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Celtic languages

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The Celtic languages (usually pronounced but sometimes) are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. [1]

136 relations: Affection (linguistics), Affirmative and negative, Alps, Anatolia, Aragon, Areal feature, Argentina, Asturias, Balkans, Bòrd na Gàidhlig, Belgium, Beurla Reagaird, Black Sea, Breton language, Brittany, Brittonic languages, Canada, Cape Breton Island, Celtiberian language, Celtic Congress, Celtic diaspora, Celtic League, Chubut Province, Cisalpine Gaulish, Common Brittonic, Comparative method (linguistics), Consonant mutation, Continental Celtic languages, Coonceil ny Gaelgey, Copula (linguistics), Cornish language, Cornish Language Partnership, Cornwall, Corsica, Cumbric language, Danube, Demonstrative, Dialect continuum, Edward Lhuyd, Elba, England, English language, Ethnologue, Europe, Foras na Gaeilge, Galatian language, Galicia (Spain), Gallaecia, Gallaecian language, Gallia Narbonensis, ..., Gallo-Brittonic languages, Gaulish language, Goidelic languages, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical gender, Grammatical particle, Hallstatt culture, Hispano-Celtic languages, Holger Pedersen (linguist), Iberian Peninsula, Imperfective aspect, Indo-European languages, Infinitive, Infix, Inflected preposition, Insular Celtic languages, Intransitive verb, Ireland, Irish language, Isle of Man, Italic languages, Italo-Celtic, Italy, John T. Koch, Katherine Forsyth, Kenneth H. Jackson, Kilobyte, La Tène culture, Language contact, Language family, Language revitalization, Lenition, Lepontic language, Ligurian language (ancient), List of language regulators, Lusitania, Lusitanian language, Manx language, Megabyte, Meri Huws, Mesolithic, Names of the Celts, New Castile (Spain), Noric language, Noricum, Norte Region, Portugal, North Sea, Nova Scotia, Ofis Publik ar Brezhoneg, Old Castile, Old European, Old Irish, Paleolithic, Passive voice, Patagonia, Periphrasis, Pictish language, Portugal, Pre-Indo-European languages, Proto-Celtic language, Republic of Ireland, Rhine, Scotland, Scottish Gaelic, Shelta, Spain, Sprachbund, Statistics Canada, Switzerland, Tartessian language, Turkey, Tuscany, Umbria, UNESCO, United Kingdom, United States, United States Census Bureau, Urnfield culture, Vigesimal, Wales, Welsh Government, Welsh language, Welsh Language Board, Welsh Language Commissioner, Welsh-Romani language, Y Wladfa. Expand index (86 more) »

Affection (linguistics)

In Celtic linguistics, affection (also known as vowel affection or infection) is the change in the quality of a vowel under the influence of the vowel of the following, final syllable.

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Affirmative and negative

In linguistics and grammar, affirmative and negative are terms of opposite meaning which may be applied to statements, verb phrases, clauses, and some other utterances.

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The Alps (Alpi; Alpes; Alpen; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across eight Alpine countries: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia, and Switzerland.

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Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.

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Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.

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Areal feature

In linguistics, an areal feature is shared by languages within the same geographical area as a consequence of diffusion.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.

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Asturias (Asturies), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.

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The Balkan Peninsula, popularly referred to as the Balkans, is a geographical region of Southeast Europe.

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Bòrd na Gàidhlig

Bòrd na Gàidhlig is the executive non-departmental public body of the Scottish Government with responsibility for Gaelic.

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Belgium (België; Belgique; Belgien), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe.

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Beurla Reagaird

Beurla Reagaird is a nearly extinct, Gaelic-based cant used by the indigenous travelling community of the Highlands of Scotland, sometimes called "tinkers".

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a sea between Southeastern Europe and Western Asia.

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Breton language

Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken in Brittany (Breton: Breizh; Bretagne), France.

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Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the north-west of France.

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Brittonic languages

The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig, yethow brythonek/predennek, yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.

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Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.

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Cape Breton Island

Cape Breton Island (île du Cap-Breton—formerly Île Royale, Scottish Gaelic: Ceap Breatainn or Eilean Cheap Bhreatainn, Míkmaq: Únamakika, simply: Cape Breton) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America.

