216 relations: Acts of Union 1707, Acts of Union 1800, Amsterdam Wisselbank, Anatolia, Ancient Egypt, Andy Haldane, Asset price inflation, Australia, Austrian School, Balance sheet, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, Bank, Bank Charter Act 1844, Bank for International Settlements, Bank of Canada, Bank of England, Bank of England Act 1694, Bank of France, Bank of India, Bank of Japan, Bank of Mexico, Bank of Thailand, Bank of the Republic (Colombia), Bank regulation in the United States, Bank reserves, Bank run, Banknote, Basel Accords, Black Wednesday, Bond market, Brazil, Bulgarian National Bank, Bullionism, Business cycle, Capital (economics), Capital requirement, Cayman Islands Monetary Authority, Central bank, Central Bank of Brazil, Central Bank of Chile, Central Bank of India, Central Bank of Ireland, Central Europe, Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax, China, Coin, Collateral (finance), Commercial bank, Commercial policy, Communist Party of China, ..., Convertibility, Credit crunch, Credit rating, Cuban convertible peso, Currency, Currency board, Currency union, Deflation, Deposit (finance), Deutsche Bundesbank, Direct operations, Discount window, Dutch guilder, Dutch Republic, Early modern period, Euro, European Central Bank, European Currency Unit, Excess reserves, Exchange rate, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Federal funds rate, Federal Open Market Committee, Federal Reserve Act, Federal Reserve Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System, Fiat money, Filipino language, Financial Conduct Authority, Financial crisis, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial Revolution, Financial Services Action Plan, Financial system, Fixed exchange-rate system, Foreign exchange market, Foreign exchange swap, Fractional-reserve banking, Frankfurt, Free banking, Frictional unemployment, Full-reserve banking, George Soros, Gold, Gold reserve, Gold standard, Gosbank, Government Accountability Office, Government bond, Great Depression, Groupthink, Hamburg, Helicopter money, Henry Thornton (reformer), HM Treasury, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Monetary Authority, Impossible trinity, Incorporation (business), Inflation, Inflation targeting, Interbank lending market, Interest rate, International Monetary Fund, International organization, Japanese yen, Johan Palmstruch, John Maynard Keynes, Keynesian economics, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Scotland, Knut Wicksell, Latvia, Legal tender, Lender of last resort, Liquidity crisis, List of central banks, Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market, Macroeconomic policy instruments, Maldives Monetary Authority, Margin (finance), Maturity (finance), Merchant bank, Middle Ages, Monetary Authority of Singapore, Monetary base, Monetary policy, Monetary sovereignty, Money, Money creation, Money market, Money multiplier, Money supply, Monopoly, Mortgage loan, National bank, National Bank of Pakistan, National Bank of Poland, National Bank of Ukraine, Negative interest on excess reserves, Nicola Acocella, Nine Years' War, Nixon shock, Nuremberg, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Open market operation, Overend, Gurney and Company, Overnight rate, Panic of 1796–97, Paper Credit, Paul Tucker (banker), Payment system, People's Bank of China, Pieter Jansz. Saenredam, Pound sterling, President of the United States, Privately held company, Promissory note, Quantitative easing, Real bills doctrine, Real wages, Real-time gross settlement, Renminbi, Repurchase agreement, Reserve Bank of Australia, Reserve Bank of India, Reserve Bank of New Zealand, Reserve requirement, Richard Sylla, Robert Mundell, Royal charter, Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority, Securitization, Security (finance), Security of tenure, Seigniorage, Single point of failure, South African Reserve Bank, Southern Europe, Soviet Union, State (polity), State bank, State Bank of Pakistan, State Bank of Vietnam, STIRT, Stock market, Structural unemployment, Sveriges Riksbank, Swiss National Bank, The Case Against the Fed, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, United Kingdom, United States Congress, United States dollar, United States Senate, United States Treasury security, Venice, Walter Bagehot, War of the Second Coalition, William III of England, William Paterson (banker), Woodrow Wilson, World Bank, Yield curve, Zero lower bound. Expand index (166 more) » « Shrink index
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Bank of Amsterdam (Amsterdamsche Wisselbank or literally Amsterdam Exchange Bank) was an early bank, vouched for by the city of Amsterdam, established in 1609, the precursor to, if not the first, modern central bank.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Andrew G. "Andy" Haldane, FAcSS (born on 18 August 1967) is the chief economist and the Executive Director of Monetary Analysis and Statistics at the Bank of England.
