412 relations: ABC-CLIO, Aberystwyth University, Alentejo, Allopatric speciation, Alphabet, Alps, Ammianus Marcellinus, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient history, Ancient Roman pottery, Animal sacrifice, Animal style, Ankara, Apennine Mountains, Aquitaine, Archaeological culture, Archaeological Museum of Kraków, Ardagh Hoard, Aristotle, Astures, Asturias, Athenaeus, Atlantic Bronze Age, Augusta, Lady Gregory, Augustus, Axe, Barry Cunliffe, Battle of Alesia, Battle of Telamon, Battle of the Allia, Bavaria, BBC Radio 4, Beaker culture, Belgrade, Bell, Berbers, Bernhard Maier, Biatec, Bibliotheca historica, Boann, Bohemia, Boii, Bologna, Book of Kells, Boudica, Bracari, Braccae, Brassard, Bratislava, ..., Breton language, Bretons, Brigid, British Iron Age, British Isles, British Museum, Brittany, Brittonic languages, Bronze, Bronze Age, Brooch, Bulgaria, Bundenbach, Canegrate culture, Canosa di Puglia, Cantabri, Cantabria, Cantabrian Wars, Cassius Dio, Castile and León, Castro culture, Cattle raiding, Cedar oil, Celtiberian language, Celtiberian script, Celtiberians, Celtic Britons, Celtic brooch, Celtic calendar, Celtic Christianity, Celtic languages, Celtic mythology, Celtic nations, Celtic polytheism, Celtic Revival, Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe, Celtic studies, Celtic Warriors, Celtici, Celts (modern), Central Europe, Cephalophore, Champlevé, Chariot, Chariot burial, Chariot tactics, Circa, Cisalpine Gaul, Citizendium, Claudius, Cloak, Clootie well, Coligny calendar, Coligny, Ain, Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Common descent, Comparative advantage, Complutense University of Madrid, Connemara, Continental Celtic languages, Continental Europe, Conversion to Christianity, Cooley Peninsula, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Cornish language, Cornish people, Cornwall, CRC Press, Cult (religious practice), Culture, Cumbric, Dacians, Danube, Deipnosophistae, Denis, Derrynaflan Chalice, Diodorus Siculus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Druid, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dun, Early Irish law, Early Irish literature, Early Middle Ages, Easter controversy, Edward Lhuyd, Egalitarianism, Egypt, Encyclopædia Britannica, Entremont (oppidum), Ephorus, Epona, Ethnic groups in Europe, Ethnogenesis, Etruscan civilization, Extremadura, Féchín of Fore, Figurine, France, Frankish language, Gaels, Galatia, Galatians (people), Galicia (Spain), Gallaeci, Gallaecia, Gallia Aquitania, Gallia Belgica, Gallia Celtica, Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Narbonensis, Gallic Wars, Gallo-Brittonic languages, Gallo-Roman culture, Gaul, Gaulish language, Gauls, Gender role, Germanic peoples, Gods and Fighting Men, Goidelic languages, Golasecca culture, Gold coin, Gospel Book, Government, Greek alphabet, Green Knight, Gregorian mission, Guanches, Gustaf Kossinna, Hallstatt, Hallstatt culture, Harvard University, Havránok, Headhunting, Hecataeus of Miletus, Helvetii, Herodotus, Hiberno-Scottish mission, High cross, Hillfort, Histories (Herodotus), History of Anglo-Saxon England, History of Rome, History of slavery, Homeland, Horace, Human head, Human migration, Iberian Peninsula, Illuminated manuscript, In Our Time (radio series), In situ, Indo-European languages, Institution, Insular art, Insular Celtic languages, Insular Celts, Interlace (art), International trade, Ireland, Irish language, Irish literature, Irish mythology, Irish people, Iron Age, Iron Age sword, Isle of Man, Italy, Jerome, John T. Koch, Julian calendar, Julius Caesar, Jupiter Column, La Tène culture, Lake Como, Lake Maggiore, Language family, Language shift, Lepontic language, Lightning, Lindisfarne Gospels, Linen, List of Celtic deities, List of Celtic place names in Portugal, List of hillforts in England, Livia, Livy, Lleu Llaw Gyffes, Loeb Classical Library, Low Countries, Lugh, Lugos, Lusitania, Lusitanian language, Lusitanians, Macha, Manumission, Manx language, Manx people, Marie Henri d'Arbois de Jubainville, Marie-Louise Sjoestedt, Marseille, Martín Almagro Gorbea, Medieval art, Middle Ages, Migration Period, Migration Period art, Milan, Military of ancient Rome, Military science, Missionary, Monastery, Monetary system, Montmartre, Monumental sculpture, Myles Dillon, Natural History (Pliny), Nora K. 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Gordon Childe, Vaccaei, Value (economics), Vercingetorix, Vettones, Vikings, Vitreous enamel, Vix Grave, Vojvodina, Volcae, Vulgar Latin, Wales, Walhaz, Waterloo Helmet, Welsh language, Welsh people, Wild boar, Wool, Works attributed to Florus, 12th century, 1st century BC, 1st millennium, 279 BC, 400 BC, 4th century, 4th century BC, 6th century BC, 8th century. Expand index (362 more) » « Shrink index
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Aberystwyth University (Prifysgol Aberystwyth) is a public research university in Aberystwyth, Wales.
The Alentejo is a geographical, historical and cultural region of south-central and southern Portugal.
Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, meaning "other", and patris, meaning "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Ammianus Marcellinus (born, died 400) was a Roman soldier and historian who wrote the penultimate major historical account surviving from Antiquity (preceding Procopius).