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Celtiberian language

Celtiberian or Northeastern Hispano-Celtic is an extinct Indo-European language of the Celtic branch spoken by the Celtiberians in an area of the Iberian Peninsula lying between the headwaters of the Duero, Tajo, Júcar and Turia rivers and the Ebro river.

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Celtic Congress

The International Celtic Congress (Ar C'hendalc'h Keltiek, An Guntelles Keltek, Yn Cohaglym Celtiagh, A' Chòmhdhail Cheilteach, An Chomhdháil Cheilteach, Y Gyngres Geltaidd) is a cultural organisation that seeks to promote the Celtic languages of the nations of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man.

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Celtic diaspora

Celtic diaspora may refer to any of the following diasporas of Celtic people.

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Celtic League

The Celtic League is a pan-Celtic non-governmental organisation, founded in 1961, that promotes self-determination and modern Celtic identity and culture in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man, known as the Celtic nations.

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Chubut Province

Chubut (Provincia del Chubut,; Talaith Chubut) is a province in southern Argentina, situated between the 42nd parallel south (the border with Río Negro Province), the 46th parallel south (bordering Santa Cruz Province), the Andes range to the west, and the Atlantic ocean to the east.

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Cisalpine Gaulish

The Celtic Cisalpine Gaulish inscriptions are frequently combined with the Lepontic inscriptions under the term Celtic language remains in northern Italy.

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Common Brittonic

Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.

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Comparative method (linguistics)

In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, as opposed to the method of internal reconstruction, which analyses the internal development of a single language over time.

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Consonant mutation

Consonant mutation is change in a consonant in a word according to its morphological or syntactic environment.

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Continental Celtic languages

The Continental Celtic languages are the Celtic languages, now extinct, that were spoken on the continent of Europe, as distinguished from the Insular Celtic languages of the British Isles and Brittany.

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Coonceil ny Gaelgey

Coonceil ny Gaelgey (Manx Gaelic Advisory Council) is the regulatory body responsible for the Manx language.

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Copula (linguistics)

In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.

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Cornish language

Cornish (Kernowek or Kernewek) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language historically spoken by the Cornish people.

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Cornish Language Partnership

The Cornish Language Partnership (Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek) is a representative body that was set up in Cornwall, England, UK in 2005 to promote and develop the use of the Cornish language.

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Cornwall (or; Kernow) is a ceremonial county and unitary authority area of England within the United Kingdom.

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Corsica (Corse; Corsican and Italian: Corsica) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to France.

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Cumbric language

Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland.

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The Danube (also known by other names) is Europe's second-longest river, located in Central and Eastern Europe.

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Demonstratives are words like this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.

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Dialect continuum

A dialect continuum or dialect area was defined by Leonard Bloomfield as a range of dialects spoken across some geographical area that differ only slightly between neighboring areas, but as one travels in any direction, these differences accumulate in such a way that speakers from opposite ends of the continuum are no longer mutually intelligible.

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Edward Lhuyd

Edward Lhuyd (usually rewritten as Llwyd in recent times) (1660 – 30 June 1709) was a Welsh naturalist, botanist, linguist, geographer and antiquary.

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Elba (isola d'Elba,; Ilva; Ancient Greek: Αἰθαλία, Aithalia) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web-based publication that contains statistics for 7,472 languages and dialects in the 18th edition, released in 2015.

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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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Foras na Gaeilge

Foras na Gaeilge ("Irish Institute"; often abbreviated to FnaG) is a public body responsible for the promotion of the Irish language throughout the island of Ireland.

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Galatian language

Galatian is an extinct Celtic language once spoken by the Galatians in Galatia mainly in north central lands of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) from the 3rd century BC up to at least the 4th century AD, although ancient sources suggest it was still spoken in the 6th century.

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Galicia (Spain)

Galicia (or;; Galician and Portuguese: Galiza,, or) is an autonomous community in northwest Spain, with the official status of a historic nationality.

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Gallaecia or Callaecia, also known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania, approximately present-day Galicia, northern Portugal, Asturias and Leon and the later Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia.

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Gallaecian language

Northwestern Hispano-Celtic, or less frequently Gallaecian, is an extinct language of the Celtic family and it was one of the Hispano-Celtic languages.

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Gallia Narbonensis

Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.