Asset price inflation is a economic phenomenon denoting a rise in price of assets, as opposed to ordinary goods and services.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.
In financial accounting, a balance sheet or statement of financial position is a summary of the financial balances of an individual or organization, whether it be a sole proprietorship, a business partnership, a corporation, private limited company or other organization such as Government or not-for-profit entity.
The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (commonly abbreviated as BSP in both Filipino and English) is the central bank of the Philippines.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
The Bank Charter Act 1844 (7 & 8 Vict. c. 32), sometimes referred to as the Peel Banking Act of 1844, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed under the government of Robert Peel, which restricted the powers of British banks and gave exclusive note-issuing powers to the central Bank of England.
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution owned by central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks".
The Bank of Canada (or BoC) (Banque du Canada) is Canada's central bank.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
The Bank of England Act 1694 (5 & 6 Will & Mar c 20), sometimes referred to as the Tonnage Act 1694, is an Act of the Parliament of England.
The Bank of France known in French as the Banque de France, headquartered in Paris, is the central bank of France; it is linked to the European Central Bank (ECB).
Bank of India (BoI) is commercial bank with headquarters at Bandra Kurla complex, Mumbai.
The is the central bank of Japan.
The Bank of Mexico (Banco de México), abbreviated BdeM or Banxico, is Mexico's central bank, monetary authority and lender of last resort.
The Bank of Thailand (BOT, ธนาคารแห่งประเทศไทย) is the central bank of Thailand.
The Banco de la República (Banco de la República) is the state-run central bank of the Republic of Colombia.
Bank regulation in the United States is highly fragmented compared with other G10 countries, where most countries have only one bank regulator.
Bank reserves are a commercial banks' holdings of deposits in accounts with a central bank (for instance the European Central Bank or the applicable branch bank of the Federal Reserve System, in the latter case including federal funds), plus currency that is physically held in the bank's vault ("vault cash").
A bank run (also known as a run on the bank) occurs when a large number of people withdraw their money from a bank, because they believe the bank may cease to function in the near future.
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
The Basel Accords (see alternative spellings below) refer to the banking supervision Accords (recommendations on banking regulations)—Basel I, Basel II and Basel III—issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS).
Black Wednesday occurred in the United Kingdom on 16 September 1992, when John Major's Conservative government was forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) after it was unable to keep the pound above its agreed lower limit in the ERM.
The bond market (also debt market or credit market) is a financial market where participants can issue new debt, known as the primary market, or buy and sell debt securities, known as the secondary market.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Bulgarian National Bank (Българска народна банка, Balgarska narodna banka) is the central bank of the Republic of Bulgaria with its headquarters in Sofia.
Bullionism is an economic theory that defines wealth by the amount of precious metals owned.
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.
Capital requirement (also known as regulatory capital or capital adequacy) is the amount of capital a bank or other financial institution has to hold as required by its financial regulator.
The Cayman Islands Monetary Authority (CIMA) is the primary financial services regulator of the Cayman Islands and supervises its currency board.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Central Bank of Brazil (Banco Central do Brasil) is Brazil's central bank.
The Central Bank of Chile (Banco Central de Chile) is the central bank of Chile.
Central Bank of India, a government-owned bank, is one of the oldest and largest commercial banks in India.
The Central Bank of Ireland (Banc Ceannais na hÉireann) is Ireland's central bank, and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax (16 April 1661 – 19 May 1715) was an English poet and statesman.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
In lending agreements, collateral is a borrower's pledge of specific property to a lender, to secure repayment of a loan.