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Pottery was produced in enormous quantities in ancient Rome, mostly for utilitarian purposes.
Animal sacrifice is the ritual killing and offering of an animal usually as part of a religious ritual or to appease or maintain favour with a deity.
Animal style art is an approach to decoration found from China to Northern Europe in the early Iron Age, and the barbarian art of the Migration Period, characterized by its emphasis on animal motifs.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.
Aquitaine (Aquitània; Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Aguiéne), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Occitan: Guiana) was a traditional region of France, and was an administrative region of France until 1 January 2016.
An archaeological culture is a recurring assemblage of artifacts from a specific time and place that may constitute the material culture remains of a particular past human society.
The Archaeological Museum of Kraków (Muzeum Archeologiczne w Krakowie) is a historic museum in Kraków, Poland.
The Ardagh Hoard, best known for the Ardagh Chalice, is a hoard of metalwork from the 8th and 9th centuries.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The Astures or Asturs, also named Astyrs, were the Hispano-Celtic inhabitants of the northwest area of Hispania that now comprises almost the entire modern autonomous community of Principality of Asturias, the modern province of León, and the northern part of the modern province of Zamora (all in Spain), and east of Trás os Montes in Portugal.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
Athenaeus of Naucratis (Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athēnaios Naukratitēs or Naukratios; Athenaeus Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD.
The Atlantic Bronze Age is a cultural complex of the Bronze Age period of approximately 1300–700 BC that includes different cultures in Portugal, Andalusia, Galicia, France, Britain and Ireland.
Isabella Augusta, Lady Gregory (née Persse; 15 March 1852 – 22 May 1932) was an Irish dramatist, folklorist and theatre manager.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
An axe (British English or ax (American English; see spelling differences) is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape, split and cut wood; to harvest timber; as a weapon; and as a ceremonial or heraldic symbol. The axe has many forms and specialised uses but generally consists of an axe head with a handle, or helve. Before the modern axe, the stone-age hand axe was used from 1.5 million years BP without a handle. It was later fastened to a wooden handle. The earliest examples of handled axes have heads of stone with some form of wooden handle attached (hafted) in a method to suit the available materials and use. Axes made of copper, bronze, iron and steel appeared as these technologies developed. Axes are usually composed of a head and a handle. The axe is an example of a simple machine, as it is a type of wedge, or dual inclined plane. This reduces the effort needed by the wood chopper. It splits the wood into two parts by the pressure concentration at the blade. The handle of the axe also acts as a lever allowing the user to increase the force at the cutting edge—not using the full length of the handle is known as choking the axe. For fine chopping using a side axe this sometimes is a positive effect, but for felling with a double bitted axe it reduces efficiency. Generally, cutting axes have a shallow wedge angle, whereas splitting axes have a deeper angle. Most axes are double bevelled, i.e. symmetrical about the axis of the blade, but some specialist broadaxes have a single bevel blade, and usually an offset handle that allows them to be used for finishing work without putting the user's knuckles at risk of injury. Less common today, they were once an integral part of a joiner and carpenter's tool kit, not just a tool for use in forestry. A tool of similar origin is the billhook. However, in France and Holland, the billhook often replaced the axe as a joiner's bench tool. Most modern axes have steel heads and wooden handles, typically hickory in the US and ash in Europe and Asia, although plastic or fibreglass handles are also common. Modern axes are specialised by use, size and form. Hafted axes with short handles designed for use with one hand are often called hand axes but the term hand axe refers to axes without handles as well. Hatchets tend to be small hafted axes often with a hammer on the back side (the poll). As easy-to-make weapons, axes have frequently been used in combat.
Sir Barrington Windsor Cunliffe (born 10 December 1939), known as Barry Cunliffe, is a British archaeologist and academic.
The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia was a military engagement in the Gallic Wars that took place in September, 52 BC, around the Gallic oppidum (fortified settlement) of Alesia, a major centre of the Mandubii tribe.
The Battle of Telamon was fought between the Roman Republic and an alliance of Celtic tribes in 225 BC.
The Battle of the Allia was fought between the Senones (one of the Gallic tribes which had invaded northern Italy) and the Roman Republic.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history.
The Bell-Beaker culture (sometimes shortened to Beaker culture), is the term for a widely scattered archaeological culture of prehistoric western and Central Europe, starting in the late Neolithic or Chalcolithic and running into the early Bronze Age (in British terminology).
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Bernhard Maier (born 1963 in Oberkirch (Baden)) is a German professor of religious studies, who publishes mainly on Celtic culture and religion.
Biatec was the name of a person, presumably a king, who appeared on the Celtic coins minted by the Boii in Bratislava (the capital of Slovakia) in the 1st century BC.
Bibliotheca historica (Βιβλιοθήκη ἱστορική, "Historical Library"), is a work of universal history by Diodorus Siculus.
Boann or Boand (modern spelling: Bóinn) is the Irish goddess of the River Boyne, a river in Leinster, Ireland.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
The Boii (Latin plural, singular Boius; Βόιοι) were a Gallic tribe of the later Iron Age, attested at various times in Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy), Pannonia (Hungary and its western neighbours), parts of Bavaria, in and around Bohemia (after whom the region is named in most languages; comprising the bulk of the Czech Republic), and Gallia Narbonensis.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
The Book of Kells (Codex Cenannensis; Leabhar Cheanannais; Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS A. I., sometimes known as the Book of Columba) is an illuminated manuscript Gospel book in Latin, containing the four Gospels of the New Testament together with various prefatory texts and tables.
