293 relations: Acapulco, Act of Independence of Central America, Active fault, Agustín de Iturbide, Alaska, Alcyonacea, Amandala, American Free Press, Americas, Americas (terminology), Anteater, Antigua Guatemala, Antilles, Arenal Volcano, Aztecs, Óscar Arias, Banana republic, Bare-necked umbrellabird, Belize, Belize Barrier Reef, Belizean Creole, Belmopan, Biodiversity, Biodiversity hotspot, Biome, Bird migration, Black guan, Black people, Bogotá, Bolívar's campaign to liberate New Granada, British Honduras, Cantons of Costa Rica, Captaincies of the Spanish Empire, Captaincy General of Guatemala, Cardamom, Caribbean, Caribbean Plate, Caribbean Sea, Catholic Church, Cayman Trough, Central America Volcanic Arc, Central American and Caribbean Games, Central American Bank for Economic Integration, Central American Football Union, Central American Games, Central American Integration System, Central American montane forests, Central American music, Central American Parliament, Central American pine-oak forests, ..., Central American red brocket, Central American Seaway, Central American Spanish, Cerro El Pital, Cerro Las Minas, Chiapas, Chibchan languages, Chixoy-Polochic Fault, Christianity, Christopher Columbus, Cloud forest, Cocos Plate, Colombia, Conquistador, Consuelo Hernández, Continent, Cordillera de Talamanca, Cordillera Isabelia, Costa Rica, Cougar, Cypress, Daniel Ortega, Darién Gap, Dean Barrow, Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire, Deforestation, Deforestation in Central America, Departments of Guatemala, Dominican Republic, Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement, Doyle's Delight, Drimys, Dry season, Ecoregion, Ecosystem, El Salvador, English language, Exchange rate, Federal Republic of Central America, Fir, First Mexican Empire, Flyway, Food and Agriculture Organization, Free trade, Garifuna language, Golden toad, Gran Colombia, Granadine Confederation, Greater Republic of Central America, Guatemala, Guatemala City, Gulf of Fonseca, Gulf of Mexico, Habitat fragmentation, Haiti, History of Belize (1506–1862), Honduras, Human Development Index, Iberian Peninsula, Ibero-America, INCAE Business School, Index of Belize-related articles, Index of Central America-related articles, Index of Costa Rica-related articles, Index of El Salvador-related articles, Index of Guatemala-related articles, Index of Honduras-related articles, Index of Nicaragua-related articles, Index of Panama-related articles, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Inter-American Highway, International Monetary Fund, Invertebrate, Irreligion, Isthmo-Colombian Area, Isthmus Department, Isthmus of Panama, Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Itza people, Jaguar, January 2001 El Salvador earthquake, K'iche' kingdom of Q'umarkaj, Kaqchikel people, Kowoj, La Nación (San José), Language family, Latin America, Laurel forest, Laurus, List of cities in El Salvador, List of cities in Honduras, List of cities in Panama, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries and dependencies by population, List of countries and dependencies by population density, List of largest cities in Central America, List of municipalities in Belize, List of places in Guatemala, List of universities in Belize, List of universities in Costa Rica, List of universities in El Salvador, List of universities in Guatemala, List of universities in Honduras, List of universities in Nicaragua, List of universities in Panama, Live oak, Los Altos, Central America, Magnolia, Managua, Mauricio Funes, Maya civilization, Maya peoples, Mayan languages, Mesoamerica, Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, Mesoamerican languages, Mestizo, Mexico, Mexico City, Middle America (Americas), Middle America Trench, Mogotón, Mombacho, Monteverde, Mosquito Coast, Motagua Fault, Mount Chirripó, Municipalities of Nicaragua, Nazca Plate, Nearctic realm, Neotropical realm, New Spain, Nicaragua, North America, North American Plate, Nuevo Laredo, Oak, October 2014 Nicaragua earthquake, Official language, Pacific Flyway, Pacific Ocean, Pacific/Chocó natural region, Pan-American Highway, Panama, Panama City, Panama State, Pedro de Alvarado, Petén Basin, Physical geography, Pine, Pipil people, Plate tectonics, Portuguese language, Pre-Columbian era, Precipitation, Pro tempore, Protestantism, Province of Tierra Firme, Purchasing power parity, Quetzaltenango, Rainforest, Real Audiencia of Guatemala, Representative democracy, Republic of New Granada, Resplendent quetzal, San José, Costa Rica, San Miguel, El Salvador, San Miguelito District, San Pedro Sula, San Salvador, Santa Ana, El Salvador, Separation of Panama from Colombia, Sierra de las Minas, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Soconusco, South America, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spanish conquest of Guatemala, Spanish conquest of Petén, Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Spanish Empire, Spanish language, Spider monkey, Strait of Magellan, Subduction, Taiwan, Talamancan montane forests, Tapir, Tegucigalpa, Temperate climate, The Guardian, The Guianas, The New York Times, The San Pedro Sun, TheGuardian.com, Three-wattled bellbird, Tierra del Fuego, Tilarán, Tourism in Belize, Tourism in Costa Rica, Tourism in Nicaragua, Trade winds, Transform fault, Treaty of Córdoba, Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests, Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests, Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, Tsunami, Types of volcanic eruptions, Tz'utujil people, United Fruit Company, United Nations geoscheme for the Americas, United States of Colombia, Venezuela, Viceroyalty of New Granada, Viceroyalty of Peru, Volcán Barú, Volcán Tajumulco, Webster's Dictionary, Weinmannia, Wet season, White people, World Bank, World Economic Forum, World Wide Fund for Nature, Xincan languages, 1717 Guatemala earthquake, 1773 Guatemala earthquake, 1811 Independence Movement, 1902 Guatemala earthquake, 1926 Central American and Caribbean Games, 1931 Nicaragua earthquake, 1942 Guatemala earthquake, 1956 Nicaragua earthquake, 1972 Nicaragua earthquake, 1976 Guatemala earthquake, 1980 Honduras earthquake, 1982 El Salvador earthquake, 1985 Mexico City earthquake, 1992 Nicaragua earthquake, 2007 Guatemala earthquake, 2009 Honduras earthquake, 2012 Guatemala earthquake. 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Acapulco de Juárez, commonly called Acapulco, is a city, municipality and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, south of Mexico City.
The Act of Independence of Central America, also known as the Act of Independence of Guatemala, is the legal document by which the Provincial Council of the Province of Guatemala proclaimed the independence of Central America from the Spanish Empire and invited the other provinces of the Captaincy General of Guatemala to send envoys to a congress to decide the form of the region's independence.
An active fault is a fault that is likely to become the source of another earthquake sometime in the future.
Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (27 September 178319 July 1824), also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Alcyonacea, or soft corals, is an order of corals which do not produce calcium carbonate skeletons.
Amandala is a Belizean tabloid newspaper; published twice weekly, it is considered the "most widely circulated newspaper in Belize".
The American Free Press is a weekly newspaper published in the United States.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
The Americas, also known as America,"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Anteater is a common name for the four extant mammal species of the suborder Vermilingua (meaning "worm tongue") commonly known for eating ants and termites.
Antigua Guatemala, commonly referred to as just Antigua or la Antigua, is a city in the central highlands of Guatemala famous for its well-preserved Spanish Baroque-influenced architecture as well as a number of ruins of colonial churches.
The Antilles (Antilles in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch and Antilhas in Portuguese) is an archipelago bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the south and west, the Gulf of Mexico to the northwest, and the Atlantic Ocean to the north and east.
Arenal Volcano (Volcán Arenal) is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica around 90 km northwest of San José, in the province of Alajuela, canton of San Carlos, and district of La Fortuna.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Óscar Arias Sánchez (born 13 September 1940 in Heredia, Costa Rica) was President of Costa Rica from 1986 to 1990 and from 2006 to 2010.
In political science, the term banana republic describes a politically unstable country with an economy dependent upon the exportation of a limited-resource product, e.g. bananas, minerals, etc.
The bare-necked umbrellabird (Cephalopterus glabricollis) is a species of bird in the family Cotingidae.
Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.
The Belize Barrier Reef is a series of coral reefs straddling the coast of Belize, roughly offshore in the north and in the south within the country limits.
Belize Kriol (also Kriol or Belizean Creole) is an English-based creole language closely related to Miskito Coastal Creole, Jamaican Patois, San Andrés-Providencia Creole, Bocas del Toro Creole, Colón Creole, Rio Abajo Creole and Limón Coastal Creole.