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Gallo-Brittonic languages

The Gallo-Brittonic languages, also known as the P-Celtic languages, are a controversial subdivision of the Celtic languages of Ancient Gaul (both celtica and belgica) and Celtic Britain, which share certain features.

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Gaulish language

Gaulish is an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman period.

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Goidelic languages

The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha, cànanan Goidhealach, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.

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Grammatical aspect

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event or state, denoted by a verb, relates to the flow of time.

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun-class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, or verbs.

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Grammatical particle

In grammar the term particle has two different meanings.

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Hallstatt culture

The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture from the 8th to 6th centuries BC (European Early Iron Age), developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of Central Europe by the La Tène culture.

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Hispano-Celtic languages

Hispano-Celtic is a hypernym to include all the varieties of Celtic spoken in the Iberian Peninsula before the arrival of the Romans (in c. 218 BC, during the Second Punic War).

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Holger Pedersen (linguist)

Holger Pedersen (7 April 1867 – 25 October 1953) was a Danish linguist who made significant contributions to language science and wrote about 30 authoritative works concerning several languages.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe and is divided among four states: Spain, Portugal, Andorra, and France; as well as Gibraltar, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom.

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Imperfective aspect

The imperfective (abbreviated or more ambiguously) is a grammatical aspect used to describe a situation viewed with interior composition.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Infinitive is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages.

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An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word).

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Inflected preposition

In linguistics, an inflected preposition is a type of word that occurs in some languages, that corresponds to the combination of a preposition and a personal pronoun.

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Insular Celtic languages

Insular Celtic languages are those Celtic languages that originated in the British Isles, in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia.

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Intransitive verb

In grammar, an intransitive verb does not allow an object.

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel.

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Irish language

Irish (Gaeilge), sometimes referred to as Gaelic or Irish Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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Isle of Man

The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), otherwise known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency located in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Italic languages

The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family originally spoken by Italic peoples.

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In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.

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John T. Koch

Professor John T. Koch is an American academic, historian and linguist who specializes in Celtic studies, especially prehistory and the early Middle Ages.

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Katherine Forsyth

Katherine S. Forsyth is a British historian who specializes in the history and culture of Celtic peoples during the 1st millennium AD, in particular the Picts.

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Kenneth H. Jackson

Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson (1 November 1909 – 20 February 1991) was an English linguist and a translator who specialised in the Celtic languages.

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The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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La Tène culture

The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where a rich cache of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857.

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Language contact

Language contact occurs when two or more languages or varieties interact.

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Language family

A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family.

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Language revitalization

Language revitalization, also referred to as language revival or reversing language shift, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one.

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In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous (vowel-like).

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Lepontic language

Lepontic is an ancient Alpine language that was spoken in parts of Rhaetia and Cisalpine Gaul (what is now Northern Italy) between 550 and 100 BC.

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Ligurian language (ancient)

The Ligurian language was spoken in pre-Roman times and into the Roman era by an ancient people of north-western Italy and south-eastern France known as the Ligures.

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List of language regulators

This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies.

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Lusitania (Lusitânia, Lusitania) or Hispania Lusitania was an ancient Iberian Roman province including approximately all of modern Portugal south of the Douro river and part of modern Spain (the present autonomous community of Extremadura and a small part of the province of Salamanca).

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Lusitanian language

Lusitanian (so named after the Lusitani or Lusitanians) was a Paleohispanic language that apparently belonged to the Indo-European family.

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Manx language

No description.

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The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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Meri Huws

Meri Huws is the Welsh Language Commissioner.

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In archaeology, mesolithic (Greek: mesos "middle", lithos "stone") is the culture between paleolithic and neolithic.

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Names of the Celts

The various names used since classical times for the people known today as the Celts are of disparate origins.

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New Castile (Spain)

New Castile is a historic region of Spain.

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Noric language

The Noric language, or Eastern Celtic, is an unclassified Continental Celtic language.

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Noricum is the Latin name for a Celtic kingdom, or federation of twelve tribes, including most of modern Austria and part of Slovenia.

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Norte Region, Portugal

Norte (Região Norte,; "North Region") is a region in the northern part of Portugal.

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North Sea

The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

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Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland", pronounced in English as) (French: Nouvelle-Écosse) is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and constitutes one of the four Atlantic Canada provinces.

