174 relations: Accessory nerve, Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Adrenoleukodystrophy, Afferent nerve fiber, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Alertness, Allometry, Alzheimer's disease, American College of Radiology, Amygdala, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Anatomical terminology, Animal echolocation, Arousal, Arthropod, Astrocyte, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autism, Autoimmune disease, Axon, Balance (ability), Basal ganglia, Bilateria, Blood pressure, Blood vessel, Brachial plexus, Brain, Brain tumor, Brainstem, Breathing, Capillary, Cell membrane, Cerebellum, Cerebral aqueduct, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral hemisphere, Cerebral peduncle, Cerebrum, Chordate, Cognition, Commissure, Corpus callosum, Cranial cavity, Cranial nerves, Diencephalon, Dolphin, Dorsal body cavity, Echidna, Efferent, Encephalitis, ..., Endocast, Epithalamus, Essential tremor, Eutheria, Face, Flatworm, Foramen magnum, Forebrain, Fourth ventricle, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Ganglion, Gliosis, Grey matter, Gyrus, Haikouichthys, Hearing, Heart, Hindbrain, Hippocampus, Hormone, Human brain, Hunger, Huntington's disease, Hypothalamus, Immune system, Jellyfish, Kangaroo, Koala, Krabbe disease, Lancelet, Lateral ventricles, List of infections of the central nervous system, Lumbar vertebrae, Macrophage, Mammal, Marsupial, Maternal bond, Medical imaging, Medulla oblongata, Meninges, Metabolite, Metencephalon, Microglia, Midbrain, Monotreme, Motivation, Multiple sclerosis, Myelencephalon, Myelin, Neck, Neocortex, Nerve, Nervous system, Neural fold, Neural groove, Neural plate, Neural stem cell, Neural tube, Neurodegeneration, Neurogenesis, Neuroglia, Neurological disorder, Neuron, Neurulation, Notochord, Nucleus (neuroanatomy), Olfactory bulb, Olfactory epithelium, Olfactory nerve, Oligodendrocyte, Opossum, Optic nerve, Parkinson's disease, Peripheral nervous system, Pineal gland, Pituitary gland, Placentalia, Planarian, Platypus, Poliomyelitis, Pons, Pontine nuclei, Positron emission tomography, Pretectal area, Pupil, Radial glial cell, Radiata, Reflex, Reticular formation, Retina, Rhinencephalon, Sacral plexus, Schwann cell, Skull, Specialty (medicine), Spinal canal, Spinal cord, Spinal locomotion, Spinal nerve, Sponge, Striatum, Suboesophageal ganglion, Subthalamus, Sulcus (neuroanatomy), Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Supraesophageal ganglion, Tasmanian devil, Taste, Tectum, Thalamus, Therapy, Third ventricle, Thirst, Trapezius, Vagus nerve, Ventral nerve cord, Ventricular zone, Vertebra, Vertebral column, Vertebrate, Vesicle (embryology), Vestibular system, White matter, Wombat. Expand index (124 more) » « Shrink index
The accessory nerve is a spinal nerve that supplies the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), or acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, is a rare autoimmune disease marked by a sudden, widespread attack of inflammation in the brain and spinal cord.
Adrenoleukodystrophy is a disease linked to the X chromosome.
Afferent nerve fibers refer to axonal projections that arrive at a particular region; as opposed to efferent projections that exit the region.
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), located in Rockville, MD, a suburb of Washington, D.C., is one of 12 Agencies within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
Alertness is the state of active attention by high sensory awareness such as being watchful and prompt to meet danger or emergency, or being quick to perceive and act.
Allometry is the study of the relationship of body size to shape, anatomy, physiology and finally behaviour, first outlined by Otto Snell in 1892, by D'Arcy Thompson in 1917 in On Growth and Form and by Julian Huxley in 1932.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
The (ACR), founded in 1923, is a professional medical society representing more than 38,000 diagnostic radiologists, radiation oncologists, interventional radiologists, nuclear medicine physicians and medical physicists.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists, zoologists, and health professionals such as doctors.
Echolocation, also called bio sonar, is the biological sonar used by several kinds of animals.
Arousal is the physiological and psychological state of being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a point of perception.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
In biomechanics, balance is an ability to maintain the line of gravity (vertical line from centre of mass) of a body within the base of support with minimal postural sway.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The brachial plexus is a network of nerves formed by the anterior rami of the lower four cervical nerves and first thoracic nerve (C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1).