Belmopan is the capital city of Belize.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
Bird migration is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south along a flyway, between breeding and wintering grounds.
The black guan (Chamaepetes unicolor) is a species of bird in the family Cracidae.
Black people is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations.
Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.
Bolívar's campaign to liberate New Granada of 1819-1820 was part of the Colombian and Venezuelan wars of independence and was one of the many military campaigns fought by Simón Bolívar.
British Honduras was a British Crown colony on the east coast of Central America, south of Mexico, from 1862 to 1964, then a self-governing colony, renamed Belize in June 1973,, Caribbean Community.
Costa Rica is administratively divided into seven provinces which are subdivided into 82 cantons, and these are further subdivided into districts.
Captaincies (capitanías) were military and administrative divisions in colonial Spanish America and the Spanish Philippines, established in areas under risk of foreign invasion or Indian attack.
The Captaincy General of Guatemala (Capitanía General de Guatemala), also known as the Kingdom of Guatemala (Spanish: Reino de Guatemala), was an administrative division of the Spanish Empire, under the viceroyalty of New Spain in Central America, including the present-day nations of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Belize and Guatemala, and the Mexican state of Chiapas.
Cardamom, sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
The Caribbean Plate is a mostly oceanic tectonic plate underlying Central America and the Caribbean Sea off the north coast of South America.
The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Cayman Trough (also known as the Cayman Trench, Bartlett Deep and Bartlett Trough) is a complex transform fault zone pull-apart basin which contains a small spreading ridge, the Mid-Cayman Rise, on the floor of the western Caribbean Sea between Jamaica and the Cayman Islands.
The Central American Volcanic Arc (often abbreviated to CAVA) is a chain of volcanoes which extends parallel to the Pacific coast line of the Central American Isthmus, from Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and down to northern Panama.
The Central American and Caribbean Games (CAC or CACGs) are a multi-sport regional championship event, held quadrennial (once every four years), typically in the middle (even) year between Summer Olympics.
The Central American Bank for Economic Integration (CABEI) was founded in 1960.
The Unión Centroamericana de Fútbol (Central American Football Union), more commonly known by the acronym UNCAF, represents the national football teams of Central America: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama.
The Central American Games (Juegos Deportivos Centroamericanos) are a multi-sport regional championships event, held quadrennial (every 4 years), typically in the first year after Summer Olympics.
The Central American Integration System (Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana, or SICA) has been the economic and political organization of Central American states since February 1, 1993.
The Central American montane forests are an ecoregion of the tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests biome, as defined by the World Wildlife Fund, located in mountains of Central America.
Central America is dominated by the popular Latin music, or Black Caribbean trends, including salsa, cumbia, mariachi, reggae, calypso and nueva canción.
The Central American Parliament (Parlamento Centroamericano), also known as PARLACEN, is the political institution and parliamentary body of the Central American Integration System (SICA).
The Central American pine-oak forests ecoregion, in the tropical and subtropical coniferous forests biome, is found in Central America and Chiapas state of southern Mexico.
The Central American red brocket (Mazama temama) is a species of brocket deer ranging from southern Mexico, through Central America, to northwestern Colombia.
The Central American Seaway, also known as the Panamanic Inter-American and Proto-Caribbean Seaway, was a body of water that once separated North America from South America.
Central American Spanish (español centroamericano or castellano centroamericano) is the general name of the Spanish language dialects spoken in Central America.
Cerro El Pital is a mountain in Central America, on the border of El Salvador and Honduras.
Cerro Las Minas is the highest mountain in Honduras.
Chiapas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chiapas), is one of the 31 states that with Mexico City make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico.
The Chibchan languages (also Chibchan, Chibchano) make up a language family indigenous to the Isthmo-Colombian Area, which extends from eastern Honduras to northern Colombia and includes populations of these countries as well as Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.
The Chixoy-Polochic Fault, also known as Cuilco-Chixoy-Polochic Fault, is a major fault zone in Guatemala and southwestern Mexico.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
A cloud forest, also called a water forest, is a generally tropical or subtropical, evergreen, montane, moist forest characterized by a persistent, frequent or seasonal low-level cloud cover, usually at the canopy level, formally described in the International Cloud Atlas (2017) as silvagenitus.
