221 relations: Address generation unit, Addressing mode, AltiVec, AMD Accelerated Processing Unit, AMULET microprocessor, Apollo Guidance Computer, Arbitrary-precision arithmetic, Arithmetic, Arithmetic logic unit, ARM architecture, Athlon 64 X2, Atmel AVR, Balanced ternary, Ballistic Research Laboratory, Bank switching, Benchmark (computing), Binary number, Bipolar junction transistor, Bit, Bitwise operation, Boolean algebra, Branch predictor, Bus (computing), Cell (microprocessor), Classic RISC pipeline, Clock gating, Clock rate, Clock signal, Cloud computing, CMOS, Combinational logic, Complex instruction set computer, Computational science, Computer, Computer architecture, Computer cluster, Computer cooling, Computer data storage, Computer engineering, Computer memory, Computer program, Control unit, CPU cache, CPU core voltage, CPU power dissipation, CPU socket, Cray, Cray-1, Cryptography, Datapoint, ..., Decimal, Die (integrated circuit), Digital Equipment Corporation, Digital signal processor, Direct memory access, Directory-based cache coherence, Dot product, EDVAC, Electromigration, Electronic circuit, Electronic component, Electronic oscillator, Embarrassingly parallel, Embedded system, ENIAC, Euclidean vector, Execution unit, First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, Floating-point arithmetic, Floating-point unit, Flynn's taxonomy, Fujitsu, Granularity (parallel computing), Harvard architecture, Harvard Mark I, Hazard (computer architecture), Heat pipe, Hertz, Hyper-threading, IA-32, IBM, IBM Solid Logic Technology, IBM System/360, IBM System/360 Model 30, IBM System/360 Model 40, IBM System/370, IBM Z, IEEE Transactions on Computers, Input/output, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Instruction cycle, Instruction pipelining, Instruction set architecture, Instruction-level parallelism, Instructions per cycle, Instructions per second, Integrated circuit, Intel, Intel 4004, Intel 80486DX2, Intel 8080, J. Presper Eckert, John Mauchly, John von Neumann, Johns Hopkins University Press, Konrad Zuse, List of instruction sets, Logic gate, Mainframe computer, Manchester Baby, Manchester Mark 1, Memory hierarchy, Memory protection, Microcode, Microcontroller, Microelectronics, Microprocessor, MIMD, Minicomputer, MIPS architecture, MMX (instruction set), Moore School of Electrical Engineering, Moore's law, Motorola 68000, Motorola 68000 series, Motorola 68010, Multi-core processor, Multimedia, Multimedia Acceleration eXtensions, Multiprocessing, Multithreading (computer architecture), Nanometre, NMOS logic, Non-uniform memory access, NOR gate, Numeral system, Opcode, Operand, Opteron, Out-of-order execution, P5 (microarchitecture), P6 (microarchitecture), Paging, Parallel computing, Parasitic capacitance, PDP-10, PDP-11, PDP-8, Pentium, Pentium 4, Peripheral, Personal computer, PlayStation 3, PMOS logic, Pool (computer science), POWER4, POWER5, PowerPC, Printed circuit board, Process (computing), Processor design, Processor register, Program counter, Propagation delay, Protection ring, Punched card, Punched tape, Quantum computing, Random-access memory, Reduced instruction set computer, Register renaming, Relay, Scalar (mathematics), Semiconductor, SIMD, Simultaneous multithreading, SISD, Software, Sony Vaio E series, SPARC, SPECint, Speculative execution, Square wave, Status register, Stored-program computer, Stream processing, Streaming SIMD Extensions, Subroutine, Subthreshold conduction, Supercomputer, Symmetric multiprocessing, Synchronous circuit, System on a chip, Task parallelism, Temporal multithreading, Thermal management (electronics), Thread (computing), Throughput, Transaction processing, Transactional memory, Transistor, Transistor–transistor logic, True Performance Index, UltraSPARC T1, Uncore, University of Manchester, University of Pennsylvania, Vacuum tube, Vector processor, Very long instruction word, Video game console, Virtual memory, Volt, Voltage, Von Neumann architecture, Wait state, Word (computer architecture), X86-64, Xbox 360, Xenon (processor), 8-bit. Expand index (171 more) » « Shrink index
Address generation unit (AGU), sometimes also called address computation unit (ACU), is an execution unit inside central processing units (CPUs) that calculates addresses used by the CPU to access main memory.
Addressing modes are an aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit (CPU) designs.
