241 relations: Abraliopsis morisii, Abyssal plain, Actinocerida, Active camouflage, Adolf Naef, Agoniatitida, Ainu people, Akkorokamui, Allometry, Allonautilus, Ama (diving), Ammonia, Ammonitida, Ammonium, Ammonium chloride, Ammonoidea, Anomalocaridid, Aposematism, Argonaut (animal), Ascocerida, Aulacocerida, Bactritida, Bajkaloceras, Basslerocerida, Bathypolypus, Bathyteuthis, Belemnitida, Belemnoidea, Belemnotheutis, Bigfin reef squid, Bioluminescence, Blanket octopus, Bobtail squid, Boletzkyida, Brackish water, Brain, Branchial heart, Callovian, Cambrian, Cambrian–Ordovician extinction event, Camouflage, Caribbean reef squid, Carl Linnaeus, Cartilage, Cephalopod beak, Cephalopod eye, Cephalopod fin, Cephalopod ink, Cephalopod intelligence, Cephalopod limb, ..., Cephalopod size, Ceratitida, Chambered nautilus, Chesapeake Bay, Chiroteuthis veranii, Chlorine, Chromatic aberration, Chromatophore, Chtenopteryx sicula, Cirrate shell, Cirrina, Clade, Cladogram, Class (biology), Clymeniida, Coleoidea, Color blindness, Color vision, Common cuttlefish, Common octopus, Counter-illumination, Creation myth, Crown group, Cuttlebone, Cuttlefish, Davidson Seamount, Decapodiformes, Discosorida, Dissidocerida, Ectocochleate, Ectoderm, Ectotherm, Egg cell, Ellesmerocerida, Embryogenesis, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endocerida, Endotherm, Euprymna scolopes, Extinction, Fate mapping, Firefly squid, Fish, Foraging, Fossil, Fresh water, Furongian, Gastropoda, Georges Cuvier, Giant squid, Gill, Gladius (cephalopod), Goniatite, Gorgon, Greek language, Greek mythology, Guernsey, Heart, Hematitida, Hemocyanin, Hemoglobin, Heteroteuthis, Hokusai, Homology (biology), Ian Fleming, Idiosepius, Incirrata, Intejocerida, Invertebrate, Ion, Japanese flying squid, Jeletzkya, Jet (fluid), Jet propulsion, Knightoconus, Knossos, Kraken, Larva, Lens (anatomy), List of ammonite genera, List of prehistoric nautiloid genera, Lituitida, Logy Bay–Middle Cove–Outer Cove, Lolliguncula brevis, Longfin inshore squid, Lytoceratina, Malacology, Mantle (mollusc), Medusa, Melanin, Mesozoic, Metabolic waste, Minoan civilization, Mollusc shell, Mollusca, Monoplacophora, Monster, Mucus, Muscle, Muscular hydrostat, Myelin, Myopsida, Nautilida, Nautiloid, Nautilus, Nautilus (genus), Nectocaris, Neocephalopoda, Neocoleoidea, Neontology, Nephridium, Nerve, Nervous system, Neurophysiology, Neutral buoyancy, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nitrogen, Octopodiformes, Octopus, Octopussy, Octopussy and The Living Daylights, Ocythoe tuberculata, Oegopsida, Olfaction, Oncocerida, Opsin, Order (biology), Ordovician, Orthoceratoidea, Orthocerida, Pain in cephalopods, Paleozoic, Paralarva, Pericardium, Pharyngula, Pharyngula (blog), Photophore, Phragmoteuthida, Phylloceratina, Pinhole camera, Plectronoceras, Plectronocerida, Polarization (waves), Predation, Primary transcript, Prolecanitida, Propeller, Protein, Pseudorthocerida, PZ Myers, Radula, Retinal, Reynolds number, Rhodopsin, Rocket, Sepia (genus), Sepia latimanus, Sepioteuthis, Sexual selection, Shoaling and schooling, Shunga, Signalling theory, Silurian, Siphon (mollusc), Siphuncle, Smoke screen, Species, Spirula, Spirulida, Squid, Statocyst, Sulfate, Symmetry in biology, Systema Naturae, Tarphycerida, Taxon, Taxonomic rank, Tentacle, Tentacle erotica, Teuthology, The Dream of the Fisherman's Wife, The Journal of Experimental Biology, Thrombolite, Toilers of the Sea, Trachyteuthis, Ukiyo-e, Vampire squid, Vampyromorphida, Venae cavae, Victor Hugo, Yolk. Expand index (191 more) » « Shrink index
Abraliopsis morisii is a species of bioluminescent squid in the family Enoploteuthidae.
An abyssal plain is an underwater plain on the deep ocean floor, usually found at depths between and.
The Actinocerida comprise an order of generally straight, medium to large cephalopods that lived during the early and middle Paleozoic, distinguished by a siphuncle composed of expanded segments that extend into the adjacent chambers, in which deposits formed within contain a system of radial canals and a narrow space along the inner side of the connecting ring known as a paraspatium.