The Cocos Plate is a young oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of Central America, named for Cocos Island, which rides upon it.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
Consuelo Hernández (born 1952) is a Colombian American poet, scholar, literary critic and Associate Professor of Latin American studies at American University since 1995.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
The Cordillera de Talamanca is a mountain range that lies on the southeast half of Costa Rica and the far west of Panama.
Cordillera Isabelia or Cordillera Isabella in Jinotega, is the northern portion of the central mountain range in Nicaragua, which runs from northwest to southeast through the center of the country.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.
Cypress is a common name for various coniferous trees or shrubs of northern temperate regions that belong to the family Cupressaceae.
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born November 11, 1945) is a Nicaraguan politician serving as President of Nicaragua since 2007; previously he was leader of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction (1979–1985) and then as President (1985–1990).
The Darién Gap is a break in the Pan-American Highway consisting of a large swath of undeveloped swampland and forest within Panama's Darién Province in Central America and the northern portion of Colombia's Chocó Department in South America.
Dean Oliver Barrow (born 2 March 1951) is a Belizean politician who has been Prime Minister of Belize since 2008.
The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire (Acta de Independencia del Imperio Mexicano), is the document by which the Mexican Empire declared independence from the Spanish Empire.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Central American countries have experienced cycles of deforestation and reforestation since the decline of Maya civilization, influenced by many factors such as population growth and agriculture.
Guatemala is divided into 22 departments (Spanish: departamentos) which are in turn divided into 340 municipalities.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
The Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) is a free trade agreement (legally a treaty under international law, but not under U.S. law).
Doyle's Delight is the highest peak in Belize at.
Drimys is a genus of about eight species of woody evergreen flowering plants, in the family Winteraceae.
The dry season is a yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.
The Federal Republic of Central America (República Federal de Centroamérica), also called the United Provinces of Central America (Provincias Unidas del Centro de América) in its first year of creation, was a sovereign state in Central America consisting of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala of New Spain.
Firs (Abies) are a genus of 48–56 species of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae.
The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) was a short-lived monarchy and the first independent post-colonial state in Mexico.
A flyway is a flight path used in bird migration.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
Garifuna (Karif) is a minority language widely spoken in villages of Garifuna people in the western part of the northern coast of Central America.
The golden toad (Incilius periglenes, formerly Bufo periglenes) was a small true toad that was once abundant in a small, high-altitude region about in an area north of the city of Monteverde, Costa Rica.
Gran Colombia ("Great Colombia") is a name used today for the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831.
The Granadine Confederation (Confederación Granadina) was a short-lived federal republic established in 1858 as a result of a constitutional change replacing the Republic of New Granada.
The Greater Republic of Central America was a short-lived union between Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador, lasting from 1896 to 1898.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Guatemala City (Ciudad de Guatemala), locally known as Guatemala or Guate, officially Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción (New Guatemala of the Assumption), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Guatemala, and the most populous in Central America.
The Gulf of Fonseca (Golfo de Fonseca), part of the Pacific Ocean, is a gulf on Central America, bordering El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
Habitat fragmentation describes the emergence of discontinuities (fragmentation) in an organism's preferred environment (habitat), causing population fragmentation and ecosystem decay.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Belize, on the east coast of Central America, southeast of Mexico, was settled by Spaniards in the 17th century, became a British crown colony from 1862 through 1964, and is now an independent country.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Ibero-America (Iberoamérica, Ibero-América) or Iberian America is a region in the Americas comprising countries or territories where Spanish or Portuguese are predominant languages, usually former territories of Portugal or Spain.
INCAE Business School is an international business school located at the Francisco de Sola campus in Nicaragua and the Walter Kissling Gam campus in Costa Rica.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the nation of Belize.
This is an Index of Central America-related articles.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Republic of Costa Rica.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Republic of El Salvador.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Republic of Guatemala.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Republic of Honduras.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Republic of Nicaragua.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Republic of Panamá.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Inter-American Highway (IAH) is the Central American section of the Pan-American Highway and spans between Nuevo Laredo, Mexico, and Panama City, Panama.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
The Isthmo-Colombian Area is defined as a cultural area encompassing those territories occupied predominantly by speakers of the Chibchan languages at the time of European contact.
The Isthmus Department, or Department of Panama (Departamento de Panamá), was one of the departments of the Republic of Gran Colombia and later of the Republic of Colombia.