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Ofis Publik ar Brezhoneg

The Public Office for the Breton Language (Ofis Publik ar Brezhoneg; Office Public de la langue bretonne) was established on 15 October 2010 as a public institution, with state and regional cooperation and funding, to promote and develop teaching and use of the Breton language in daily life.

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Old Castile

Old Castile (Castilla la Vieja) is a historic region of Spain, which included territory that later corresponded to the provinces of Santander (now Cantabria), Burgos, Logroño (now La Rioja), Soria, Segovia, Ávila, Valladolid, Palencia.

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Old European

Old European may refer to.

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Old Irish

Old Irish (Goídelc) (sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.

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The Paleolithic (American spelling; British spelling: Palaeolithic; pronunciation: or) Age, Era or Period is a prehistoric period of human history distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools discovered (Grahame Clark's Modes I and II), and covers roughly 95% of human technological prehistory.

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Passive voice

Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.

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Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.

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In linguistics, periphrasis is a device by which grammatical meaning is expressed by one or more free morphemes (typically one or more function words accompanying a content word), instead of by inflectional affixes or derivation.

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Pictish language

Pictish is the extinct language, or dialect, spoken by the Picts, the people of northern and central Scotland in the Early Middle Ages.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa), is a country on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe.

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Pre-Indo-European languages

Pre-Indo-European languages are any of several old languages, not necessarily related to one another, that existed in prehistoric Europe and South Asia before the arrival of speakers of Indo-European languages.

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Proto-Celtic language

The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland.

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--> The Rhine is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Austrian, Swiss- Liechtenstein border, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the Rhineland and eventually empties into the North Sea in the Netherlands.

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Scotland (Scots:; Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic, sometimes also referred to as Gaelic (Gàidhlig), is a Celtic language native to Scotland.

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Shelta is a language spoken by Irish Travellers, particularly in Ireland, but also parts of Great Britain.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.

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A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.

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Statistics Canada

Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), which was formed in 1971, is the Canadian federal government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.

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Switzerland (Schweiz;Swiss Standard German spelling and pronunciation. The Swiss German name is sometimes spelled as Schwyz or Schwiiz. Schwyz is also the standard German (and international) name of one of the Swiss cantons. Suisse; Svizzera; Svizra or),The latter is the common Sursilvan pronunciation.

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Tartessian language

The Tartessian language is the extinct Paleohispanic language of inscriptions in the Southwestern script found in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula: mainly in the south of Portugal (Algarve and southern Alentejo), and the south west of Spain (south of Extremadura and western Andalusia).

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.

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Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres (8,900 sq mi) and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).

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Umbria, is a region of historic and modern central Italy.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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United States Census Bureau

The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.

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Urnfield culture

The Urnfield culture (c. 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe.

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The vigesimal or base 20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten).

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Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east, the Irish Sea to its north and west, and the Bristol Channel to its south.

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Welsh Government

The Welsh Government (Llywodraeth Cymru) is the executive branch of the devolved government in Wales.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages spoken natively in Wales, by some along the Welsh border in England, and in Y Wladfa (the Welsh colony in Chubut Province, Argentina).

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Welsh Language Board

The Welsh Language Board (Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg) was a statutory body set up by Her Majesty's Government under the Welsh Language Act 1993.

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Welsh Language Commissioner

The role of the Welsh Language Commissioner was created by the Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011 on 1 April 2012 with the appointment of Meri Huws as Wales' first Commissioner.

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Welsh-Romani language

Welsh Romani (or Welsh Romany; sometimes also known as Kååle) is a variety of the Romani language which was spoken fluently in Wales until at least 1950.

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Y Wladfa

Y Wladfa ('The Colony'), or more fully Y Wladfa Gymreig ('The Welsh Colony'), also historically and occasionally Y Wladychfa and Y Wladychfa Gymreig, is a Welsh settlement in Argentina, which began in 1865 and occurred mainly along the coast of Chubut Province in the far southern region of Patagonia.

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Celtic Languages, Celtic language, Celtic language family, Celtic language group, Celtic-language, ISO 639:cel, Keltic languages, List of Celtic languages, P-Celtic and Q-Celtic, P-Celtic and Q-Celtic languages, P-Celtic/Q-Celtic hypothesis, Q Celtic, Q Group, Q-Celtic, Q-Celtic hypothesis, Q-Celts.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtic_languages

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