaeote archaea that produce methane.

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In taxonomy, Methanothermus is a genus of microbes within Methanothermaceae.

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A microfibril is a very fine fibril, or fiber-like strand, consisting of glycoproteins and cellulose.

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Middle lamella

The middle lamella is a pectin layer which cements the cell walls of two adjoining plant cells together.

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A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.

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Mucilage is a thick, gluey substance produced by nearly all plants and some microorganisms.

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Multicellular organism

Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.

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Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall around their cell membrane.

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Myxogastria/Myxogastrea (myxogastrids, ICZN) or Myxomycetes (ICBN), is a class of slime molds that contains 5 orders, 14 families, 62 genera and 888 species.

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N-Acetylglucosamine (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, or GlcNAc, or NAG) is a monosaccharide and a derivative of glucose.

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N-Acetylmuramic acid

N-Acetylmuramic acid, or MurNAc, is the ether of lactic acid and ''N''-acetylglucosamine with a chemical formula of C11H19NO8.

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N-Acetyltalosaminuronic acid

N-Acetyltalosaminuronic acid is a uronic acid.

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Neutralization (chemistry)

In chemistry, neutralization or neutralisation (see spelling differences), is a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react quantitatively with each other.

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An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.

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Ocean current

An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.

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Oomycota or oomycetes form a distinct phylogenetic lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms.

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In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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Orthosilicic acid

Orthosilicic acid is the chemical compound with formula, or.

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Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.

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Osmotic pressure

Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.

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The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae.

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Pectic acid

Pectic acid, also known as polygalacturonic acid, is a water-soluble, transparent gelatinous acid existing in ripe fruit and some vegetables.

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Pectin (from πηκτικός, "congealed, curdled") is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants.

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Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).

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Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall.

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Petiole (botany)

In botany, the petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

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Phlorotannins are a type of tannins found in brown algae such as kelps and rockweeds or sargassacean species, and in a lower amount also in some red algae.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Pit (botany)

Pits are thin portions of the cell wall that adjacent cells can communicate or exchange fluid through.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Plant cell

Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key aspects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms.

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Plant cuticle

A plant cuticle is a protecting film covering the epidermis of leaves, young shoots and other aerial plant organs without periderm.

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Plant pathology

Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).

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Plasmodesmata (singular: plasmodesma) are microscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant cells and some algal cells, enabling transport and communication between them.

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A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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Porphyra is a coldwater seaweed that grows in cold, shallow seawater.

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A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Pronase is a commercially available mixture of proteases isolated from the extracellular fluid of Streptomyces griseus.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.

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Pseudopeptidoglycan (also known as pseudomureinWhite, David. (1995) The Physiology and Biochemistry of Prokaryotes, pages 6, 12-21. (Oxford: Oxford University Press)..) is a major cell wall component of some Archaea that differs from bacterial peptidoglycan in chemical structure, but resembles bacterial peptidoglycan in function and physical structure.

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The quince (Cydonia oblonga) is the sole member of the genus Cydonia in the family Rosaceae (which also contains apples and pears, among other fruits).

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The Radiolaria, also called Radiozoa, are protozoa of diameter 0.1–0.2 mm that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into the inner and outer portions of endoplasm and ectoplasm.The elaborate mineral skeleton is usually made of silica.

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Red algae

The red algae, or Rhodophyta, are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae.

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Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.

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An S-layer (surface layer) is a part of the cell envelope found in almost all archaea, as well as in many types of bacteria.

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Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).

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Saprolegnia is a genus of water moulds often called cotton moulds because of the characteristic white or grey fibrous patches they form.

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Saprotrophic nutrition

Saprotrophic nutrition or lysotrophic nutrition is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of decayed (dead or waste) organic matter.

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Sclereids are a reduced form of sclerenchyma cells with highly thickened, lignified cellular walls that form small bundles of durable layers of tissue in most plants.

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Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.

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Secondary cell wall

The secondary cell wall is a structure found in many plant cells, located between the primary cell wall and the plasma membrane.

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Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.

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Silicic acid

Silicic acid is the general name for a family of chemical compounds containing the element silicon attached to oxide and hydroxyl groups, with the general formula n or,equivalently, n. They are generally colorless and sparingly soluble in water.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Slime mold

Slime mold or slime mould is an informal name given to several kinds of unrelated eukaryotic organisms that can live freely as single cells, but can aggregate together to form multicellular reproductive structures.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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A sporangium (pl., sporangia) (modern Latin, from Greek σπόρος (sporos) ‘spore’ + αγγείον (angeion) ‘vessel’) is an enclosure in which spores are formed.

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In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.

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SEM image of pollen grains Sporopollenin is one of the most chemically inert biological polymers.

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Structural rigidity

In discrete geometry and mechanics, structural rigidity is a combinatorial theory for predicting the flexibility of ensembles formed by rigid bodies connected by flexible linkages or hinges.

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Suberin, cutin and lignins are complex, higher plant epidermis and periderm cell-wall macromolecules, forming a protective barrier.

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The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.

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The symplast of a plant is the inner side of the plasma membrane in which water and low-molecular-weight solutes can freely diffuse.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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Teichoic acid

Teichoic acids (cf. Greek τεῖχος, teīkhos, "wall", to be specific a fortification wall, as opposed to τοῖχος, toīkhos, a regular wall) are bacterial copolymers of glycerol phosphate or ribitol phosphate and carbohydrates linked via phosphodiester bonds.

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Test (biology)

In biology, a test is the hard shell of some spherical marine animals, notably sea urchins and microorganisms such as testate foraminiferans, radiolarians, and testate amoebae.

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Testate amoebae

Testate amoebae (formerly thecamoebians, Testacea or Thecamoeba) are a polyphyletic group of unicellular ameboid protists, which differ from naked amoebae in the presence of a test that partially encloses the cell, with an aperture from which the pseudopodia emerge, that provides the amoeba with shelter from predators and environmental conditions.

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A theca (plural thecae) refers to a sheath or a covering.

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Thomas D. Brock

Thomas Dale Brock (born September 10, 1926) is an American microbiologist known for his discovery of hyperthermophiles living in hot springs at Yellowstone National Park.

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In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.

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Tropaeolum majus

Tropaeolum majus (garden nasturtium, Indian cress, or monks cress) is a flowering plant in the family Tropaeolaceae, originating in the Andes from Bolivia north to Colombia.

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Turgor pressure

Turgor pressure is the force within the cell that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall.

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Ultimate tensile strength

Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.

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Unified atomic mass unit

The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).

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Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.

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Waterproofing is the process of making an object or structure waterproof or water-resistant so that it remains relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions.

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Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.

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Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.

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Xylan (CAS number: 9014-63-5) is a group of hemicelluloses that are found in plant cell walls and some algae.

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Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.

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Xyloglucan is a hemicellulose that occurs in the primary cell wall of all vascular plants; however, all enzymes responsible for xyloglucan metabolism are found in Charophyceae algae.

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Zygomycota, or zygote fungi, is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_wall

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