Boudica (Latinised as Boadicea or Boudicea, and known in Welsh as Buddug) was a queen of the British Celtic Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire in AD 60 or 61, and died shortly after its failure, having supposedly poisoned herself.
The Bracari or Callaeci Bracari were an ancient Celtic tribe of Gallaecia, living in the northwest of modern Portugal, in the province of Minho, between the rivers Tâmega and Cávado.
Braccae is the Latin term for trousers, and in this context is today used to refer to a style of trousers, made from wool.
A brassard or armlet is an armband or piece of cloth or other material worn around the upper arm; the term typically refers to an item of uniform worn as part of military uniform or by police or other uniformed persons.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
Brigit, Brigid or Bríg (meaning 'exalted one')Campbell, Mike See also Xavier Delamarre, brigantion / brigant-, in Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise (Éditions Errance, 2003) pp.
The British Iron Age is a conventional name used in the archaeology of Great Britain, referring to the prehistoric and protohistoric phases of the Iron Age culture of the main island and the smaller islands, typically excluding prehistoric Ireland, which had an independent Iron Age culture of its own.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
A brooch is a decorative jewelry item designed to be attached to garments, often to hold them closed.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bundenbach is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Birkenfeld district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
The Canegrate culture was a civilization of Prehistoric Italy who developed from the recent Bronze Age (13th century BC) until the Iron Age,Agnoletto, 1992 in the areas of what are now western Lombardy, eastern Piedmont, and Ticino.
Canosa di Puglia, generally known simply as Canosa (Apulian: Canaus), is a town and comune in Apulia in southern Italy, between Bari and Foggia, located in the province of Barletta-Andria-Trani.
The Cantabri (Καντάβροι, Kantabroi) or Ancient Cantabrians, were a pre-Roman people, probably Celtic or pre-Celtic European, and large tribal federation that lived in the northern coastal region of ancient Iberia in the second half of the first millennium BC.
Cantabria is a historic Spanish community and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city.
The Cantabrian Wars (29–19 BC) (Bellum Cantabricum), sometimes also referred to as the Cantabrian and Asturian Wars (Bellum Cantabricum et Asturicum), were the final stage of the two-century long Roman conquest of Hispania, in what today are the provinces of Cantabria, Asturias and León, in northwestern Spain.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
Castile and León (Castilla y León; Leonese: Castiella y Llión; Castela e León) is an autonomous community in north-western Spain.
Castro culture (cultura castrexa, cultura castreja, cultura castriega, cultura castreña) is the archaeological term for the material Celtic culture of the north-western regions of the Iberian Peninsula (present-day northern Portugal together with Galicia, Asturias, Castile and León, Cantabria and Basque Country) from the end of the Bronze Age (c. 9th century BC) until it was subsumed by Roman culture (c. 1st century BC).
Cattle raiding is the act of stealing cattle.
Cedar oil, also known as cedarwood oil, is an essential oil derived from various types of conifers, most in the pine or cypress botanical families.
Celtiberian or Northeastern Hispano-Celtic is an extinct Indo-European language of the Celtic branch spoken by the Celtiberians in an area of the Iberian Peninsula lying between the headwaters of the Douro, Tagus, Júcar and Turia rivers and the Ebro river.
The Celtiberian script is a Paleohispanic script that was the main writing system of the Celtiberian language, an extinct Continental Celtic language, which was also occasionally written using the Latin alphabet.
The Celtiberians were a group of Celts or Celticized peoples inhabiting the central-eastern Iberian Peninsula during the final centuries BC.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
The Celtic brooch, more properly called the penannular brooch, and its closely related type, the pseudo-penannular brooch, are types of brooch clothes fasteners, often rather large.
The Celtic calendar is a compilation of pre-Christian Celtic systems of timekeeping, including the Gaulish Coligny calendar, used by Celtic countries to define the beginning and length of the day, the week, the month, the seasons, quarter days, and festivals.
Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, the religion of the Iron Age Celts.
The Celtic nations are territories in western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived.
Celtic polytheism, commonly known as Celtic paganism, comprises the religious beliefs and practices adhered to by the Iron Age people of Western Europe now known as the Celts, roughly between 500 BCE and 500 CE, spanning the La Tène period and the Roman era, and in the case of the Insular Celts the British and Irish Iron Age.
The Celtic Revival (also referred to as the Celtic Twilight or Celtomania) was a variety of movements and trends in the 19th and 20th centuries that saw a renewed interest in aspects of Celtic culture.
Gallic groups, originating from the various La Tène chiefdoms, began a south-eastern movement into the Balkan peninsula from the 4th century BC.
Celtic studies or Celtology is the academic discipline occupied with the study of any sort of cultural output relating to the Celtic people.
The Celtic Warriors were a rugby union team from Wales, who played in the 2003–04 Celtic League and the 2003–04 Heineken Cup following the introduction of regional rugby union teams in Wales.
The Celtici (in Portuguese, Spanish, and Galician languages, Célticos) were a Celtic tribe or group of tribes of the Iberian peninsula, inhabiting three definite areas: in what today are the regions of Alentejo and the Algarve in Portugal; in the Province of Badajoz and north of Province of Huelva in Spain, in the ancient Baeturia; and along the coastal areas of Galicia.
The modern Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'') are a related group of ethnicities who share similar Celtic languages, cultures and artistic histories, and who live in or descend from one of the regions on the western extremities of Europe populated by the Celts.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
A cephalophore (from the Greek for "head-carrier") is a saint who is generally depicted carrying his or her own head.
