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Celtic languages

Index Celtic languages

The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. [1]

169 relations: Aberdeen, Affection (linguistics), Affirmation and negation, Alps, Anatolia, Anno Domini, Aragon, Areal feature, Argentina, Asturias, Austria, Balkans, Bangor, Gwynedd, Bòrd na Gàidhlig, Belfast, Belgium, Beurla Reagaird, Black Sea, Brest, France, Breton language, Brittany, Brittonic languages, Camunic language, Canada, Cantabria, Cape Breton Island, Cardiff, Celtiberian language, Celtic Congress, Celtic diaspora, Celtic languages, Celtic League, Celts, Celts (modern), Chubut Province, Cisalpine Gaulish, Common Brittonic, Comparative method, Consonant mutation, Continental Celtic languages, Coonceil ny Gaelgey, Copula (linguistics), Cork (city), Cornish language, Cornish Language Partnership, Cornwall, Corsica, Cumbric, Danube, Demonstrative, ..., Dialect continuum, Douglas, Isle of Man, Dublin, Edinburgh, Edward Lhuyd, Elba, England, English language, Ethnologue, Etruscan language, Europe, Foras na Gaeilge, Galatian language, Galicia (Spain), Gallaecian language, Gallia Narbonensis, Gallo-Brittonic languages, Galway, Gaulish language, Geography of the Alps, Glasgow, Goidelic languages, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical gender, Grammatical particle, Hallstatt culture, Holger Pedersen (linguist), Howard Hayes Scullard, Iberian Peninsula, Imperfective aspect, Indo-European languages, Infinitive, Infix, Inflected preposition, Insular Celtic languages, Intransitive verb, Ireland, Irish language, Isle of Man, Italic languages, Italo-Celtic, Italy, John T. Koch, Katherine Forsyth, Kenneth H. Jackson, Kilobyte, La Tène culture, Language contact, Language family, Language revitalization, Last speaker of the Cornish language, Lenition, Lepontic language, Ligurian language (ancient), List of language regulators, Lusitania, Lusitanian language, Lusitanians, Manx language, Megabyte, Meri Huws, Mesolithic, Middle Irish, Names of the Celts, Nantes, Ned Maddrell, Newport, Wales, Noric language, Noricum, Norte Region, Portugal, North Sea, Nova Scotia, Ofis Publik ar Brezhoneg, Old Castile, Old Italic script, Paleolithic, Passive voice, Patagonia, Paul-Yves Pezron, Periphrasis, Pictish language, Portugal, Pre-Indo-European languages, Proto-Celtic language, Rennes, Republic of Ireland, Rhaetian language, Rhine, Scotland, Scottish Gaelic, Shelta, Spain, Sprachbund, Statistics Canada, Swansea, Switzerland, Tartessian language, The Guardian, Truro, Turkey, Tuscany, Tyrol (state), Umbria, UNESCO, United Kingdom, United States, United States Census Bureau, Urnfield culture, Val Camonica, Valtellina, Verbnoun, Vigesimal, Wales, Welsh Government, Welsh language, Welsh Language Board, Welsh Language Commissioner, Welsh-Romani language, Y Wladfa. Expand index (119 more) »


Aberdeen (Aiberdeen,; Obar Dheathain; Aberdonia) is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen and for the local authority area.

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Affection (linguistics)

Affection (also known as vowel affection, infection or vowel mutation), in the linguistics of the Celtic languages, is the change in the quality of a vowel under the influence of the vowel of the following final syllable.

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Affirmation and negation

In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively and) are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.

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The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.

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Areal feature

In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Bangor, Gwynedd

Bangor is a city in Gwynedd, northwest Wales.

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Bòrd na Gàidhlig

Bòrd na Gàidhlig is the executive non-departmental public body of the Scottish Government with responsibility for Gaelic.

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Belfast (is the capital city of Northern Ireland, located on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Beurla Reagaird

Beurla Reagaird is a nearly extinct, Scottish Gaelic-based cant used by the indigenous travelling community of the Highlands of Scotland, formerly often referred to by the disparaging name "tinkers".

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Brest, France

Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany.

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Breton language

Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.

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Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.

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Brittonic languages

The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.

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Camunic language

The Camunic language is an extinct language that was spoken in the 1st millennium BC in the Valcamonica and the Valtellina, both of the Central Alps.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Cantabria is a historic Spanish community and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city.