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The cerebral aqueduct, also known as the aqueductus mesencephali, mesencephalic duct, sylvian aqueduct or the aqueduct of Sylvius is within the mesencephalon (or midbrain), contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and connects the third ventricle in the diencephalon to the fourth ventricle within the region of the mesencephalon and metencephalon, located dorsal to the pons and ventral to the cerebellum.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure.
The cerebral peduncles are structures at the front of the midbrain which arise from the front of the pons and contain the large ascending (sensory) and descending (motor) nerve tracts that run to and from the cerebrum from the pons.
The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.
A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
A commissure is the place where two things abut or are joined.
The corpus callosum (Latin for "tough body"), also callosal commissure, is a wide commissure, a flat bundle of commissural fibers, about 10 cm long beneath the cerebral cortex in the brains of placental mammals.
The cranial cavity, also known as intracranial space, is the space within the skull.
Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).
The diencephalon is a division of the forebrain (embryonic prosencephalon), and is situated between the telencephalon and the midbrain (embryonic mesencephalon).
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
The dorsal body cavity is located along the dorsal (posterior) surface of the human body, where it is subdivided into the cranial cavity housing the brain and the spinal cavity housing the spinal cord.
Echidnas, sometimes known as spiny anteaters, belong to the family Tachyglossidae in the monotreme order of egg-laying mammals.
Efferent is an anatomical term with the following meanings.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.
An endocast is the internal cast of a hollow object, often referring to the cranial vault in the study of brain development in humans and other organisms.
The epithalamus is a (dorsal) posterior segment of the diencephalon.
Essential tremor (ET, also referred to as benign tremor, familial tremor, or idiopathic tremor) is a progressive neurological disorder that is also the most common movement disorder.
Eutheria (from Greek εὐ-, eu- "good" or "right" and θηρίον, thēríon "beast" hence "true beasts") is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or perhaps the Late Jurassic.
The face is a central body region of sense and is also very central in the expression of emotion among humans and among numerous other species.
The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.
The foramen magnum (great hole) is a large oval opening (foramen) in the occipital bone of the skull in humans and various other animals.
In the anatomy of the brain of vertebrates, the forebrain or prosencephalon is the rostral-most (forward-most) portion of the brain.
The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.
A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.
Gliosis is a nonspecific reactive change of glial cells in response to damage to the central nervous system (CNS).
Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.
In neuroanatomy, a gyrus (pl. gyri) is a ridge on the cerebral cortex.
Haikouichthys is an extinct genus of craniate (animals with notochords and distinct heads) believed to have lived 525 million years ago, during the Cambrian explosion of multicellular life.
Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
The hindbrain or rhombencephalon is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system in vertebrates.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
In politics, humanitarian aid, and social science, hunger is a condition in which a person, for a sustained period, is unable to eat sufficient food to meet basic nutritional needs.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
The kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning "large foot").
The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus, or, inaccurately, koala bear) is an arboreal herbivorous marsupial native to Australia.
Krabbe disease (KD) (also known as globoid cell leukodystrophy or galactosylceramide lipidosis) is a rare and often fatal lysosomal storage disease that results in progressive damage to the nervous system.
The lancelets — also known as amphioxi (singular, amphioxus) consist of about 32 species of fish-like marine chordates in the order Amphioxiformes.
The lateral ventricles are the two largest cavities of the ventricular system of the human brain and contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
There are five main causes of infections of the central nervous system (CNS): bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoal, and prionic.
The lumbar vertebrae are, in human anatomy, the five vertebrae between the rib cage and the pelvis.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.
A maternal bond is the relationship between a mother and her child.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.
The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
The metencephalon is the embryonic part of the hindbrain that differentiates into the pons and the cerebellum.
Microglia are a type of neuroglia (glial cell) located throughout the brain and spinal cord.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
Monotremes are one of the three main groups of living mammals, along with placentals (Eutheria) and marsupials (Metatheria).
Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
The myelencephalon or afterbrain is the most posterior region of the embryonic hindbrain, from which the medulla oblongata develops.
Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.
The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso.
The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
The neural fold is a structure that arises during neurulation in the embryonic development of both birds and mammals among other organisms.
The neural groove is a shallow median groove of the neural plate between the neural folds of an embryo.
The neural plate is a key developmental structure that serves as the basis for the nervous system.