Champlevé is an enamelling technique in the decorative arts, or an object made by that process, in which troughs or cells are carved, etched, die struck, or cast into the surface of a metal object, and filled with vitreous enamel.
A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.
Chariot burials are tombs in which the deceased was buried together with his chariot, usually including his (more rarely, her) horses and other possessions.
The first depictions of four-wheeled wagons pulled by semi-domesticated onagers and other available animals come from the Sumerians.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
Citizendium ("the citizens' compendium of everything") is an English-language wiki-based free encyclopedia project launched by Larry Sanger, who had previously co-founded Wikipedia in 2001.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
A cloak is a type of loose garment that is worn over indoor clothing and serves the same purpose as an overcoat; it protects the wearer from the cold, rain or wind for example, or it may form part of a fashionable outfit or uniform.
Clootie wells (also Cloutie or Cloughtie wells) are places of pilgrimage in Celtic areas.
The Coligny calendar is a Gaulish peg calendar or ''parapegma'' made in Roman Gaul in the 2nd century, giving a five-year cycle of a lunisolar calendar with intercalary months.
Coligny (Colignê) is a commune in the Ain department in eastern France.
Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (italic), also Bellum Gallicum (italic), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.
Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.
The law or principle of comparative advantage holds that under free trade, an agent will produce more of and consume less of a good for which they have a comparative advantage.
The Complutense University of Madrid (Universidad Complutense de Madrid or Universidad de Madrid, Universitas Complutensis) is a public research university located in Madrid, and one of the oldest universities in the world.
Connemara (Conamara) is a cultural region in County Galway, Ireland.
The Continental Celtic languages are the Celtic languages, now extinct, that were spoken on the continent of Europe, as distinguished from the Insular Celtic languages of the British Isles and Brittany.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
Conversion to Christianity is a process of religious conversion in which a previously non-Christian person converts to Christianity.
The Cooley Peninsula (older Cúalṅge) is a hilly peninsula in County Louth, Ireland, which includes towns such as Omeath, Carlingford and Greenore.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
The Cornish people or Cornish (Kernowyon) are an ethnic group native to, or associated with Cornwall: and a recognised national minority in the United Kingdom, which can trace its roots to the ancient Britons who inhabited southern and central Great Britain before the Roman conquest.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Cult is literally the "care" (Latin cultus) owed to deities and to temples, shrines, or churches.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland.
The Dacians (Daci; loc Δάοι, Δάκαι) were an Indo-European people, part of or related to the Thracians.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Deipnosophistae is an early 3rd-century AD Greek work (Δειπνοσοφισταί, Deipnosophistaí, lit. "The Dinner Sophists/Philosophers/Experts") by the Greco-Egyptian author Athenaeus of Naucratis.
Saint Denis was a legendary 3rd-century Christian martyr and saint.
The Derrynaflan Chalice is an 8th- or 9th-century chalice, that was found as part of the Derrynaflan Hoard of five liturgical vessels.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, Dionysios Alexandrou Halikarnasseus, "Dionysios son of Alexandros of Halikarnassos"; c. 60 BCafter 7 BC) was a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus.
A druid (derwydd; druí; draoidh) was a member of the high-ranking professional class in ancient Celtic cultures.
The Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (DIAS) (Institiúid Ard-Léinn Bhaile Átha Cliath) was established in 1940 by the then Taoiseach, Éamon de Valera under the Institute for Advanced Studies Act, 1940 in Dublin, Ireland.
A dun is an ancient or medieval fort.
Early Irish law, also called Brehon law, comprised the statutes which governed everyday life in Early Medieval Ireland.
Early Irish literature is the oldest vernacular literature in Western Europe.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The controversy over the correct date for Easter began in Early Christianity as early as the 2nd Century A.D. Discussion and disagreement over the best method of computing the date of Easter Sunday has been ongoing and unresolved for centuries.
Edward Lhuyd (occasionally written as Llwyd in recent times, in accordance with Modern Welsh orthography) (1660 – 30 June 1709) was a Welsh naturalist, botanist, linguist, geographer and antiquary.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Entremont is a 3.5 hectare archaeological site three kilometres from Aix-en-Provence at the extreme south of the Puyricard plateau.
Ephorus of Cyme (Ἔφορος ὁ Κυμαῖος, Ephoros ho Kymaios; c. 400 – 330 BC), often named in conjunction with his birthplace Cyme, Aeolia, was an ancient Greek historian.
In Gallo-Roman religion, Epona was a protector of horses, ponies, donkeys, and mules.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
Ethnogenesis (from Greek ethnos ἔθνος, "group of people, nation", and genesis γένεσις, "beginning, coming into being"; plural ethnogeneses) is "the formation and development of an ethnic group." This can originate through a process of self-identification as well as come about as the result of outside identification.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
Extremadura (is an autonomous community of western Iberian Peninsula whose capital city is Mérida, recognised by the State of Autonomy of Extremadura. It is made up of the two largest provinces of Spain: Cáceres and Badajoz. It is bordered by the provinces of Salamanca and Ávila (Castile and León) to the north; by provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real (Castile–La Mancha) to the east, and by the provinces of Huelva, Seville, and Córdoba (Andalusia) to the south; and by Portugal to the west. Its official language is Spanish. It is an important area for wildlife, particularly with the major reserve at Monfragüe, which was designated a National Park in 2007, and the International Tagus River Natural Park (Parque Natural Tajo Internacional). The government of Extremadura is called. The Day of Extremadura is celebrated on 8 September. It coincides with the Catholic festivity of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
Saint Féchín or Féichín (died 665), also known as Mo-Ecca, was a 7th-century Irish saint, chiefly remembered as the founder of the monastery at Fore (Fobar), County Westmeath.