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Cape Breton Island

Cape Breton Island (île du Cap-Breton—formerly Île Royale; Ceap Breatainn or Eilean Cheap Breatainn; Unama'kik; or simply Cape Breton, Cape is Latin for "headland" and Breton is Latin for "British") is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada.

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Cardiff (Caerdydd) is the capital of, and largest city in, Wales, and the eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom.

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Celtiberian language

Celtiberian or Northeastern Hispano-Celtic is an extinct Indo-European language of the Celtic branch spoken by the Celtiberians in an area of the Iberian Peninsula lying between the headwaters of the Douro, Tagus, Júcar and Turia rivers and the Ebro river.

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Celtic Congress

The International Celtic Congress (Ar C'hendalc'h Keltiek, An Guntelles Keltek, Yn Cohaglym Celtiagh, A' Chòmhdhail Cheilteach, An Chomhdháil Cheilteach, Y Gyngres Geltaidd) is a cultural organisation that seeks to promote the Celtic languages of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man.

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Celtic diaspora

Celtic diaspora may refer to any of the following diasporas of Celtic people.

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Celtic languages

The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.

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Celtic League

The Celtic League is a pan-Celtic organisation, founded in 1961, that aims to promote modern Celtic identity and culture in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man – referred to as the Celtic nations; it places particular emphasis on promoting the Celtic languages of those nations.

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The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Celts (modern)

The modern Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'') are a related group of ethnicities who share similar Celtic languages, cultures and artistic histories, and who live in or descend from one of the regions on the western extremities of Europe populated by the Celts.

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Chubut Province

Chubut (Talaith Chubut; Provincia del Chubut) is a province in southern Argentina, situated between the 42nd parallel south (the border with Río Negro Province), the 46th parallel south (bordering Santa Cruz Province), the Andes range to the west, and the Atlantic ocean to the east.

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Cisalpine Gaulish

The Celtic Cisalpine Gaulish inscriptions are frequently combined with the Lepontic inscriptions under the term Celtic language remains in northern Italy.

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Common Brittonic

Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.

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Comparative method

In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.

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Consonant mutation

Consonant mutation is change in a consonant in a word according to its morphological or syntactic environment.

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Continental Celtic languages

The Continental Celtic languages are the Celtic languages, now extinct, that were spoken on the continent of Europe, as distinguished from the Insular Celtic languages of the British Isles and Brittany.

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Coonceil ny Gaelgey

Coonceil ny Gaelgey (Manx Gaelic Advisory Council) is the regulatory body responsible for the Manx language.

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Copula (linguistics)

In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.

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Cork (city)

Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.

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Cornish language

Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.

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Cornish Language Partnership

The Cornish Language Partnership (Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek) is a representative body that was set up in Cornwall, England, UK in 2005 to promote and develop the use of the Cornish language.

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Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.

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Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.

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Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland.

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The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.

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Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.

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Dialect continuum

A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.

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Douglas, Isle of Man

Douglas (Doolish) is the capital and largest town of the Isle of Man, with a population of 27,938 (2011).

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Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.

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Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.

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Edward Lhuyd

Edward Lhuyd (occasionally written as Llwyd in recent times, in accordance with Modern Welsh orthography) (1660 – 30 June 1709) was a Welsh naturalist, botanist, linguist, geographer and antiquary.

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Elba (isola d'Elba,; Ilva; Ancient Greek: Αἰθαλία, Aithalia) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.

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Etruscan language

The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Foras na Gaeilge

Foras na Gaeilge ("Irish Institute"; often abbreviated to FnaG) is a public body responsible for the promotion of the Irish language throughout the island of Ireland, including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

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Galatian language

Galatian is an extinct Celtic language once spoken by the Galatians in Galatia mainly in north central lands of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) from the 3rd century BCE up to at least the 4th century CE, although ancient sources suggest it was still spoken in the 6th century.

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Galicia (Spain)

Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.

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Gallaecian language

Gallaecian or Northwestern Hispano-Celtic is an extinct Celtic language, and was one of the Hispano-Celtic languages.

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Gallia Narbonensis

Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.

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Gallo-Brittonic languages

The Gallo-Brittonic languages, also known as the P-Celtic languages, are a subdivision of the Celtic languages of Ancient Gaul (both celtica and belgica) and Celtic Britain, which share certain features.

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Galway (Gaillimh) is a city in the West of Ireland, in the province of Connacht.