Active camouflage or adaptive camouflage is camouflage that adapts, often rapidly, to the surroundings of an object such as an animal or military vehicle.
Adolf Naef (1 May 1883 – 11 May 1949) was a Swiss zoologist and palaeontologist who worked on cephalopods and systematics.
Agoniatitida, also known as the Anarcestida, is the ancestral order within the cephalopod subclass Ammonoidea originating from bactritoid nautiloids, that lived in what would become Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America during the Devonian from about the lower boundary of Zlichovian stage (corresponding to late Pragian, after 409.1 mya) into Taghanic event during upper middle Givetian (between 385–384 mya), existing for approximately 25 million years.
The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu アィヌ ''Aynu''; Japanese: アイヌ Ainu; Russian: Айны Ajny), in the historical Japanese texts the Ezo (蝦夷), are an indigenous people of Japan (Hokkaido, and formerly northeastern Honshu) and Russia (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and formerly the Kamchatka Peninsula).
The is a gigantic octopus-like monster from Ainu folklore, which supposedly lurks in (Uchiura bay) in Hokkaido.
Allometry is the study of the relationship of body size to shape, anatomy, physiology and finally behaviour, first outlined by Otto Snell in 1892, by D'Arcy Thompson in 1917 in On Growth and Form and by Julian Huxley in 1932.
The genus Allonautilus contains two species of nautiluses, which have a significantly different morphology from those placed in the sister taxon Nautilus.
, uminchu (in Okinawan) or kaito (in the Izu Peninsula) are Japanese divers, famous for collecting pearls.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ammonitida is an order of more highly evolved ammonoid cephalopods that lived from the Jurassic through Cretaceous time periods, commonly with intricate ammonitic sutures.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.
Ammonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusc animals in the subclass Ammonoidea of the class Cephalopoda.
The AnomalocarididsNeolatin compound word from Greek ἀνώμαλος anomalos and καρίς karis (gen.: καρίδος), meaning "strange shrimp".
Aposematism (from Greek ἀπό apo away, σῆμα sema sign) is a term coined by Edward Bagnall PoultonPoulton, 1890.
The argonauts (genus Argonauta, the only extant genus in the family Argonautidae) are a group of pelagic octopuses.
The Ascocerida are comparatively small, bizarre Orthoceratoids known only from Ordovician and Silurian sediments in Europe and North America, uniquely characterized by a deciduous conch consisting of a longiconic juvenile portion and an inflated breviconic adult portion that separate sometime in maturity.
Aulacocerida is an order of primitive coleoid cephalopods, possibly derived from michelinoceraitids (Orthocerida) early in the Devonian, which in turn gave rise to the Belemnites.
The Bactritida are a small order of more or less straight-shelled (orthoconic) cephalopods that first appeared during the Emsian stage of the Devonian period (407 million years ago) with questionable origins in Pragian stage before 409 million years ago, and persisted until Carnian pluvial event in the upper middle Carnian stage of the Triassic period (231 million years ago).
Bajkaloceras is a straight-shelled orthoceroid, and possibly a member of the Intejocerida, from the Angara River basin in central Russia, named by Balashov in 1962.
Basslerocerida is an order of nautiloid cephalopods from the Ordovician comprising exogastric longiconic cyrtocones,R.
Bathypolypus is a genus of octopuses in the monotypic family Bathypolypodidae.
Bathyteuthis is the singular genus of squid in the family Bathyteuthidae, encompassing three species.
Belemnitida (or belemnites) is an extinct order of cephalopods which existed during the Mesozoic era, from the Hettangian age of the Lower Jurassic to the Maastrichtian age of the Upper Cretaceous.
Belemnoids are an extinct group of marine cephalopod, very similar in many ways to the modern squid and closely related to the modern cuttlefish.
Belemnotheutis, is an extinct coleoid cephalopod genus from the middle and upper Jurassic, related to but morphologically distinct from belemnites.
Sepioteuthis lessoniana, commonly known as the bigfin reef squid or oval squid, is a commercially important species of loliginid squid.
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.
Tremoctopus is a genus of pelagic cephalopods, containing four species that occupy surface to mid-waters in subtropical and tropical oceans.
Bobtail squid (order Sepiolida) are a group of cephalopods closely related to cuttlefish.
Boletzkyida is a primitive order of teuthid coleoid cephalopod: the boletzkyids are thought to be the earliest forms of coleoid cephalopods, and appear to form a link between nautiloid orthocerids and more advanced coleoids.
Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Branchial hearts are myogenic accessory pumps found in coleoid cephalopods that supplement the action of the main, systemic heart.