A figurine (a diminutive form of the word figure) or statuette is a small statue that represents a human, deity or animal, or in practice a pair or small group of them.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *italic), Old Franconian or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.
The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.
Ancient Galatia (Γαλατία, Galatía) was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (Ankara, Çorum, Yozgat Province) in modern Turkey.
The Galatians (Latin: Gallograeci; Greek: Γαλάται) were a Gallic people of the Hellenistic period that dwelt mainly in the north central regions of Asia Minor or Anatolia, in what was known as Galatia, in today's Turkey.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
The Gallaeci or Callaeci were a large Celtic tribal federation who inhabited Gallaecia, the north-western corner of Iberia, a region roughly corresponding to what is now northern Portugal, Galicia, western Asturias and western Castile and León in Spain, before and during the Roman period.
Gallaecia or Callaecia, also known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province in the north-west of Hispania, approximately present-day Galicia, northern Portugal, Asturias and Leon and the later Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia.
Gallia Aquitania, also known as Aquitaine or Aquitaine Gaul, was a province of the Roman Empire.
Gallia Belgica ("Belgic Gaul") was a province of the Roman empire located in the north-eastern part of Roman Gaul, in what is today primarily Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
Gallia Celtica, meaning "Celtic Gaul" in Latin, was a cultural region of Gaul inhabited by Celts, located in what is now Switzerland, France, Luxembourg and the west bank of the Rhine in Germany.
Gallia Lugdunensis (French: Gaule Lyonnaise) was a province of the Roman Empire in what is now the modern country of France, part of the Celtic territory of Gaul formerly known as Celtica.
Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.
The Gallo-Brittonic languages, also known as the P-Celtic languages, are a subdivision of the Celtic languages of Ancient Gaul (both celtica and belgica) and Celtic Britain, which share certain features.
The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Gods and Fighting Men - The Story of the Tuatha De Danaan and of the Fianna of Ireland is a collection of tales collated by Lady Augusta Gregory.
The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.
The Golasecca culture (9th - 4th century BC) was a Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age culture in northern Italy, whose type-site was excavated at Golasecca in the province of Varese, Lombardy, where, in the area of Monsorino at the beginning of the 19th century, Abbot Giovanni Battista Giani made the first findings of about fifty graves with pottery and metal objects.
A gold coin is a coin that is made mostly or entirely of gold.
The Gospel Book, Evangelion, or Book of the Gospels (Greek: Εὐαγγέλιον, Evangélion) is a codex or bound volume containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament – normally all four – centering on the life of Jesus of Nazareth and the roots of the Christian faith.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
The Green Knight is a character of the 14th-century Arthurian poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and the related medieval work The Greene Knight.
The Gregorian missionJones "Gregorian Mission" Speculum p. 335 or Augustinian missionMcGowan "Introduction to the Corpus" Companion to Anglo-Saxon Literature p. 17 was a Christian mission sent by Pope Gregory the Great in 596 to convert Britain's Anglo-Saxons.
Guanches were the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands.
Gustaf Kossinna (28 September 1858 – 20 December 1931) was a German linguist and professor of German archaeology at the University of Berlin.
Hallstatt is a small village in the district of Gmunden, in the Austrian state of Upper Austria.
The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Havránok is an important archaeological site in northern Slovakia.
Headhunting is the practice of taking and preserving a person's head after killing the person.
Hecataeus of Miletus (Ἑκαταῖος ὁ Μιλήσιος;Named after the Greek goddess Hecate--> c. 550 BC – c. 476 BC), son of Hegesander, was an early Greek historian and geographer.
The Helvetii (anglicized Helvetians) were a Gallic tribe or tribal confederation occupying most of the Swiss plateau at the time of their contact with the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The Hiberno-Scottish mission was a series of missions and expeditions initiated by various Irish clerics and cleric-scholars who, for the most part, are not known to have acted in concert.
A high cross or standing cross (cros ard / ardchros, crois àrd / àrd-chrois, croes uchel / croes eglwysig) is a free-standing Christian cross made of stone and often richly decorated.
A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage.
The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.
Roman history has been among the most influential to the modern world, from supporting the tradition of the rule by law to influencing the American Founding Fathers to the creation of the Catholic church.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
A homeland (country of origin and native land) is the concept of the place (cultural geography) with which an ethnic group holds a long history and a deep cultural association – the country in which a particular national identity began.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
In human anatomy, the head is the upper portion of the human body.
Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.
In Our Time is a live BBC radio discussion series exploring the history of ideas, presented by Melvyn Bragg since 15 October 1998.
In situ (often not italicized in English) is a Latin phrase that translates literally to "on site" or "in position".
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
Insular art, also known as Hiberno-Saxon art, is the style of art produced in the post-Roman history of Ireland and Britain.
Insular Celtic languages are a group of Celtic languages that originated in Britain and Ireland, in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia.
The Insular Celts are the speakers of the Insular Celtic languages, which comprise all the living Celtic languages as well as their precursors, but the term is mostly used in reference to the peoples of the British Iron Age prior to the Roman conquest, and their contemporaries in Ireland.
In the visual arts, interlace is a decorative element found in medieval art.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Irish literature comprises writings in the Irish, Latin, and English (including Ulster Scots) languages on the island of Ireland.