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Gaulish language

Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.

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Geography of the Alps

The Alps cover a large area.

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Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.

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Goidelic languages

The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.

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Grammatical aspect

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Grammatical particle

In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.

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Hallstatt culture

The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.

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Holger Pedersen (linguist)

Holger Pedersen (7 April 1867 – 25 October 1953) was a Danish linguist who made significant contributions to language science and wrote about 30 authoritative works concerning several languages.

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Howard Hayes Scullard

Howard Hayes Scullard (February 9, 1903 – March 31, 1983) FBA, FSA was a British historian specializing in ancient history, notable for editing the Oxford Classical Dictionary and for his many books.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.

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Imperfective aspect

The imperfective (abbreviated or more ambiguously) is a grammatical aspect used to describe a situation viewed with interior composition.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.

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An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word).

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Inflected preposition

In linguistics, an inflected preposition is a type of word that occurs in some languages, that corresponds to the combination of a preposition and a personal pronoun.

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Insular Celtic languages

Insular Celtic languages are a group of Celtic languages that originated in Britain and Ireland, in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia.

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Intransitive verb

In grammar, an intransitive verb does not allow a direct object.

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Irish language

The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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Isle of Man

The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Italic languages

The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.

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In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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John T. Koch

John T. Koch is an American academic, historian and linguist who specializes in Celtic studies, especially prehistory and the early Middle Ages.

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Katherine Forsyth

Katherine S. Forsyth is a Scottish historian who specializes in the history and culture of Celtic peoples during the 1st millennium AD, in particular the Picts.

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Kenneth H. Jackson

Prof Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson CBE FRSE FSA DLitt (1 November 1909 – 20 February 1991) was an English linguist and a translator who specialised in the Celtic languages.

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The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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La Tène culture

The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857.

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Language contact

Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.

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Language family

A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.

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Language revitalization

Language revitalization, also referred to as language revival or reversing language shift, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one.

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Last speaker of the Cornish language

In the 18th and 19th centuries, there was academic interest in finding the last native speaker of the Cornish language.

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In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.

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Lepontic language

Lepontic is an ancient Alpine Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Rhaetia and Cisalpine Gaul (what is now Northern Italy) between 550 and 100 BC.

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Ligurian language (ancient)

The Ligurian language was spoken in pre-Roman times and into the Roman era by an ancient people of north-western Italy and south-eastern France known as the Ligures.

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List of language regulators

This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies.

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Lusitania (Lusitânia; Lusitania) or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian Roman province located where most of modern Portugal (south of the Douro river) and part of western Spain (the present autonomous community of Extremadura and a part of the province of Salamanca) lie.

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Lusitanian language

Lusitanian (so named after the Lusitani or Lusitanians) was an Indo-European Paleohispanic language.

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The Lusitanians (or Lusitani) were an Indo-European people living in the west of the Iberian Peninsula prior to its conquest by the Roman Republic and the subsequent incorporation of the territory into the Roman province of Lusitania (most of modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of the province of Salamanca).

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Manx language

No description.

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The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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Meri Huws

Meri Huws is the Welsh Language Commissioner.

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In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.

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Middle Irish

Middle Irish (sometimes called Middle Gaelic, An Mheán-Ghaeilge) is the Goidelic language which was spoken in Ireland, most of Scotland and the Isle of Man from circa 900-1200 AD; it is therefore a contemporary of late Old English and early Middle English.

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Names of the Celts

The various names used since classical times for the people known today as the Celts are of disparate origins.

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Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.

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Ned Maddrell

Edward "Ned" Maddrell (1877 – 27 December 1974) was a fisherman from the Isle of Man who, at the time of his death, was the last surviving native speaker of the Manx language.

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Newport, Wales

Newport (Casnewydd) is a cathedral and university city and unitary authority area in south east Wales.

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Noric language

The Noric language, or Eastern Celtic, is an unclassified Continental Celtic language.

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Noricum is the Latin name for a Celtic kingdom, or federation of tribes, that included most of modern Austria and part of Slovenia.

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Norte Region, Portugal

Norte (Região Norte,; "North Region") or Northern Portugal is the most populous region in Portugal, ahead of Lisboa, and the third most extensive by area.

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North Sea

The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

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Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.

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Ofis Publik ar Brezhoneg

The Public Office for the Breton Language (Ofis Publik ar Brezhoneg; Office Public de la langue bretonne) was established on 15 October 2010 as a public institution, with state and regional cooperation and funding, to promote and develop teaching and use of the Breton language in daily life.