The Isthmus of Panama (Istmo de Panamá), also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien (Istmo de Darién), is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America.
The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is an isthmus in Mexico.
The Itza are a Guatemalan people of Maya affiliation.
The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.
The January 2001 El Salvador earthquake struck El Salvador on January 13, 2001 at 17:33:34 UTC.
The K'iche' kingdom of Q'umarkaj was a state in the highlands of modern-day Guatemala which was founded by the K'iche' (Quiché) Maya in the thirteenth century, and which expanded through the fifteenth century until it was conquered by Spanish and Nahua forces led by Pedro de Alvarado in 1524.
The Kaqchikel (also called Kachiquel) are one of the indigenous Maya peoples of the midwestern highlands in Guatemala.
The Kowoj (also recorded as Ko'woh, Couoh, Coguo, Cohuo, Kob'ow and Kob'ox, and Kowo) was a Maya group and polity, from the Late Postclassic period (ca. 1250–1697) of Mesoamerican chronology.
La Nación is a Costa Rican newspaper.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Laurel forest, also called laurisilva or laurissilva, is a type of subtropical forest found in areas with high humidity and relatively stable, mild temperatures.
Laurus is a genus of evergreen trees belonging to the laurel family, Lauraceae.
This article shows a list of cities in El Salvador.
This article shows a List of cities in Honduras with population data based on the 2010 estimates.
This is a list of cities in Panama.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.
The two lists of the largest cities in Central America given below are based on two different definitions of a city, the urban agglomeration and the city proper.
Municipalities in Belize are divided into three types: cities, towns, and villages.
This is a list of places in Guatemala.
This is a list of universities and colleges in Belize.
Costa Rica has both public and private universities, such as the University of Costa Rica and University for Peace.
This is a list of universities and specialized institutions in El Salvador.
This is a list of universities in Guatemala.
This is a list of universities in Honduras.
The oldest institution of higher education in Nicaragua is the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua, which was founded in León in 1812, during the Spanish colonial period.
This is a list of universities in Panama.
Live oak or evergreen oak is any of a number of oaks in several different sections of the genus Quercus that share the characteristic of evergreen foliage.
Los Altos (Spanish for "the highlands" or "the heights") was the sixth state of the Federal Republic of Central America, and a short-lived independent republic.
Magnolia is a large genus of about 210The number of species in the genus Magnolia depends on the taxonomic view that one takes up.
Managua is the capital and largest city of Nicaragua, and the center of eponymous department.
Carlos Mauricio Funes Cartagena (born October 18, 1959) is a Salvadoran politician who was President of El Salvador from June 1, 2009 to June 1, 2014.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
The Maya peoples are a large group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica.
The Mayan languagesIn linguistics, it is conventional to use Mayan when referring to the languages, or an aspect of a language.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS), also popularly known as the Great Mayan Reef or Great Maya Reef, is a marine region that stretches over from Isla Contoy at the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula down to Belize, Guatemala and the Bay Islands of Honduras.
Mesoamerican languages are the languages indigenous to the Mesoamerican cultural area, which covers southern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize and parts of Honduras and El Salvador and Nicaragua.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Middle America is a region in the mid-latitudes of the Americas.
The Middle America Trench is a major subduction zone, an oceanic trench in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the southwestern coast of Middle America, stretching from central Mexico to Costa Rica.
Mogotón is a mountain in the Reserva Nacional Cordillera Dipilto y Jalapa on the border of Nicaragua and Honduras.
Mombacho is a stratovolcano in Nicaragua, near the city of Granada.
Monteverde, Costa Rica is a small community in Puntarenas, Costa Rica, located in the Cordillera de Tilarán.
The Mosquito Coast, also known as the Miskito Coast and the Miskito Kingdom, historically comprised the kingdoms fluctuating area along the eastern coast of present-day Nicaragua and Honduras.
The Motagua Fault (also, Motagua Fault Zone) is a major, active left lateral-moving transform fault which cuts across Guatemala, continuing offshore along the southern Pacific coast of Mexico, returning onshore along the southernmost tip of Oaxaca, then continuing offshore until it merges with the Middle America Trench near Acapulco.
Mount Chirripó is the highest mountain in Costa Rica with an elevation of 3,820 meters (12,533 feet).
The 15 departments and 2 autonomous regions of Nicaragua are divided into 153 municipalities.