AltiVec is a single-precision floating point and integer SIMD instruction set designed and owned by Apple, IBM, and Freescale Semiconductor (formerly Motorola's Semiconductor Products Sector) — the AIM alliance.
The AMD Accelerated Processing Unit (APU), formerly known as Fusion, is the marketing term for a series of 64-bit microprocessors from Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), designed to act as a central processing unit (CPU) and graphics accelerator unit (GPU) on a single die.
AMULET is a series of microprocessors implementing the ARM processor architecture.
The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was a digital computer produced for the Apollo program that was installed on board each Apollo Command Module (CM) and Lunar Module (LM).
In computer science, arbitrary-precision arithmetic, also called bignum arithmetic, multiple-precision arithmetic, or sometimes infinite-precision arithmetic, indicates that calculations are performed on numbers whose digits of precision are limited only by the available memory of the host system.
Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a combinational digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer binary numbers.
ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.
The Athlon 64 X2 is the first native dual-core desktop CPU designed by AMD.
AVR is a family of microcontrollers developed by Atmel beginning in 1996.
Balanced ternary is a non-standard positional numeral system (a balanced form), used in some early computers and useful in the solution of balance puzzles.
The Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland was the center for the United States Army's research efforts in ballistics (interior, exterior, and terminal) as well as vulnerability/lethality analysis.
Bank switching is a technique used in computer design to increase the amount of usable memory beyond the amount directly addressable by the processor.
In computing, a benchmark is the act of running a computer program, a set of programs, or other operations, in order to assess the relative performance of an object, normally by running a number of standard tests and trials against it.
In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).
The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.
In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.
In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.
In computer architecture, a branch predictor is a digital circuit that tries to guess which way a branch (e.g. an if–then–else structure) will go before this is known definitively.
In computer architecture, a bus (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.
Cell is a multi-core microprocessor microarchitecture that combines a general-purpose Power Architecture core of modest performance with streamlined coprocessing elements which greatly accelerate multimedia and vector processing applications, as well as many other forms of dedicated computation.
In the history of computer hardware, some early reduced instruction set computer central processing units (RISC CPUs) used a very similar architectural solution, now called a classic RISC pipeline.
Clock gating is a popular technique used in many synchronous circuits for reducing dynamic power dissipation.
The clock rate typically refers to the frequency at which a chip like a central processing unit (CPU), one core of a multi-core processor, is running and is used as an indicator of the processor's speed.
In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits, a clock signal is a particular type of signal that oscillates between a high and a low state and is used like a metronome to coordinate actions of digital circuits.
Cloud computing is an information technology (IT) paradigm that enables ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet.
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.
In digital circuit theory, combinational logic (sometimes also referred to as time-independent logic) is a type of digital logic which is implemented by Boolean circuits, where the output is a pure function of the present input only.
A complex instruction set computer (CISC) is a computer in which single instructions can execute several low-level operations (such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store) or are capable of multi-step operations or addressing modes within single instructions.
Computational science (also scientific computing or scientific computation (SC)) is a rapidly growing multidisciplinary field that uses advanced computing capabilities to understand and solve complex problems.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.
A computer cluster is a set of loosely or tightly connected computers that work together so that, in many respects, they can be viewed as a single system.
Computer cooling is required to remove the waste heat produced by computer components, to keep components within permissible operating temperature limits.
Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.
Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of computer science and electronics engineering required to develop computer hardware and software.
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
The control unit (CU) is a component of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) that directs the operation of the processor.
A CPU cache is a hardware cache used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average cost (time or energy) to access data from the main memory.
The CPU core voltage (VCORE) is the power supply voltage supplied to the CPU (which is a digital circuit), GPU, or other device containing a processing core.
Central processing unit power dissipation or CPU power dissipation is the process in which central processing units (CPUs) consume electrical energy, and dissipate this energy in the form of heat due to the resistance in the electronic circuits.
In computer hardware, a CPU socket or CPU slot comprises one or more mechanical components providing mechanical and electrical connections between a microprocessor and a printed circuit board (PCB).
Cray Inc. is an American supercomputer manufacturer headquartered in Seattle, Washington.
The Cray-1 was a supercomputer designed, manufactured and marketed by Cray Research.
Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.
Datapoint Corporation, originally known as Computer Terminal Corporation (CTC), was a computer company based in San Antonio, Texas, United States.
The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.
A die (pronunciation: /daɪ/) in the context of integrated circuits is a small block of semiconducting material, on which a given functional circuit is fabricated.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.
Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of computer systems that allows certain hardware subsystems to access main system memory (Random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU).
In computer engineering, directory-based cache coherence is a type of cache coherence mechanism, where directories are used to manage caches in place of snoopy methods due to their scalability.
In mathematics, the dot product or scalar productThe term scalar product is often also used more generally to mean a symmetric bilinear form, for example for a pseudo-Euclidean space.
EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) was one of the earliest electronic computers.
Electromigration is the transport of material caused by the gradual movement of the ions in a conductor due to the momentum transfer between conducting electrons and diffusing metal atoms.
An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow.
An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields.
An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a periodic, oscillating electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave.
In parallel computing, an embarrassingly parallel workload or problem (also called perfectly parallel or pleasingly parallel) is one where little or no effort is needed to separate the problem into a number of parallel tasks.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was amongst the earliest electronic general-purpose computers made.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.
In computer engineering, an execution unit (also called a functional unit) is a part of the central processing unit (CPU) that performs the operations and calculations as instructed by the computer program.
The First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC (commonly shortened to First Draft) is an incomplete 101-page document written by John von Neumann and distributed on June 30, 1945 by Herman Goldstine, security officer on the classified ENIAC project.
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
A floating-point unit (FPU, colloquially a math coprocessor) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers.
Flynn's taxonomy is a classification of computer architectures, proposed by Michael J. Flynn in 1966.
is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
In parallel computing, granularity (or grain size) of a task is a measure of the amount of work (or computation) which is performed by that task.
The Harvard architecture is a computer architecture with physically separate storage and signal pathways for instructions and data.
The IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), called Mark I by Harvard University’s staff, was a general purpose electromechanical computer that was used in the war effort during the last part of World War II.
In the domain of central processing unit (CPU) design, hazards are problems with the instruction pipeline in CPU microarchitectures when the next instruction cannot execute in the following clock cycle, and can potentially lead to incorrect computation results.
A heat pipe is a heat-transfer device that combines the principles of both thermal conductivity and phase transition to effectively transfer heat between two solid interfaces.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
Hyper-threading (officially called Hyper-Threading Technology or HT Technology, and abbreviated as HTT or HT) is Intel's proprietary simultaneous multithreading (SMT) implementation used to improve parallelization of computations (doing multiple tasks at once) performed on x86 microprocessors.
IA-32 (short for "Intel Architecture, 32-bit", sometimes also called i386) is the 32-bit version of the x86 instruction set architecture, first implemented in the Intel 80386 microprocessors in 1985.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Solid Logic Technology (SLT) was IBM's method for packaging electronic circuitry introduced in 1964 with the IBM System/360 series and related machines.
The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.
The IBM System/360 Model 30 was a low-end member of the IBM System/360 family.
The IBM System/360 Model 40 was a mid-range member of the IBM System/360 family.
The IBM System/370 (S/370) was a model range of IBM mainframe computers announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family.
IBM Z is a family name used by IBM for all of its mainframe computers from the Z900 on.
IEEE Transactions on Computers is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of computer design.
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
An instruction cycle (also known as the fetch–decode–execute cycle or the fetch-execute cycle) is the basic operational process of a computer.
Instruction pipelining is a technique for implementing instruction-level parallelism within a single processor.
An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.
Instruction-level parallelism (ILP) is a measure of how many of the instructions in a computer program can be executed simultaneously.
In computer architecture, instructions per cycle (IPC) is one aspect of a processor's performance: the average number of instructions executed for each clock cycle.
Instructions per second (IPS) is a measure of a computer's processor speed.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971.
The Intel i486DX2, rumored as 80486DX2 (later renamed IntelDX2) is a CPU produced by Intel that was introduced in 1992.
The Intel 8080 ("eighty-eighty") was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974.
John Adam Presper "Pres" Eckert Jr. (April 9, 1919 – June 3, 1995) was an American electrical engineer and computer pioneer.
John William Mauchly (August 30, 1907 – January 8, 1980) was an American physicist who, along with J. Presper Eckert, designed ENIAC, the first general purpose electronic digital computer, as well as EDVAC, BINAC and UNIVAC I, the first commercial computer made in the United States.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.
Konrad Zuse (22 June 1910 – 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer.
A list of computer central processor instruction sets: (By alphabetical order by its manufacturer.).
In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
The Manchester Baby, also known as the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), was the world's first stored-program computer.
