166 relations: Adhesive, Agricultural lime, Alite, Alkali, Allergic contact dermatitis, Aluminium silicate, Ancient Macedonians, Ancient Rome, Anhydrite, Argillaceous minerals, Asphalt, Atlantic coastal plain, Atmospheric pressure, Baiae, Baths of Caracalla, Bauxite, Belite, BET theory, Binder (material), Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Brick, Brooklyn Bridge, Brownmillerite, Burn, Cadmium, Calcination, Calcium aluminate cements, Calcium carbonate, Calcium hydroxide, Calcium oxide, Calcium silicate, Canal, Carbon dioxide, Carbonation, Catskill Aqueduct, Cement chemist notation, Cement industry in China, Cement industry in the United States, Cement render, Chalk, Chemical reaction, Chile, Chlormayenite, Chromate and dichromate, Chromium, Civil engineer, Clay, Clay minerals, Clinker (cement), CNN, ..., Co-processing, Concrete, Concretion, Construction aggregate, Corrosive substance, Dolostone, Dome, Eco-cement, Economic growth, Eddystone Lighthouse, Energetically modified cement, England, English Channel, Ettringite, Exothermic process, Fly ash, Fortification, Freezing, Galena, Geopolymer, Geopolymer cement, Gravel, Ground granulated blast-furnace slag, Grout, Gypsum, Harbor, Heavy metals, Hydrate, Hydraulic lime, India, Industrial Revolution, Inorganic compound, Iron(II) sulfate, Isaac Charles Johnson, Isle of Portland, Italy, James Frost (cement maker), James Parker (cement maker), John Smeaton, Joseph Aspdin, Joule, Kalina cycle, Kent, Kiln, Lead, Lime (material), Lime mortar, Limestone, Louis Vicat, Masonry, Material, Mercury (element), Metakaolin, Mexico, Midden, Middle Ages, Millstone, Minoan civilization, Mortar (masonry), Mucous membrane, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, New Paltz, New York, Nickel, Nodule (geology), Northfleet, Pantheon, Rome, Philippines, Physical strength, Portland cement, Portland Cement Association, Portland stone, Pozzolan, Pozzolana, Pozzolanic activity, Pozzuoli, Pyrite, Quarry, Roman aqueduct, Roman cement, Roman concrete, Roman engineering, Rome, Rosendale cement, Rosendale, New York, Rotary kiln, Sand, Santorini, Selenium, Shale, Shipyard, Silica fume, Sintering, Smeaton's Tower, Sorel cement, Sphalerite, Sporosarcina pasteurii, Stanislas Sorel, Statue of Liberty, Stucco, Sulfide, Tabby concrete, The New York Times, Thermosetting polymer, Tiocem, Tricalcium aluminate, United Kingdom, United States Capitol, University of Edinburgh, Urine, Void (composites), Volcanic ash, Water, William Aspdin, World Business Council for Sustainable Development, Ye'elimite, Zinc. Expand index (116 more) » « Shrink index
An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.
Agricultural lime, also called aglime, agricultural limestone, garden lime or liming, is a soil additive made from pulverized limestone or chalk.
Alite is a name for tricalcium silicate, Ca3SiO5, sometimes formulated as 3CaO·SiO2 (C3S in cement chemist notation, CCN).
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a form of contact dermatitis that is the manifestation of an allergic response caused by contact with a substance; the other type being irritant contact dermatitis (ICD).
Aluminium silicate (or aluminum silicate) is a name commonly applied to chemical compounds which are derived from aluminium oxide, Al2O3 and silicon dioxide, SiO2 which may be anhydrous or hydrated, naturally occurring as minerals or synthetic.
The Macedonians (Μακεδόνες, Makedónes) were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of mainland Greece.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anhydrite is a mineral—anhydrous calcium sulfate, CaSO4.