The Nazca Plate, named after the Nazca region of southern Peru, is an oceanic tectonic plate in the eastern Pacific Ocean basin off the west coast of South America.
The Nearctic is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
The Neotropical realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, Greenland, Cuba, the Bahamas, extreme northeastern Asia, and parts of Iceland and the Azores.
Nuevo Laredo is a city in the Municipality of Nuevo Laredo in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
The October 2014 Nicaragua earthquake occurred at with a moment magnitude of 7.3 off the coast of Nicaragua, Honduras and El Salvador.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The Pacific Flyway is a major north-south flyway for migratory birds in America, extending from Alaska to Patagonia.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Pacific/Chocó natural region is one of the five major natural regions of Colombia.
The Pan-American Highway is a network of roads measuring about in total length.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Panama City (Ciudad de Panamá) is the capital and largest city of Panama.
Panamá State was one of the states of Colombia.
Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, ca. 1485 – Guadalajara, New Spain, 4 July 1541) was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala.
The Petén Basin is a geographical subregion of Mesoamerica, primarily located in northern Guatemala within the Department of El Petén, and into Campeche state in southeastern Mexico.
Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
The Pipils or Cuzcatlecs are an indigenous people who live in western El Salvador, which they call Cuzcatlan.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Pro tempore, abbreviated pro tem or p.t., is a Latin phrase which best translates to "for the time being" in English.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
During Spain's New World Empire, its mainland coastal possessions surrounding the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico were referred to collectively as the Spanish Main.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Quetzaltenango, also known by its Maya name, Xelajú or Xela, is the second largest city of Guatemala.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
The Real Audiencia of Santiago de Guatemala (Spanish: Audiencia y Cancillería Real de Santiago de Guatemala), simply known as the Audiencia of Guatemala or the Audiencia of Los Confines, was a superior court in area of the New World empire of Spain, known as the Kingdom of Guatemala.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The Republic of New Granada was a centralist republic consisting primarily of present-day Colombia and Panama with smaller portions of today's Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, and Brazil.
The resplendent quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno) is a bird in the trogon family.
San José (literally meaning "Saint Joseph") is the capital and largest city of Costa Rica.
San Miguel is a city in eastern El Salvador.
San Miguelito is a city and district (distrito) of Panamá Province in Panama.
San Pedro Sula is the capital of Cortés Department, Honduras.
San Salvador ("Holy Savior") is the capital and the most populous city of El Salvador and its eponymous department.
Santa Ana is the third largest city in El Salvador,after San Salvador and San Miguel.
The separation of Panama from Colombia was formalized on 3 November 1903, with the establishment of the Republic of Panama.
Sierra de las Minas is a mountain range in eastern Guatemala, extending 130 km west of the Lake Izabal.
The Sierra Madre de Chiapas (as known in Mexico, with regional names in other countries) is a major mountain range in Central America.
Soconusco is a region in the southwest corner of the state of Chiapas in Mexico along its border with Guatemala.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
The Spanish conquest of Guatemala was a protracted conflict during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, in which Spanish colonisers gradually incorporated the territory that became the modern country of Guatemala into the colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain.
The Spanish conquest of Petén was the last stage of the conquest of Guatemala, a prolonged conflict during the Spanish colonisation of the Americas.
The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, or the Spanish–Aztec War (1519–21), was the conquest of the Aztec Empire by the Spanish Empire within the context of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spider monkeys are New World monkeys belonging to the genus Ateles, part of the subfamily Atelinae, family Atelidae.
The Strait of Magellan, also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Talamancan montane forests ecoregion, in the tropical moist broadleaf forest biome, are in montane Costa Rica and Panama in Central America.
A tapir is a large, herbivorous mammal, similar in shape to a pig, with a short, prehensile nose trunk.
Tegucigalpa (formally Tegucigalpa, Municipality of the Central District, Tegucigalpa, Municipio del Distrito Central or Tegucigalpa, M.D.C.), colloquially referred to as Téguz, is the capital and largest city of Honduras along with its twin sister, Comayagüela.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Guianas, sometimes called by the Spanish loan-word Guayanas (Las Guayanas), are a region in north-eastern South America which includes the following three territories.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The San Pedro Sun is a newspaper published continuously since 1991 and serves the community of San Pedro Town located on Ambergris Caye in Belize, Central America.