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing, multipotent cells that generate the neurons and glia of the nervous system of all animals during embryonic development.
In the developing chordate (including vertebrates), the neural tube is the embryonic precursor to the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.
Neurogenesis is the process by which nervous system cells, known as neurons, are produced by neural stem cells (NSC)s, and it occurs in all species of animals except the porifera (sponges) and placozoans.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurulation refers to the folding process in vertebrate embryos, which includes the transformation of the neural plate into the neural tube.
In anatomy, the notochord is a flexible rod made out of a material similar to cartilage.
In neuroanatomy, a nucleus (plural form: nuclei) is a cluster of neurons in the central nervous system, located deep within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem.
The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.
The olfactory epithelium is a specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity that is involved in smell.
The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell.
Oligodendrocytes, or oligodendroglia,.
The opossum is a marsupial of the order Didelphimorphia endemic to the Americas.
The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
Placentalia ("Placentals") is one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia; the other two are Monotremata and Marsupialia.
A planarian is one of many flatworms of the Turbellaria class.
The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus, is a semiaquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania.
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
The pons (Latin for "bridge") is part of the brainstem, and in humans and other bipeds lies inferior to the midbrain, superior to the medulla oblongata and anterior to the cerebellum.
The pontine nuclei (or griseum pontis) are the nuclei of the pons involved in motor activity.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
The pretectal area, or pretectum, is a midbrain structure composed of seven nuclei and comprises part of the subcortical visual system.
The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina.
Radial glial cells are bipolar-shaped cells that span the width of the cortex in the developing vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) and serve as primary progenitor cells capable of generating neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes.
Radiata or Radiates is a historical taxonomic rank that was used to classify animals with radially symmetric body plans, and is no longer accepted.
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
The reticular formation is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
In animal anatomy, the rhinencephalon (from the Greek, ῥίς, rhis.
In human anatomy, the sacral plexus is a nerve plexus which provides motor and sensory nerves for the posterior thigh, most of the lower leg and foot, and part of the pelvis.
Schwann cells (named after physiologist Theodor Schwann) or neurolemmocytes are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.
The spinal canal (or vertebral canal or spinal cavity) is the space in the vertebral column formed by the vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Spinal locomotion results from intricate dynamic interactions between a central program in lower thoracolumbar spine and proprioceptive feedback from body in the absence of central control by brain as in complete spinal cord injury (SCI).
A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
The suboesophageal ganglion (acronym: SOG; synonym: subesophageal ganglion) of arthropods and in particular insects is part of the arthropod central nervous system (CNS).
The subthalamus or prethalamus is a part of the diencephalon.
In neuroanatomy, a sulcus (Latin: "furrow", pl. sulci) is a depression or groove in the cerebral cortex.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.
The supraesophageal ganglion ("arthropod brain" or "a. microbrain") is the first part of the arthropod and especially insect central nervous system.
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial of the family Dasyuridae.
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
The tectum (Latin: roof) is a region of the brain, specifically the dorsal (top) part of the midbrain (mesencephalon).
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
The third ventricle is one of four connected fluid-filled cavities comprising the ventricular system within the mammalian brain.
Thirst is the craving for fluids, resulting in the basic instinct of animals to drink.
The trapezius (or trapezoid) is a large paired surface muscle that extends longitudinally from the occipital bone to the lower thoracic vertebrae of the spine and laterally to the spine of the scapula.
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
The ventral nerve cord (VNC) makes up a part of the central nervous system of some phyla of the bilaterians, particularly within the nematodes, annelids and the arthropods.
In vertebrate organisms, the ventricular zone (VZ) is a transient embryonic layer of tissue containing neural stem cells, principally radial glial cells, of the central nervous system (CNS).
In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
In vertebrate organisms, brain vesicles are transient, bulge-like features of the early neural tube during embryonic brain development.
The vestibular system, in most mammals, is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution to the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance. Together with the cochlea, a part of the auditory system, it constitutes the labyrinth of the inner ear in most mammals.
White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.
Wombats are short-legged, muscular quadrupedal marsupials that are native to Australia.
Arthropod central nervous system, CNS function, Central Nervous System, Central nervous, Central nervous system agents, Central nervous system diseases, Central nervous system infections, Central ns, Cns, Evolution of central nervous systems, Insect central nervous system, The nervous system.