Argillaceous minerals may appear silvery upon optical reflection and are minerals containing substantial amounts of clay-like components (ἄργιλλος.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
The Atlantic coastal plain is a physiographic region of low relief along the East Coast of the United States.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
Baiae (Baia; Baia) was an ancient Roman town situated on the northwest shore of the Gulf of Naples, and now in the comune of Bacoli.
The Baths of Caracalla (Terme di Caracalla) in Rome, Italy, were the city's second largest Roman public baths, or thermae, likely built between AD 212 (or 211) and 216/217, during the reigns of emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
Belite is an industrial mineral important in Portland cement manufacture.
Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) theory aims to explain the physical adsorption of gas molecules on a solid surface and serves as the basis for an important analysis technique for the measurement of the specific surface area of materials.
A binder or binding agent is any material or substance that holds or draws other materials together to form a cohesive whole mechanically, chemically, by adhesion or cohesion.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and fatal neurodegenerative disease in cattle that may be passed to humans who have eaten infected flesh.
A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction.
The Brooklyn Bridge is a hybrid cable-stayed/suspension bridge in New York City and is one of the oldest roadway bridges in the United States.
Brownmillerite is a rare oxide mineral with chemical formula Ca2(Al,Fe)2O5.
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
The IUPAC defines calcination as "heating to high temperatures in air or oxygen".
Calcium aluminate cements are cements consisting predominantly of hydraulic calcium aluminates.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Calcium silicate is the chemical compound Ca2SiO4, also known as calcium orthosilicate and is sometimes formulated as 2CaO·SiO2.
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbonation refers to reactions of carbon dioxide to give carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acid.
The Catskill Aqueduct, part of the New York City water supply system, brings water from the Catskill Mountains to Yonkers where it connects to other parts of the system.
Cement chemist notation (CCN) was developed to simplify the formulas cement chemists use on a daily basis.
The cement industry in China is the largest in the world, producing 2462 Mt in 2014, an annual increase of 2.6%.
The cement industry in the United States produced of cement in 2015, worth US$9.8 billion, and was used to manufacture concrete worth about US$50 billion.
Cement rendering is the application of a premixed layer of sand and cement to brick, cement, stone, or mud brick.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Chlormayenite (after Mayen, Germany), Ca12Al14O32, is a rare calcium aluminium oxide mineral of cubic symmetry.
Chromate salts contain the chromate anion,.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering – the application of planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating infrastructures while protecting the public and environmental health, as well as improving existing infrastructures that have been neglected.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces.
Typical clinker nodules Hot clinker In the manufacture of Portland cement, clinker occurs as lumps or nodules, usually to in diameter, produced by sintering (fused together without melting to the point of liquefaction) limestone and aluminosilicate materials such as clay during the cement kiln stage.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Co-processing is the use of waste as raw material, or as a source of energy, or both to replace natural mineral resources (material recycling) and fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and gas (energy recovery) in industrial processes, mainly in energy intensive industries (EII) such as cement, lime, steel, glass, and power generation.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
A concretion is a hard, compact mass of matter formed by the precipitation of mineral cement within the spaces between particles, and is found in sedimentary rock or soil.
Construction aggregate, or simply "aggregate", is a broad category of coarse to medium grained particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates.
A corrosive substance is one that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact.
Dolostone or dolomite rock is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2.
Interior view upward to the Byzantine domes and semi-domes of Hagia Sophia. See Commons file for annotations. A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere.
Eco-Cement is a brand-name for a type of cement which incorporates reactive magnesia (sometimes called caustic calcined magnesia or magnesium oxide, MgO), another hydraulic cement such as Portland cement, and optionally pozzolans and industrial by-products, to reduce the environmental impact relative to conventional cement.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
The Eddystone Lighthouse is on the dangerous Eddystone Rocks, south of Rame Head, England, United Kingdom.
Energetically modified cements (EMC) are a class of cementitious materials made from pozzolans (e.g. fly ash, volcanic ash, pozzolana), silica sand, blast furnace slag, or Portland cement (or blends of these ingredients).