TheGuardian.com, formerly known as Guardian.co.uk and Guardian Unlimited, is a British news and media website owned by the Guardian Media Group.
The three-wattled bellbird (Procnias tricarunculatus) is a Central American migratory bird of the cotinga family.
Tierra del Fuego (Spanish for "Land of Fire") is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan.
is a small town in the Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica.
Tourism in Belize has grown considerably recently, and it is now the second largest industry in the nation.
Tourism in Costa Rica is one of the fastest growing economic sectors of the country and by 1995 became the largest foreign exchange earner.
Tourism in Nicaragua has grown considerably recently, and it is now the second largest industry in the nation.
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.
A transform fault or transform boundary is a plate boundary where the motion is predominantly horizontal.
The Treaty of Córdoba established Mexican independence from Spain at the conclusion of the Mexican War of Independence.
Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests are a tropical forest biome.
The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, monsoon forest, vine thicket, vine scrub and dry rainforest is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes.
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome, sometimes referred to as jungle.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
The Tz'utujil (Tzutujil, Tzutuhil, Sutujil) are a Native American people, one of the 21 Maya ethnic groups that dwell in Guatemala.
The United Fruit Company was an American corporation that traded in tropical fruit (primarily bananas), grown on Central and South American plantations, and sold in the United States and Europe.
The following is an alphabetical list of subregions in the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas.
The United States of Colombia was the name adopted in 1861 by the Rionegro Constitution for the Granadine Confederation, after years of civil war.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
The Viceroyalty of New Granada (Virreinato de la Nueva Granada) was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela.
The Viceroyalty of Peru (Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima.
The Volcán Barú (also Volcán de Chiriquí) is an active stratovolcano and the tallest mountain in Panama, at high.
Volcán Tajumulco is a large stratovolcano in the department of San Marcos in western Guatemala.
Webster's Dictionary is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous related or unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name.
Weinmannia is a genus of trees and shrubs in the family Cunoniaceae.
The monsoon season, is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs.
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
Xinca (Szinca) is a small extinct family of Mesoamerican languages, formerly regarded as a single language isolate, once spoken by the indigenous Xinca people in southeastern Guatemala, much of El Salvador, and parts of Honduras.
The 1717 Guatemala earthquake struck Guatemala on September 29 with an estimated moment magnitude of 7.4, and a Mercalli intensity of approximately IX (Violent).
The 1773 Guatemala earthquake struck Guatemala on July 29 at 15:45 local time.
The 1811 Independence Movement known in El Salvador as the Primer grito de independencia (First Shout of Independence) was the first of a series of revolts in Central America in El Salvador against Spanish colonialism and dependency on the Captaincy General of Guatemala.
The 1902 Guatemala earthquake occurred on April 18 at 8:23 pm with a moment magnitude of 7.5 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe).
The 1st Central American and Caribbean Games were held in Mexico City, Mexico, at Estadio Nacional from October 30 to November 2, 1926.
The 1931 Nicaragua earthquake devastated Nicaragua's capital city Managua on 31 March.
The 1942 Guatemala earthquake occurred at on August 6 and had ratings of 7.7 on the moment magnitude scale and 7.9 on the surface wave magnitude scale.
The 1956 Nicaragua earthquake occurred on October 24 at 14:42 UTC.
The 1972 Nicaragua earthquake occurred at 12:29:44 a.m. local time (06:29:44 UTC) on December 23 near Managua, the capital of Nicaragua.
The 1976 Guatemala earthquake struck on February 4 at with a moment magnitude of 7.5.
The 1980 Honduras earthquake struck just offshore Honduras on August 9 at 05:45 UTC.
The 1982 El Salvador earthquake occurred on 19 June 1982 at 00:21 local time (06:21 UTC).
The 1985 Mexico City earthquake struck in the early morning of 19 September at 07:17:50 (CST) with a moment magnitude of 8.0 and a Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent).
The 1992 Nicaragua earthquake occurred off the coast of Nicaragua at 6:16 p.m. on September 2.
The 2007 Guatemala earthquake occurred on June 13 at.
The 2009 Honduras earthquake occurred on May 28 at with a moment magnitude of 7.3 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of VII (Very strong).
The 2012 Guatemala earthquake occurred on November 7 at.
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