A commercial bank is an institution that provides services such as accepting deposits, providing business loans, and offering basic investment products.
A commercial policy (also referred to as a trade policy or international trade policy) is a governmental policy governing economic transactions across international borders.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
Convertibility is the quality that allows money or other financial instruments to be converted into other liquid stores of value.
A credit crunch (also known as a credit squeeze or credit crisis) is a sudden reduction in the general availability of loans (or credit) or a sudden tightening of the conditions required to obtain a loan from banks.
A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk of a prospective debtor (an individual, a business, company or a government), predicting their ability to pay back the debt, and an implicit forecast of the likelihood of the debtor defaulting.
The convertible peso (sometimes given as CUC$ and informally called a cuc or a chavito) is one of two official currencies in Cuba, the other being the Cuban peso.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
A currency board is a monetary authority which is required to maintain a fixed exchange rate with a foreign currency.
A currency union (also known as monetary union) involves two or more states sharing the same currency without them necessarily having any further integration (such as an economic and monetary union, which would have, in addition, a customs union and a single market).
In economics, deflation is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services.
A deposit is the monetary amount that is placed with some entity.
The Deutsche Bundesbank is the central bank of the Federal Republic of Germany and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).
Direct operations is the term for when a central bank purchases bonds directly from its government.
The discount window is an instrument of monetary policy (usually controlled by central banks) that allows eligible institutions to borrow money from the central bank, usually on a short-term basis, to meet temporary shortages of liquidity caused by internal or external disruptions.
The Dutch guilder (gulden) or fl. was the currency of the Netherlands from the 17th century until 2002, when it was replaced by the euro.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.
The European Currency Unit (₠ or ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro on 1 January 1999, at parity.
In banking, excess reserves are bank reserves in excess of a reserve requirement set by a central bank.
In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is a United States government corporation providing deposit insurance to depositors in U.S. commercial banks and savings institutions.
In the United States, the federal funds rate is the interest rate at which depository institutions (banks and credit unions) lend reserve balances to other depository institutions overnight, on an uncollateralized basis.
The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), a committee within the Federal Reserve System (the Fed), is charged under the United States law with overseeing the nation's open market operations (e.g., the Fed's buying and selling of United States Treasury securities).
The Federal Reserve Act (ch. 6,, enacted December 23, 1913) is an Act of Congress that created and established the Federal Reserve System (the central banking system of the United States), and which created the authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes (commonly known as the US Dollar) as legal tender.
The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, commonly known as the Federal Reserve Board, is the main governing body of the Federal Reserve System.
The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.
Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.
Filipino (Wikang Filipino), in this usage, refers to the national language (Wikang pambansa/Pambansang wika) of the Philippines.
The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) is a financial regulatory body in the United Kingdom, but operates independently of the UK Government, and is financed by charging fees to members of the financial services industry.
A financial crisis is any of a broad variety of situations in which some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The Financial Revolution was a set of economical and financial reforms in Britain after the Glorious Revolution in 1688 when William III invaded England.
The Financial Services Action Plan (FSAP) is a key component of the European Union's attempt to create a single market for financial services.
A financial system (within the scope of finance) is a system that allows the exchange of funds between lenders, investors, and borrowers.
A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.
In finance, a foreign exchange swap, forex swap, or FX swap is a simultaneous purchase and sale of identical amounts of one currency for another with two different value dates (normally spot to forward) and may use foreign exchange derivatives.
Fractional-reserve banking is the practice whereby a bank accepts deposits, makes loans or investments, but is required to hold reserves equal to only a fraction of its deposit liabilities.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Free banking is a monetary arrangement in which banks are subject to no special regulations beyond those applicable to most enterprises, and in which they also are free to issue their own paper currency (banknotes).
Frictional unemployment is the unemployment that results from time spent between jobs when a worker is searching for, or transitioning from one job to another.