The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity.
The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Swords made of iron (as opposed to bronze) appear from the Early Iron Age (c. 12th century BC), but do not become widespread before the 8th century BC.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
John T. Koch is an American academic, historian and linguist who specializes in Celtic studies, especially prehistory and the early Middle Ages.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
A Jupiter Column (Jupitergigantensäule or Jupitersäule) is an archaeological monument belonging to a type widespread in Roman Germania.
The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857.
Lake Como (Lago di Como or locally in Italian, also known as Lario, after the Latin name of the lake; Lagh de Còmm in Lombard; Latin: Larius Lacus) is a lake of glacial origin in Lombardy, Italy.
Lake Maggiore (Lago Maggiore, literally 'Greater Lake') or Lago Verbàno (Lacus Verbanus) is a large lake located on the south side of the Alps.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.
Lepontic is an ancient Alpine Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Rhaetia and Cisalpine Gaul (what is now Northern Italy) between 550 and 100 BC.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
The Lindisfarne Gospels (London, British Library Cotton MS Nero D.IV) is an illuminated manuscript gospel book probably produced around the years 715-720 in the monastery at Lindisfarne, off the coast of Northumberland, which is now in the British Library in London.
Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.
The Celtic pantheon is known from a variety of sources such as written Celtic mythology, ancient places of worship, statues, engravings, religious objects, and place or personal names.
In the area of modern Portugal several towns with Celtic toponymic were mentioned by ancient Greek and Roman authors.
Livia Drusilla (Classical Latin: Livia•Drvsilla, Livia•Avgvsta) (30 January 58 BC – 28 September 29 AD), also known as Julia Augusta after her formal adoption into the Julian family in AD 14, was the wife of the Roman emperor Augustus throughout his reign, as well as his adviser.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
Lleu Llaw Gyffes (sometimes misspelled Llew Llaw Gyffes) is a hero of Welsh mythology.
The Loeb Classical Library (LCL; named after James Loeb) is a series of books, today published by Harvard University Press, which presents important works of ancient Greek and Latin literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each left-hand page, and a fairly literal translation on the facing page.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Lugh or Lug (Modern Irish: Lú) is an important god of Irish mythology.
Lugos is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.
Lusitania (Lusitânia; Lusitania) or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian Roman province located where most of modern Portugal (south of the Douro river) and part of western Spain (the present autonomous community of Extremadura and a part of the province of Salamanca) lie.
Lusitanian (so named after the Lusitani or Lusitanians) was an Indo-European Paleohispanic language.
The Lusitanians (or Lusitani) were an Indo-European people living in the west of the Iberian Peninsula prior to its conquest by the Roman Republic and the subsequent incorporation of the territory into the Roman province of Lusitania (most of modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of the province of Salamanca).
Macha was a sovereignty goddessÓ hÓgáin, Dáithí.
Manumission, or affranchisement, is the act of an owner freeing his or her slaves.
The Manx (ny Manninee) are people originating in the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea in northern Europe.
Marie Henri d'Arbois de Jubainville (5 December 1827 – 26 February 1910) was a French historian and philologist.
Marie-Louise Sjoestedt-Jonval (20 September 1900 – 26 December 1940) was a French linguist and literary scholar who specialized in Celtic studies, especially Irish mythology.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Martín Almagro Gorbea (born January 5, 1946 in Barcelona) is a Spanish prehistorian.
The medieval art of the Western world covers a vast scope of time and place, over 1000 years of art in Europe, and at times the Middle East and North Africa.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Migration Period art denotes the artwork of the Germanic peoples during the Migration period (ca. 300-900).
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
The military of ancient Rome, according to Titus Livius, one of the more illustrious historians of Rome over the centuries, was a key element in the rise of Rome over “above seven hundred years” from a small settlement in Latium to the capital of an empire governing a wide region around the shores of the Mediterranean, or, as the Romans themselves said, ‘’mare nostrum’’, “our sea.” Livy asserts Titus Flavius Josephus, a contemporary historian, sometime high-ranking officer in the Roman army, and commander of the rebels in the Jewish revolt, describes the Roman people as if they were "born ready armed." At the time of the two historians, Roman society had already evolved an effective military and had used it to defend itself against the Etruscans, the Italics, the Greeks, the Gauls, the maritime empire of Carthage, and the Macedonian kingdoms.
Military science is the study of military processes, institutions, and behavior, along with the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
A monetary system is the set of institutions by which a government provides money in a country's economy.
Montmartre is a large hill in Paris's 18th arrondissement.
The term monumental sculpture is often used in art history and criticism, but not always consistently.
Myles Dillon (11 May 1900 — 18 June 1972) was an Irish historian, philologist and celticist.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
Nora Kershaw Chadwick CBE FSA FBA (28 January 1891 – 24 April 1972) was an English medievalist.
Noric steel was a steel from Noricum, a Celtic kingdom located in modern Austria and Slovenia.
Noricum is the Latin name for a Celtic kingdom, or federation of tribes, that included most of modern Austria and part of Slovenia.
North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and Merseyside.
Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.
Ogham (Modern Irish or; ogam) is an Early Medieval alphabet used to write the early Irish language (in the "orthodox" inscriptions, 1st to 6th centuries AD), and later the Old Irish language (scholastic ogham, 6th to 9th centuries).
There are roughly 400 known ogham inscriptions on stone monuments scattered around the Irish Sea, the bulk of them dating to the 5th and 6th centuries.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old European (Alteuropäisch) is the term used by Hans Krahe (1964) for the language of the oldest reconstructed stratum of European hydronymy (river names) in Central and Western Europe.
Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
Omey Island (Iomaidh) is a tidal island situated near Claddaghduff on the western edge of Connemara in County Galway, Ireland.
An oppidum (plural oppida) is a large fortified Iron Age settlement.
An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient Rome: Ancient Rome – former civilization that thrived on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paul Jacobsthal (23 February 1880 in Berlin – 27 October 1957 in Oxford) was a scholar of Greek vase painting and Celtic art.
Pausanias (Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180) was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.
Philip Mitchell is an English author, playwright, poet and translator.
The Philological Society, or London Philological Society, is the oldest learned society in Great Britain dedicated to the study of language.
A Pictish stone is a type of monumental stele, generally carved or incised with symbols or designs.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
The Po (Padus and Eridanus; Po; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Πάδος, Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy.
A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.
Politics (Πολιτικά, Politiká) is a work of political philosophy by Aristotle, a 4th-century BC Greek philosopher.
Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
Population density (in agriculture: standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Posidonius (Ποσειδώνιος, Poseidonios, meaning "of Poseidon") "of Apameia" (ὁ Ἀπαμεύς) or "of Rhodes" (ὁ Ῥόδιος) (c. 135 BCE – c. 51 BCE), was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian and teacher native to Apamea, Syria.
Potin (also known as billon) is a base metal silver-like alloy used in coins.
The pre-Celtic period in the prehistory of Central and Western Europe occurred before the expansion of the Celts or their culture in Iron Age Europe and Anatolia (9th to 6th centuries BC), but after the emergence of the Proto-Celtic language and cultures.
Prehistoric warfare refers to war that occurred between societies without recorded history.
Primitive Irish or Archaic Irish (Gaeilge Ársa) is the oldest known form of the Goidelic languages.
Primitivism is a mode of aesthetic idealization that either emulates or aspires to recreate "primitive" experience.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
This article lists the principal mountain passes and tunnels in the Alps, and gives a history of transport across the Alps.
The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
The Przeworsk culture is part of an Iron Age archaeological complex that dates from the 3rd century BC to the 5th century AD.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 308/9–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs; Latin: Pytheas Massiliensis; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).
RealPlayer, formerly RealAudio Player, RealOne Player and RealPlayer G2, is a cross-platform media player app, developed by RealNetworks.
Recension is the practice of editing or revising a text based on critical analysis.
The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
Rhiannon is a major figure in the Mabinogi, the medieval Welsh story collection.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
The River Boyne (An Bhóinn or Abhainn na Bóinne) is a river in Leinster, Ireland, the course of which is about long.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
Roman cavalry (Latin: equites Romani) refers to the horse-mounted forces of the Roman army throughout the Regal, Republican, and Imperial eras.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Royal Irish Academy (RIA) (Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann), based in Dublin, is an all-Ireland independent academic body that promotes study and excellence in the sciences, and humanities and social sciences.
A sacred grove or sacred woods are any grove of trees that are of special religious importance to a particular culture.
Saint Patrick (Patricius; Pádraig; Padrig) was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland.
The Salyes (Greek: Σάλυες) or Salluvii in ancient geography, were a Gallic confederation that occupied the plain of the Druentia (Durance) in southern Gaul between the Rhône River and the Alps.
The First, Second, and Third Samnite Wars (343–341 BC, 326–304 BC and 298–290 BC) were fought between the Roman Republic and the Samnites, who lived on a stretch of the Apennine Mountains to the south of Rome and the north of the Lucanians.
Samnium (Sannio) is a Latin exonym for a region of Southern Italy anciently inhabited by the Samnites.
The Scamozzina culture (Italian Cultura della Scamozzina), which takes its name from the necropolis found in Cascina Scamozzina of Albairate, was a prehistoric civilization of Italy that developed between the end of the middle Bronze Age and the beginning of the late Bronze Age (14th and 13th century BC), in western Lombardy and Piedmont.
The Scordisci (Σκορδίσκοι, Скордисци) were a Celtic Iron Age tribe centered in the territory of present-day Serbia, at the confluence of the Savus (Sava), Dravus (Drava) and Danube rivers.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.
The Senones (Σήνωνες) were an ancient Celtic Gallic culture.
A sexual norm can refer to a personal or a social norm.
A shrine (scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French: escrin "box or case") is a holy or sacred place, which is dedicated to a specific deity, ancestor, hero, martyr, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped.
Silver coins are possibly the oldest mass-produced form of coinage.
Singidunum (Сингидунум/Singidunum, from Celtic *Sindi-dūn-) is the name for the ancient city which evolved into Belgrade, the capital of Serbia.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slavery in the ancient world, from the earliest known recorded evidence in Sumer to the pre-medieval Antiquity Mediterranean cultures, comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.
South West Scotland is an ambiguous term that can include Ayrshire, Galloway, Dumfriesshire, the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, as well as Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire.
Southern France or the South of France, colloquially known as le Midi, is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, Spain, the Mediterranean, and Italy.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The spatha was a type of straight and long sword, measuring between, in use in the territory of the Roman Empire during the 1st to 6th centuries AD.
Stephen Oppenheimer (born 1947) is a British paediatrician, geneticist, and writer.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Sub-Roman Britain is the transition period between the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century around CE 235 (and the subsequent collapse and end of Roman Britain), until the start of the Early Medieval period.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
The Synod of Whitby (664 A.D.) was a Northumbrian synod where King Oswiu of Northumbria ruled that his kingdom would calculate Easter and observe the monastic tonsure according to the customs of Rome, rather than the customs practised by Irish monks at Iona and its satellite institutions.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
Tanistry is a Gaelic system for passing on titles and lands.