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Old Castile

Old Castile (Castilla la Vieja) is a historic region of Spain, which included territory that later corresponded to the provinces of Santander (now Cantabria), Burgos, Logroño (now La Rioja), Soria, Segovia, Ávila, Valladolid and Palencia.

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Old Italic script

Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.

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The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.

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Passive voice

Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.

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Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.

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Paul-Yves Pezron

Paul-Yves Pezron (1639, Hennebont, – 9 October 1706, Brie) was a seventeenth-century Cistercian brother from Brittany, best known for his 1703 publication of a study on the common origin of the Bretons and the Welsh, Antiquité de la nation, et de langue des celtes.

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In linguistics, periphrasis is the usage of multiple separate words to carry the meaning of prefixes, suffixes or verbs, among other things, where either would be possible.

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Pictish language

Pictish is the extinct language, or dialect, spoken by the Picts, the people of eastern and northern Scotland from the late Iron Age to the Early Middle Ages.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Pre-Indo-European languages

Pre-Indo-European languages are any of several ancient languages, not necessarily related to one another, that existed in prehistoric Europe and South Asia before the arrival of speakers of Indo-European languages.

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Proto-Celtic language

The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages.

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Rennes (Roazhon,; Gallo: Resnn) is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

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Rhaetian language

Rhaetian or Rhaetic (Raetic) was a language spoken in the ancient region of Rhaetia in the Eastern Alps in pre-Roman and Roman times.

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--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.

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Shelta (Irish: Seiltis) is a language spoken by Irish Travellers, particularly in Ireland and the United Kingdom.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.

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Statistics Canada

Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.

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Swansea (Abertawe), is a coastal city and county, officially known as the City and County of Swansea (Dinas a Sir Abertawe) in Wales, UK.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Tartessian language

The Tartessian language is the extinct Paleohispanic language of inscriptions in the Southwestern script found in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula: mainly in the south of Portugal (Algarve and southern Alentejo), and the southwest of Spain (south of Extremadura and western Andalusia).

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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Truro (Truru) is a city and civil parish in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).

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Tyrol (state)

Tyrol (Tirol; Tirolo) is a federal state (Bundesland) in western Austria.

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Umbria is a region of central Italy.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Census Bureau

The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.

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Urnfield culture

The Urnfield culture (c. 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe, often divided into several local cultures within a broader Urnfield tradition.

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Val Camonica

Val Camonica (also Valcamonica or Camonica Valley, local dialect: Al Camònega) is one of the largest valleys of the central Alps, in eastern Lombardy, Italy.

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Valtellina or the Valtelline (occasionally spelled as two words in English: Val Telline; Vuclina, Valtelina); Veltlin, Valtellina, Valtulina, Vuclina, is a valley in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, bordering Switzerland.

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A verbnoun is the basic form of a verb in Celtic languages such as Welsh, and is the form usually listed in the dictionary.

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The vigesimal or base 20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the decimal numeral system is based on ten).

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Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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Welsh Government

The Welsh Government (Llywodraeth Cymru) is the devolved government for Wales.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.

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Welsh Language Board

The Welsh Language Board (Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg) was a statutory body set up by Her Majesty's Government under the Welsh Language Act 1993.

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Welsh Language Commissioner

The role of the Welsh Language Commissioner was created by the Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011 on 1 April 2012 with the appointment of Meri Huws as Wales' first Commissioner.

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Welsh-Romani language

Welsh Romani (or Welsh Romany; sometimes also known as Kååle) is a variety of the Romani language which was spoken fluently in Wales until at least 1950.

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Y Wladfa

Y Wladfa ('The Colony'); also occasionally Y Wladychfa Gymreig ('The Welsh Settlement') is a Welsh settlement in Argentina, which began in 1865 and occurred mainly along the coast of Chubut Province in the far southern region of Patagonia.

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Redirects here:

Celtic Languages, Celtic language, Celtic language family, Celtic language group, Celtic-language, ISO 639:cel, Keltic languages, List of Celtic languages, P-Celtic and Q-Celtic, P-Celtic and Q-Celtic languages, P-Celtic/Q-Celtic hypothesis, Q Celtic, Q Group, Q-Celtic, Q-Celtic hypothesis, Q-Celtic languages, Q-Celts.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtic_languages

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