Full-reserve banking (also known as 100% reserve banking) is a proposed alternative to fractional-reserve banking in which banks would be required to keep the full amount of each depositor's funds in cash, ready for immediate withdrawal on demand.
George Soros, Hon (Soros György,; born György Schwartz; August 12, 1930) is a Hungarian-American investor, business magnate, philanthropist, political activist and author.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
A gold reserve was the gold held by a national central bank, intended mainly as a guarantee to redeem promises to pay depositors, note holders (e.g. paper money), or trading peers, during the eras of the gold standard, and also as a store of value, or to support the value of the national currency.
A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.
Gosbank (Госбанк, Государственный банк СССР, Gosudarstvenny bank SSSR—the State Bank of the USSR) was the central bank of the Soviet Union and the only bank whatsoever in the entire Union from the 1930s to 1987.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
A government bond or sovereign bond is a bond issued by a national government, generally with a promise to pay periodic interest payments and to repay the face value on the maturity date.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Helicopter money is a proposed unconventional monetary policy, sometimes suggested as an alternative to quantitative easing (QE) when the economy is in a liquidity trap (when interest rates near zero and the economy remains in recession).
Henry Thornton (10 March 1760 – 16 January 1815) was an English economist, banker, philanthropist and parliamentarian.
Her Majesty's Treasury (HM Treasury), sometimes referred to as the Exchequer, or more informally the Treasury, is the British government department responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA, or 金管局) is Hong Kong's currency board and de facto central bank.
The impossible trinity (also known as the trilemma, or the unholy trinity) is a concept in international economics which states that it is impossible to have all three of the following at the same time.
Incorporation is the formation of a new corporation (a corporation being a legal entity that is effectively recognized as a person under the law).
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
Inflation targeting is a monetary policy regime in which a central bank has an explicit target inflation rate for the medium term and announces this inflation target to the public.
The interbank lending market is a market in which banks extend loans to one another for a specified term.
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.
The is the official currency of Japan.
Johan Palmstruch (1611 in Riga – 1671 in Stockholm; named Johan Wittmacher before he was ennobled) was a Latvian-born Dutch entrepreneur, financier, and financial innovator.
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
Johan Gustaf Knut Wicksell (December 20, 1851 – May 3, 1926) was a leading Swedish economist of the Stockholm school.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.
A lender of last resort (LOLR) is the institution in a financial system that acts as the provider of liquidity to a financial institution which finds itself unable to obtain sufficient liquidity in the interbank lending market and other facilities or sources have been exhausted.
In financial economics, a liquidity crisis refers to an acute shortage (or "drying up") of liquidity.
This is a list of central banks.
Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market (1873) is a book by Walter Bagehot.
Macroeconomic policy instruments refer to macroeconomic quantities that can be directly controlled by an economic policy maker.
The Maldives Monetary Authority (MMA) acts as the central bank of the republic of Maldives and was established on July 1, 1981, under the mandate provided by the "MMA Act" of 1981, located in the capital city of Malé.
In finance, margin is collateral that the holder of a financial instrument has to deposit with a counterparty (most often their broker or an exchange) to cover some or all of the credit risk the holder poses for the counterparty.
In finance, maturity or maturity date refers to the final payment date of a loan or other financial instrument, at which point the principal (and all remaining interest) is due to be paid.
A merchant bank is historically a bank dealing in commercial loans and investment.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Monetary Authority of Singapore (Abbreviation: MAS;; Malay: Penguasa Kewangan Singapura) is Singapore's central bank and financial regulatory authority.
In economics, the monetary base (also base money, money base, high-powered money, reserve money, outside money, central bank money or, in the UK, narrow money) in a country is defined as the portion of a commercial bank's reserves that consist of the commercial bank's accounts with its central bank plus the total currency circulating in the public, plus the currency, also known as vault cash, that is physically held in the bank's vault.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
Monetary sovereignty is the power of the state to exercise exclusive legal control over its currency, broadly defined, by exercise of the following powers.
Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.