The Manchester Mark 1 was one of the earliest stored-program computers, developed at the Victoria University of Manchester from the Manchester Baby (operational in June 1948).
In computer architecture, the memory hierarchy separates computer storage into a hierarchy based on response time.
Memory protection is a way to control memory access rights on a computer, and is a part of most modern instruction set architectures and operating systems.
Microcode is a computer hardware technique that imposes an interpreter between the CPU hardware and the programmer-visible instruction set architecture of the computer.
A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.
Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics.
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
In computing, MIMD (multiple instruction, multiple data) is a technique employed to achieve parallelism.
A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors.
MIPS (an acronym for Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA)Price, Charles (September 1995).
MMX is a single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 with its P5-based Pentium line of microprocessors, designated as "Pentium with MMX Technology".
The Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania came into existence as a result of an endowment from Alfred Fitler Moore on June 4, 1923.
Moore's law is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years.
The Motorola 68000 ("'sixty-eight-thousand'"; also called the m68k or Motorola 68k, "sixty-eight-kay") is a 16/32-bit CISC microprocessor, which implements a 32-bit instruction set, with 32-bit registers and 32-bit internal data bus, but with a 16-bit data ALU and two 16-bit arithmetic ALUs and a 16-bit external data bus, designed and marketed by Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector.
The Motorola 68000 series (also termed 680x0, m68000, m68k, or 68k) is a family of 32-bit CISC microprocessors.
The Motorola MC68010 processor is a 16/32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, released in 1982 as the successor to the Motorola 68000.
A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent processing units called cores, which read and execute program instructions.
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.
The Multimedia Acceleration eXtensions or MAX are instruction set extensions to the Hewlett-Packard PA-RISC instruction set architecture (ISA).
Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system.
In computer architecture, multithreading is the ability of a central processing unit (CPU) or a single core in a multi-core processor to execute multiple processes or threads concurrently, appropriately supported by the operating system.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic uses n-type field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits.
Non-uniform memory access (NUMA) is a computer memory design used in multiprocessing, where the memory access time depends on the memory location relative to the processor.
The NOR gate is a digital logic gate that implements logical NOR - it behaves according to the truth table to the right.
A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner.
In computing, an opcode (abbreviated from operation code, also known as instruction syllable, instruction parcel or opstring) is the portion of a machine language instruction that specifies the operation to be performed.
In mathematics an operand is the object of a mathematical operation, i.e. it is the quantity that is operated on.
Opteron is AMD's x86 former server and workstation processor line, and was the first processor which supported the AMD64 instruction set architecture (known generically as x86-64).
In computer engineering, out-of-order execution (or more formally dynamic execution) is a paradigm used in most high-performance central processing units to make use of instruction cycles that would otherwise be wasted.
The first Pentium microprocessor was introduced by Intel on March 22, 1993.
The P6 microarchitecture is the sixth-generation Intel x86 microarchitecture, implemented by the Pentium Pro microprocessor that was introduced in November 1995.
In computer operating systems, paging is a memory management scheme by which a computer stores and retrieves data from secondary storage for use in main memory.
Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.
Parasitic capacitance, or stray capacitance is an unavoidable and usually unwanted capacitance that exists between the parts of an electronic component or circuit simply because of their proximity to each other.
The PDP-10 is a mainframe computer family manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1966 into the 1980s.
The PDP-11 is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series.
The PDP-8 was a 12-bit minicomputer produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC).
Pentium is a brand used for a series of x86 architecture-compatible microprocessors produced by Intel since 1993.
Pentium 4 is a brand by Intel for an entire series of single-core CPUs for desktops, laptops and entry-level servers.
A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer." Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
The PlayStation 3 (PS3) is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment.
P-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic uses p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits.
In computer science, a pool is a set of resources that are kept ready to use, rather than acquired on use and released afterwards.
The POWER4 is a microprocessor developed by International Business Machines (IBM) that implemented the 64-bit PowerPC and PowerPC AS instruction set architectures.
The POWER5 is a microprocessor developed and fabricated by IBM.
PowerPC (with the backronym Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed.
Processor design is the design engineering task of creating a processor, a component of computer hardware.
In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
The program counter (PC), commonly called the instruction pointer (IP) in Intel x86 and Itanium microprocessors, and sometimes called the instruction address register (IAR), the instruction counter, or just part of the instruction sequencer, is a processor register that indicates where a computer is in its program sequence.
Propagation delay is a technical term that can have a different meaning depending on the context.