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
Ettringite is a hydrous calcium aluminium sulfate mineral with formula: Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
Fly ash, also known as "pulverised fuel ash" in the United Kingdom, is a coal combustion product that is composed of the particulates (fine particles of burned fuel) that are driven out of coal-fired boilers together with the flue gases.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
Freezing, or solidification, is a phase transition in which a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point.
Galena, also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide.
Geopolymers are inorganic, typically ceramic, materials that form long-range, covalently bonded, non-crystalline (amorphous) networks.
Geopolymer cement is a binding system that hardens at room temperature, similar to the more widely-known Portland cement.
Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.
Ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS or GGBFS) is obtained by quenching molten iron slag (a by-product of iron and steel-making) from a blast furnace in water or steam, to produce a glassy, granular product that is then dried and ground into a fine powder.
Grout is a fluid form of concrete used to fill gaps.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
Hydraulic lime (HL) is a general term for varieties of lime (calcium oxide), or slaked lime (calcium hydroxide), used to make lime mortar which set through hydration.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
Iron(II) sulfate (British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate denotes a range of salts with the formula FeSO4·xH2O.
Isaac Charles Johnson (28 January 1811 – 29 November 1911) was a British cement manufacturer, and a pioneer of the Portland cement industry.
The Isle of Portland is a limestone tied island, long by wide, in the English Channel.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
James Frost (1780?-1840?) was a British cement manufacturer who invented processes that led to the eventual development of Portland cement.
James Parker was a British clergyman and cement manufacturer who invented one of the pioneering new cements of the late eighteenth century.
John Smeaton (8 June 1724 – 28 October 1792) was a British civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and lighthouses.
Joseph Aspdin (December 1778 – 20 March 1855) was an English cement manufacturer who obtained the patent for Portland cement on 21 October 1824.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
The Kalina cycle, developed by Dr.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
A kiln (or, originally pronounced "kill", with the "n" silent) is a thermally insulated chamber, a type of oven, that produces temperatures sufficient to complete some process, such as hardening, drying, or chemical changes.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which oxides, and hydroxides predominate.
Lime mortar is composed of lime and an aggregate such as sand, mixed with water.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Louis Vicat (31 March 1786, Nevers – 10 April 1861, Grenoble) French engineer.
Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves.
Material is a broad term for a chemical substance or mixture of substances that constitute a thing.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Metakaolin is the anhydrous calcined form of the clay mineral kaolinite.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
A midden (also kitchen midden or shell heap) is an old dump for domestic waste which may consist of animal bone, human excrement, botanical material, mollusc shells, sherds, lithics (especially debitage), and other artifacts and ecofacts associated with past human occupation.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Millstones or mill stones are stones used in gristmills, for grinding wheat or other grains.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.
Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving - abbr. PBL) is a Dutch research institute that advises the Dutch government on environmental policy and regional planning issues.
New Paltz is a town in Ulster County, New York, United States.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
In sedimentology and geology, a nodule is small, irregularly rounded knot, mass, or lump of a mineral or mineral aggregate that typically has a contrasting composition, such as a pyrite nodule in coal, a chert nodule in limestone, or a phosphorite nodule in marine shale, from the enclosing sediment or sedimentary rock.
Northfleet is a town in the Gravesham Borough of Kent.
The Pantheon (or; Pantheum,Although the spelling Pantheon is standard in English, only Pantheum is found in classical Latin; see, for example, Pliny, Natural History: "Agrippae Pantheum decoravit Diogenes Atheniensis". See also Oxford Latin Dictionary, s.v. "Pantheum"; Oxford English Dictionary, s.v.: "post-classical Latin pantheon a temple consecrated to all the gods (6th cent.; compare classical Latin pantheum". from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, " of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a church, in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). It was completed by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down. The building is circular with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same,. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history, and since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio; in 2013 it was visited by over 6 million people. The Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. Nevertheless, it became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, and has been copied many times by later architects.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Physical strength is the measure of an animal's exertion of force on physical objects.
Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout.
Portland Cement Association is a non-profit organization that promotes the use of concrete.
Portland stone is a limestone from the Tithonian stage of the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset.
Pozzolans are a broad class of siliceous or siliceous and aluminous materials which, in themselves, possess little or no cementitious value but which will, in finely divided form and in the presence of water, react chemically with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperature to form compounds possessing cementitious properties.
Pozzolana, also known as pozzolanic ash (pulvis puteolanus in Latin), is a natural siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material which reacts with calcium hydroxide in the presence of water at room temperature (cf. pozzolanic reaction).
The pozzolanic activity is a measure for the degree of reaction over time or the reaction rate between a pozzolan and Ca2+ or Ca(OH)2 in the presence of water.
Pozzuoli is a city and comune of the Metropolitan City of Naples, in the Italian region of Campania.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
A quarry is a place from which dimension stone, rock, construction aggregate, riprap, sand, gravel, or slate has been excavated from the ground.
The Romans constructed aqueducts throughout their Empire, to bring water from outside sources into cities and towns.
Roman cement is a substance developed by James Parker in the 1780s, being patented in 1796.
Roman concrete, also called opus caementicium, was a material used in construction during the late Roman Republic until the fading of the Roman Empire.
Romans are famous for their advanced engineering accomplishments, although some of their own inventions were improvements on older ideas, concepts and inventions.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rosendale cement generally refers to a type of natural cement that was produced in and around Rosendale, New York, from argillaceous limestone, but is a term that has had different definitions at different times.
Rosendale is a town in the center of Ulster County, New York, United States.
A rotary kiln is a pyroprocessing device used to raise materials to a high temperature (calcination) in a continuous process.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Santorini (Σαντορίνη), classically Thera (English pronunciation), and officially Thira (Greek: Θήρα), is an island in the southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km (120 mi) southeast of Greece's mainland.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
A shipyard (also called a dockyard) is a place where ships are built and repaired.
Silica fume, also known as microsilica, (CAS number 69012-64-2, EINECS number 273-761-1) is an amorphous (non-crystalline) polymorph of silicon dioxide, silica.
Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.
Smeaton's Tower is a memorial to celebrated civil engineer John Smeaton, designer of the third and most notable Eddystone Lighthouse.
Sorel cement (also known as magnesia cement) is a non-hydraulic cement first produced by Frenchman Stanislas Sorel in 1867.
Sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc.
Sporosarcina pasteurii formerly known as Bacillus pasteurii from older taxonomies, is a bacterium with the ability to precipitate calcite and solidify sand given a calcium source and urea, through the process of microbiologically induced calcite precipitation or biological cementation.
Stanislas Sorel (born 1803, Putanges, France; died 18 March 1871, Paris) was a French engineer, raised the son of a poor clock-maker.
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States.
Stucco or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder and water.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Tabby is a type of concrete made by burning oyster shells to create lime, then mixing it with water, sand, ash and broken oyster shells.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
A thermoset, also called a thermosetting plastic, is a plastic that is irreversibly cured from a soft solid or viscous liquid, prepolymer or resin.
TioCem is a specialized cement with photocatalytic features, used on the surface of buildings to reduce air pollution caused by exposure of the cement to ultraviolet light (UV).
Tricalcium aluminate Ca3Al2O6, often formulated as 3CaO·Al2O3 to highlight the proportions of the oxides from which it is made, is the most basic of the calcium aluminates.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
A void is a pore that remains unoccupied in a composite material.
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
William Aspdin (23 September 1815 – 11 April 1864) was an English cement manufacturer, and a pioneer of the Portland cement industry.
The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) is a CEO-led, global advocacy association of some 200 international companies dealing exclusively with business and sustainable development.
Ye'elimite is the naturally occurring form of calcium sulfoaluminate, Ca4(AlO2)6SO4.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.