Money creation is the process by which the money supply of a country, or of an economic or monetary region,Such as the Eurozone or ECCAS is increased.
As money became a commodity, the money market became a component of the financial markets for assets involved in short-term borrowing, lending, buying and selling with original maturities of one year or less.
In monetary economics, a money multiplier is one of various closely related ratios of commercial bank money to central bank money under a fractional-reserve banking system.
In economics, the money supply (or money stock) is the total value of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time.
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.
A mortgage loan, or simply mortgage, is used either by purchasers of real property to raise funds to buy real estate, or alternatively by existing property owners to raise funds for any purpose, while putting a lien on the property being mortgaged.
In banking, the term national bank carries several meanings.
National Bank of Pakistan (NBP) is a major Pakistani commercial bank with headquarters in Karachi.
Narodowy Bank Polski (National Bank of Poland, NBP) is the central bank of Poland.
National Bank of Ukraine (Національний банк України) or NBU (НБУ) is the central bank of Ukraine – a government body responsible for unified state policy in the field of country's monetary circulation, including strengthening of national currency unit – hryvnia.
Negative interest on excess reserves is an instrument of unconventional monetary policy applied by central banks to encourage lending by making it costly for commercial banks to hold their excess reserves at central banks so they will lend more readily to the private sector.
Nicola Acocella (born 3 July 1939) is an Italian economist and academic, Emeritus Professor of Economic Policy since 2014.
The Nine Years' War (1688–97) – often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg – was a conflict between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain, England and Savoy.
The Nixon shock was a series of economic measures undertaken by United States President Richard Nixon in 1971, the most significant of which was the unilateral cancellation of the direct international convertibility of the United States dollar to gold.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) is an independent bureau within the United States Department of the Treasury that was established by the National Currency Act of 1863 and serves to charter, regulate, and supervise all national banks and thrift institutions and the federal branches and agencies of foreign banks in the United States.
An open market operation (OMO) is an activity by a central bank to give (or take) liquidity in its currency to (or from) a bank or a group of banks.
Overend, Gurney & Company was a London wholesale discount bank, known as "the bankers' bank", which collapsed in 1866 owing about £11 million, equivalent to £ million in.
The overnight rate is generally the interest rate that large banks use to borrow and lend from one another in the overnight market.
The Panic of 1796–1797 was a series of downturns in Atlantic credit markets that led to broader commercial downturns in both Great Britain and the United States.
An Enquiry into the Nature and Effects of the Paper Credit of Great Britain, generally shortened to Paper Credit, is a book on monetary theory in economics, written by Henry Thornton and published in Britain in 1802.
Sir Paul Tucker (born 24 March 1958) is a British economist and central banker.
A payment system is any system used to settle financial transactions through the transfer of monetary value, and includes the institutions, instruments, people, rules, procedures, standards, and technologies that make such an exchange possible.
The People's Bank of China (PBC or PBOC) is the central bank of the People's Republic of China responsible for carrying out monetary policy and regulation of financial institutions in mainland China, as determined by Bank Law.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
A privately held company, private company, or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately.
A promissory note, sometimes referred to as a note payable, is a legal instrument (more particularly, a financial instrument and a debt instrument), in which one party (the maker or issuer) promises in writing to pay a determinate sum of money to the other (the payee), either at a fixed or determinable future time or on demand of the payee, under specific terms.
Quantitative easing (QE), also known as large-scale asset purchases, is an expansionary monetary policy whereby a central bank buys predetermined amounts of government bonds or other financial assets in order to stimulate the economy and increase liquidity.
The real bills doctrine asserts that money should be issued in exchange for short-term real bills of adequate value.
Real wages are wages adjusted for inflation, or, equivalently, wages in terms of the amount of goods and services that can be bought.
Real-time gross settlement systems are specialist funds transfer systems where the transfer of money or securities takes place from one bank to another on a "real time" and on a "gross" basis.
The renminbi (Ab.: RMB;; sign: 元; code: CNY) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.