In computer science, hierarchical protection domains, often called protection rings, are mechanisms to protect data and functionality from faults (by improving fault tolerance) and malicious behaviour (by providing computer security).
A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.
Punched tape or perforated paper tape is a form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data.
Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.
Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.
A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (pronounced 'risk'), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).
In computer architecture, register renaming is a technique that eliminates the false data dependencies arising from the reuse of architectural registers by successive instructions that do not have any real data dependencies between them.
A relay is an electrically operated switch.
A scalar is an element of a field which is used to define a vector space.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) is a class of parallel computers in Flynn's taxonomy.
Simultaneous multithreading (SMT) is a technique for improving the overall efficiency of superscalar CPUs with hardware multithreading.
In computing, SISD (single instruction stream, single data stream) is a computer architecture in which a single uni-core processor, executes a single instruction stream, to operate on data stored in a single memory.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
The Sony Vaio E series is a range of consumer-grade laptops manufactured by Sony since 2010.
SPARC, for Scalable Processor Architecture, is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
SPECint is a computer benchmark specification for CPU integer processing power.
Speculative execution is an optimization technique where a computer system performs some task that may not be needed.
A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values, with the same duration at minimum and maximum.
A status register, flag register, or condition code register (CCR) is a collection of status flag bits for a processor.
A stored-program computer is a computer that stores program instructions in electronic memory.
Stream processing is a computer programming paradigm, equivalent to dataflow programming, event stream processing, and reactive programming, that allows some applications to more easily exploit a limited form of parallel processing.
In computing, Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) is an SIMD instruction set extension to the x86 architecture, designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series of processors shortly after the appearance of AMD's 3DNow!.
In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.
Subthreshold conduction or subthreshold leakage or subthreshold drain current is the current between the source and drain of a MOSFET when the transistor is in subthreshold region, or weak-inversion region, that is, for gate-to-source voltages below the threshold voltage.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) involves a multiprocessor computer hardware and software architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single, shared main memory, have full access to all input and output devices, and are controlled by a single operating system instance that treats all processors equally, reserving none for special purposes.
A synchronous circuit is a digital circuit in which the changes in the state of memory elements are synchronized by a clock signal.
A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC) is an integrated circuit (also known as an "IC" or "chip") that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic systems.
Task parallelism (also known as function parallelism and control parallelism) is a form of parallelization of computer code across multiple processors in parallel computing environments.
Temporal multithreading is one of the two main forms of multithreading that can be implemented on computer processor hardware, the other being simultaneous multithreading.
All electronic devices and circuitry generate excess heat and thus require thermal management to improve reliability and prevent premature failure.
In computer science, a thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by a scheduler, which is typically a part of the operating system.
In general terms, throughput is the maximum rate of production or the maximum rate at which something can be processed.
Transaction processing is information processing in computer science that is divided into individual, indivisible operations called transactions.
In computer science and engineering, transactional memory attempts to simplify concurrent programming by allowing a group of load and store instructions to execute in an atomic way.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors.
True Performance Index (TPI) is used to measure the performance of central processing unit chips produced by manufacturer AMD.
Sun Microsystems' UltraSPARC T1 microprocessor, known until its 14 November 2005 announcement by its development codename "Niagara", is a multithreading, multicore CPU.
"Uncore" is a term used by Intel to describe the functions of a microprocessor that are not in the core, but which must be closely connected to the core to achieve high performance.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
In computing, a vector processor or array processor is a central processing unit (CPU) that implements an instruction set containing instructions that operate on one-dimensional arrays of data called vectors, compared to scalar processors, whose instructions operate on single data items.
Very long instruction word (VLIW) refers to instruction set architectures designed to exploit instruction level parallelism (ILP).
A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.
In computing, virtual memory (also virtual storage) is a memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "creates the illusion to users of a very large (main) memory." The computer's operating system, using a combination of hardware and software, maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
The von Neumann architecture, which is also known as the von Neumann model and Princeton architecture, is a computer architecture based on the 1945 description by the mathematician and physicist John von Neumann and others in the First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC.
A wait state is a delay experienced by a computer processor when accessing external memory or another device that is slow to respond.
In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.
x86-64 (also known as x64, x86_64, AMD64 and Intel 64) is the 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set.
The Xbox 360 is a home video game console developed by Microsoft.
Microsoft XCPU, codenamed Xenon, is a CPU used in the Xbox 360 game console, to be used with ATI's Xenos graphics chip.
8-bit is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm.
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