The Tara Brooch is a Celtic brooch of the pseudo-penannular type, made in 650 to 750 AD.
The Tartessian language is the extinct Paleohispanic language of inscriptions in the Southwestern script found in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula: mainly in the south of Portugal (Algarve and southern Alentejo), and the southwest of Spain (south of Extremadura and western Andalusia).
Táin Bó Cúailnge ("the driving-off of cows of Cooley", commonly known as The Cattle Raid of Cooley or The Táin) is a legendary tale from early Irish literature which is often considered an epic, although it is written primarily in prose rather than verse.
Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) is a publisher of illustrated books on art, architecture, design, and visual culture.
The Dagda (An Dagda) is an important god in Irish mythology.
The Morrígan or Mórrígan, also known as Morrígu, is a figure from Irish mythology.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tintignac is a hamlet near Naves in the Corrèze region of France.
The Tisza or Tisa is one of the main rivers of Central Europe.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
A torc, also spelled torq or torque, is a large rigid or stiff neck ring in metal, made either as a single piece or from strands twisted together.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
In cultural anthropology and cultural geography, cultural diffusion, as conceptualized by Leo Frobenius in his 1897/98 publication Der westafrikanische Kulturkreis, is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages—between individuals, whether within a single culture or from one culture to another.
Trees are significant in many of the world's mythologies and religions, and have been given deep and sacred meanings throughout the ages.
The Treveri or Treviri were a Belgic tribe who inhabited the lower valley of the Moselle from around 150 BCE, if not earlier, until their displacement by the Franks.
A tribal name is a name of an ethnic tribe —usually of ancient origin, which represented its self-identity.
A triskelion or triskele is a motif consisting of a triple spiral exhibiting rotational symmetry.
The Tumulus culture (Hügelgräberkultur) dominated Central Europe during the Middle Bronze Age (c. 1600 to 1200 BC).
A tunic is any of several types of garment for the body, usually simple in style, reaching from the shoulders to a length somewhere between the hips and the ankles.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Umbria is a region of central Italy.
The Únětice culture (Czech Únětická kultura, German Aunjetitzer Kultur, Polish Kultura unietycka) is an archaeological culture at the start of the Central European Bronze Age, dated roughly to about 2300–1600BC.
Universal Publishers is the parent publishing company of three non-fiction book imprints specializing in nonfiction, how-to, technical and academic titles (Universal-Publishers, BrownWalker Press & Dissertation.com).
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
The University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee (also known as UW–Milwaukee, UWM or Milwaukee) is a public urban research university located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States.
The Urnfield culture (c. 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe, often divided into several local cultures within a broader Urnfield tradition.
Vere Gordon Childe (14 April 1892 – 19 October 1957), better known as V. Gordon Childe, was an Australian archaeologist and philologist who specialized in the study of European prehistory.
The Vaccaei or Vaccei were a pre-Roman Celtic people of Spain, who inhabited the sedimentary plains of the central Duero valley, in the Meseta Central of northern Hispania (specifically in Castile and León).
Economic value is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service to an economic agent.
Vercingetorix (– 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe; he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars.
The Vettones (Greek: Ouettones) were a pre-Roman people of the Iberian Peninsula of possibly Celtic ethnicity.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.
The Vix Grave is a burial mound near the village of Vix in northern Burgundy.
Vojvodina (Serbian and Croatian: Vojvodina; Војводина; Pannonian Rusyn: Войводина; Vajdaság; Slovak and Czech: Vojvodina; Voivodina), officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; see Names in other languages), is an autonomous province of Serbia, located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain.
The Volcae were a tribal confederation constituted before the raid of combined Gauls that invaded Macedonia c. 270 BC and fought the assembled Greeks at the Battle of Thermopylae in 279 BC.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
*Walhaz is a reconstructed Proto-Germanic word meaning "foreigner", "stranger", "Roman", "Romance-speaker", or "Celtic-speaker".
The Waterloo Helmet (also known as the Waterloo Bridge Helmet) is a pre-Roman Celtic bronze ceremonial horned helmet with repoussé decoration in the La Tène style, dating to circa 150–50 BC, that was found in 1868 in the River Thames by Waterloo Bridge in London, England.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
The Welsh (Cymry) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Wales, Welsh culture, Welsh history, and the Welsh language.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
There are 3 main sets of works attributed to Florus (a Roman cognomen): Virgilius orator an poeta, an Epitome of Roman History and a collection of poems (26 tetrameters, and 5 hexameters about roses).
The 12th century is the period from 1101 to 1200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.
The 1st century BC, also known as the last century BC, started on the first day of 100 BC and ended on the last day of 1 BC.
The first millennium was a period of time that began on January 1, AD 1, and ended on December 31, AD 1000, of the Julian calendar.
Year 279 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
Year 400 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar.
The 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini/Common era) was the time period which lasted from 301 to 400.
The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC.
The 6th century BC started the first day of 600 BC and ended the last day of 501 BC.
The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.
Ancient Celt, Ancient Celtic culture, Ancient Celts, Celt, Celtae, Celtia, Celtic Civilization, Celtic civilization, Celtic era, Celtic history, Celtic people, Celtic peoples, Celtic weapons, Continental Celts, Keltoi, Kelts, Origins of the Celtic peoples, The Celts.