A repurchase agreement, also known as a repo, RP, or sale and repurchase agreement, is a transaction concluded on a deal date tD between two parties A and B: If positive interest rates are assumed, the repurchase price PF can be expected to be greater than the original sale price PN.
The Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA), on 14 January 1960, became the Australian central bank and banknote issuing authority, when the Reserve Bank Act 1959 (23 April 1959) removed the central banking functions from the Commonwealth Bank.
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India's central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee.
The Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ, Te Pūtea Matua) is the central bank of New Zealand.
The reserve requirement (or cash reserve ratio) is a central bank regulation employed by most, but not all, of the world's central banks, that sets the minimum amount of reserves that must be held by a commercial bank.
Richard Eugene Sylla is Henry Kaufman Professor of the History of Financial Institutions and Markets and a professor of economics, entrepreneurship, and innovation at New York University Stern School of Business.
Robert Alexander Mundell, CC (born October 24, 1932) is a Canadian economist.
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
The Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority (SAMA; مؤسسة النقد العربي السعودي), established in 1952, is the central bank of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Securitization is the financial practice of pooling various types of contractual debt such as residential mortgages, commercial mortgages, auto loans or credit card debt obligations (or other non-debt assets which generate receivables) and selling their related cash flows to third party investors as securities, which may be described as bonds, pass-through securities, or collateralized debt obligations (CDOs).
A security is a tradable financial asset.
Security of tenure is a term used in political science to describe a constitutional or legal guarantee that a political office-holder cannot be removed from office except in exceptional and specified circumstances.
Seigniorage, also spelled seignorage or seigneurage (from Old French seigneuriage "right of the lord (seigneur) to mint money"), is the difference between the value of money and the cost to produce and distribute it.
A single point of failure (SPOF) is a part of a system that, if it fails, will stop the entire system from working.
The South African Reserve Bank (SARB) is the central bank of South Africa.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
A state bank is generally a financial institution that is chartered by a state.
The State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) (بینک دَولتِ پاکِستان) is the central bank of Pakistan.
The State Bank of Vietnam (Ngân hàng Nhà nước Việt Nam) is the central bank of Vietnam.
STIRT is an acronym for Short Term Interest Rate Trading.
A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.
Structural unemployment is a form of unemployment caused by a mismatch between the skills that workers in the economy can offer, and the skills demanded of workers by employers (also known as the skills gap).
Sveriges Riksbank, or simply Riksbanken, is the central bank of Sweden.
The Swiss National Bank (SNB) is the central bank of Switzerland, and is therefore responsible for the monetary policy of the nation of Switzerland and also for the issuing of Swiss franc banknotes.
The Case Against the Fed is a 1994 book by Murray N. Rothbard taking a critical look at the United States Federal Reserve, fractional reserve banking, and central banks in general.
The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money of 1936 is the last and most important book by the English economist John Maynard Keynes.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
A United States Treasury security is an IOU from the US Government.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Walter Bagehot (3 February 1826 – 24 March 1877) was a British journalist, businessman, and essayist, who wrote extensively about government, economics, and literature.
The War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802) was the second war on revolutionary France by the European monarchies, led by Britain, Austria and Russia, and including the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Naples, various German monarchies and Sweden.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
Sir William Paterson (April 1658 - 22 January 1719) was a Scottish trader and banker.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
In finance, the yield curve is a curve showing several yields or interest rates across different contract lengths (2 month, 2 year, 20 year, etc....) for a similar debt contract.
The Zero Lower Bound (ZLB) or Zero Nominal Lower Bound (ZNLB) is a macroeconomic problem that occurs when the short-term nominal interest rate is at or near zero, causing a liquidity trap and limiting the capacity that the central bank has to stimulate economic growth.
Bank Centralization, Bank base rate, Bank of issue, Central Bank, Central bank reserves, Central banker, Central bankers, Central banking, Central banks, Issuing authority, Main refinancing rate, Minimum bid rate, National Central Banks, Reserve bank.