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Cellular respiration

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Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. [1]

77 relations: Acetyl-CoA, Adenine nucleotide translocator, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, ADP/ATP translocase, Amino acid, Anaerobic respiration, Antiporter, ATP synthase, Biosynthesis, Brown adipose tissue, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Catabolism, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Cellular waste product, Citric acid cycle, Cofactor (biochemistry), Combustion, Crista, Cytoplasm, Cytosol, Electrochemical gradient, Electron acceptor, Electron transport chain, Ethanol, Ethanol fermentation, Eukaryote, Exothermic reaction, Fat, Fatty acid, Fermentation, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, Glucose, Glycerol phosphate shuttle, Glycolysis, Hydrothermal vent, Lactic acid, Lactic acid fermentation, Maintenance respiration, Malate-aspartate shuttle, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Methanogen, Mitochondrial matrix, Mitochondrion, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (H+-translocating), Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, ..., Nitrate, Nuclear envelope, Nutrient, Organism, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Pasteur point, Phosphate, Phosphorylation, Prokaryote, Protein, Proton, Proton pump, Pyruvate decarboxylation, Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, Pyruvic acid, Redox, Respirometry, SLC25A3, Sprint (running), Substrate-level phosphorylation, Sugar, Sulfate, Symporter, Tetrazolium chloride, Thermogenin. Expand index (27 more) »

Acetyl-CoA

Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

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Adenine nucleotide translocator

Adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), also known as the ADP/ATP translocator, exhanges free ATP with free ADP across the inner mitochondrial membrane.

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Adenosine diphosphate

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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ADP/ATP translocase

ADP/ATP translocases, also known as adenine nucleotide translocases (ANT) and ADP/ATP carrier proteins (AAC), are transporter proteins that enable the exchange of cytosolic adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Free ADP is transported from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, while ATP produced from oxidative phosphorylation is transported from the mitochondrial matrix to the cytoplasm, thus providing the cells with its main energy currency. ADP/ATP translocases are exclusive to eukaryotes and are thought to have evolved during eukaryogenesis. Human cells express four ADP/ATP translocases: SLC25A4, SLC25A5, SLC25A6 and SLC25A31, which constitute more than 10% of the protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane. These proteins are classified under the mitochondrial carrier superfamily.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Anaerobic respiration

Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2).

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Antiporter

An antiporter (also called exchanger or counter-transporter) is a cotransporter and integral membrane protein involved in secondary active transport of two or more different molecules or ions across a phospholipid membrane such as the plasma membrane in opposite directions.

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ATP synthase

ATP synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Biosynthesis

Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.

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Brown adipose tissue

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat).

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Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Catabolism

Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Cellular waste product

Cellular waste products are formed as a by-product of cellular respiration, a series of processes and reactions that generate energy for the cell, in the form of ATP.

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Citric acid cycle

The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Cofactor (biochemistry)

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.

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Combustion

Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

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Crista

A crista (plural cristae) is a fold in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.

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Cytoplasm

In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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Cytosol

The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.

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Electrochemical gradient

An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.

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Electron acceptor

An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another compound.

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Electron transport chain

An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.

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Ethanol

Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Ethanol fermentation

Ethanol fermentation, also called alcoholic fermentation, is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose into cellular energy, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products.

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Eukaryote

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Exothermic reaction

An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat.

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Fat

Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Fermentation

Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.

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Flavin adenine dinucleotide

In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism.

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Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase

Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, often just aldolase, is an enzyme catalyzing a reversible reaction that splits the aldol, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, into the triose phosphates dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P).

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Glucose

Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glycerol phosphate shuttle

The glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle is a mechanism that regenerates NAD+ from NADH, a by-product of glycolysis.

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Glycolysis

Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.

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Hydrothermal vent

A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.

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Lactic acid

Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.

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Lactic acid fermentation

Lactic acid fermentation is a metabolic process by which glucose and other six-carbon sugars (also, disaccharides of six-carbon sugars, e.g. sucrose or lactose) are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate, which is lactic acid in solution.

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Maintenance respiration

Maintenance respiration (or maintenance energy) refers to metabolism occurring in an organism that is needed to maintain that organism in a healthy, living state.

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Malate-aspartate shuttle

The malate-aspartate shuttle (sometimes also the malate shuttle) is a biochemical system for translocating electrons produced during glycolysis across the semipermeable inner membrane of the mitochondrion for oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes.

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Metabolic pathway

In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.

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Metabolism

Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Methanogen

Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.

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Mitochondrial matrix

In the mitochondrion, the matrix is the space within the inner membrane.

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Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (H+-translocating)

NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (also referred to as Type I NADH dehydrogenase and mitochondrial Complex I especially in humans) is an enzyme of the respiratory chains of myriad organisms from bacteria to humans.

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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.

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Nitrate

Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.

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Nuclear envelope

The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes which surrounds the nucleus, and in eukaryotic cells it encases the genetic material.

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Nutrient

A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

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Organism

In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Oxidative phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Oxidizing agent

In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Pasteur point

The Pasteur point is a level of oxygen (about 0.3% by volume which is less than 1% of Present Atmospheric Level or PAL) above which aerobic microorganisms and facultative anaerobes adapt from fermentation to aerobic respiration.

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Phosphate

A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Phosphorylation

In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.

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Prokaryote

A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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Proton pump

A proton pump is an integral membrane protein that builds up a proton gradient across a biological membrane.

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Pyruvate decarboxylation

Pyruvate decarboxylation or pyruvate oxidation is the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA (activated acetate) by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase.

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Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a complex of three enzymes that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA by a process called pyruvate decarboxylation.

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Pyruvic acid

Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.

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Redox

Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Respirometry

Respirometry is a general term that encompasses a number of techniques for obtaining estimates of the rates of metabolism of vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, tissues, cells, or microorganisms via an indirect measure of heat production (calorimetry).

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SLC25A3

Phosphate carrier protein, mitochondrial is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC25A3 gene.

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Sprint (running)

Sprinting is running over a short distance in a limited period of time.

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Substrate-level phosphorylation

Substrate-level phosphorylation is a metabolic reaction that results in the formation of ATP or GTP by the direct transfer of a phosphoryl (PO3) group to ADP or GDP from another phosphorylated compound.

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Sugar

Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Sulfate

The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.

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Symporter

A symporter is an integral membrane protein that is involved in the transport of many differing types of molecules across the cell membrane.

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Tetrazolium chloride

Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, TTC, or simply tetrazolium chloride (with the formula 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride) is a redox indicator commonly used in biochemical experiments especially to indicate cellular respiration.

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Thermogenin

Thermogenin (called uncoupling protein by its discoverers and now known as uncoupling protein 1, or UCP1) is an uncoupling protein found in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue (BAT).

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Aerobic cellular respiration, Aerobic glycolysis, Aerobic metabolism, Aerobic respiration, Aerobicrespiration, Cell energy, Cell respiration, Cellular Metabolism, Cellular Respiration, Energy Metabolism, Glucose metabolism disorders, Oxidative metabolism, Oxygen metabolism, Plant respiration, Respiration in plant.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_respiration

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