In the geologic timescale, the Callovian is an age or stage in the Middle Jurassic, lasting between 166.1 ± 4.0 Ma (million years ago) and 163.5 ± 4.0 Ma.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
The Cambrian–Ordovician extinction event occurred approximately 488 million years ago (m.y.a.). This early Phanerozoic Eon extinction event eliminated many brachiopods and conodonts, and severely reduced the number of trilobite species.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
Caribbean reef squid (Sepioteuthis sepioidea), commonly called reef squid, are small torpedo-shaped squid with undulating fins that extend nearly the entire length of the body.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
All extant cephalopods have a two-part beak, or rostrum, situated in the buccal mass and surrounded by the muscular head appendages.
Cephalopods, as active marine predators, possess sensory organs specialized for use in aquatic conditions.
Cephalopod fins, sometimes known as wings,Young, R.E., M. Vecchione & K.M. Mangold (1999).
Cephalopod ink is a dark pigment released into water by most species of cephalopod, usually as an escape mechanism.
Cephalopod intelligence has an important comparative aspect in the understanding of intelligence because it relies on a nervous system fundamentally different from that of vertebrates.
All cephalopods possess flexible limbs extending from their heads and surrounding their beaks.
Cephalopods vary enormously in size.
Ceratitida is an order that contains almost all ammonoid cephalopod genera from the Triassic as well as ancestral forms from the Upper Permian, the exception being the phylloceratids which gave rise to the great diversity of post Triassic ammonites.
The chambered nautilus, Nautilus pompilius, also called the pearly nautilus, is the best-known species of nautilus.
The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U.S. states of Maryland and Virginia.
Chiroteuthis veranii, commonly known as the long-armed squid, is a species of chiroteuthid squid.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
In optics, chromatic aberration (abbreviated CA; also called chromatic distortion and spherochromatism) is an effect resulting from dispersion in which there is a failure of a lens to focus all colors to the same convergence point.
Chromatophores are pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods.
Chtenopteryx sicula, also known as the comb-finned squid or toothed-fin squid, is a species of squid native to at least the Mediterranean Sea.
Cirrate octopuses possess a well-developed internal shell that supports their muscular swimming fins.
Cirrina or Cirrata is a suborder and one of the two main divisions of octopuses.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
Clymeniida is an order of ammonoid cephalods from the Upper Devonian characterized by having an unusual dorsal siphuncle.
Subclass Coleoidea, or Dibranchiata, is the grouping of cephalopods containing all the various taxa popularly thought of as "soft-bodied" or "shell-less," i.e., octopus, squid and cuttlefish.
Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color.
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
The common cuttlefish or European common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) is one of the largest and best-known cuttlefish species.
The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) is a mollusc belonging to the class Cephalopoda.
Counter-illumination is a method of active camouflage seen in marine animals such as firefly squid and midshipman fish, and in military prototypes, producing light to match their backgrounds in both brightness and wavelength.
A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.
In phylogenetics, the crown group of a collection of species consists of the living representatives of the collection together with their ancestors back to their most recent common ancestor as well as all of that ancestor's descendants.
Cuttlebone, also known as cuttlefish bone, is a hard, brittle internal structure (an internal shell) found in all members of the family Sepiidae, commonly known as cuttlefish, a family within the cephalopods.
Cuttlefish or cuttles are marine animals of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda, which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses. Cuttlefish have a unique internal shell, the cuttlebone. Despite their name, cuttlefish are not fish but molluscs. Cuttlefish have large, W-shaped pupils, eight arms, and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey. They generally range in size from, with the largest species, Sepia apama, reaching in mantle length and over in mass. Cuttlefish eat small molluscs, crabs, shrimp, fish, octopus, worms, and other cuttlefish. Their predators include dolphins, sharks, fish, seals, seabirds, and other cuttlefish. The average life expectancy of a cuttlefish is about one to two years. Recent studies indicate cuttlefish are among the most intelligent invertebrates. (television program) NOVA, PBS, April 3, 2007. Cuttlefish also have one of the largest brain-to-body size ratios of all invertebrates. The 'cuttle' in 'cuttlefish' comes from the Old English name for the species, cudele, which may be cognate with the Old Norse koddi ('cushion') and the Middle Low German Kudel ('rag'). The Greco-Roman world valued the cuttlefish as a source of the unique brown pigment the creature releases from its siphon when it is alarmed. The word for it in both Greek and Latin, sepia, now refers to the reddish-brown color sepia in English.
Davidson Seamount is a seamount (underwater volcano) located off the coast of Central California, southwest of Monterey and west of San Simeon.
Decapodiformes is a superorder of Cephalopoda, which includes all species with ten limbs; the name derives from the Greek word meaning ten feet.
The Discosorida are an order of cephalopods that lived from the beginning of the Middle Ordovician, through the Silurian, and into the Devonian.
Dissidocerida is an order of Early Ordovician to the Early Silurian orthoceratoid cephalopods in which the siphuncle has a continuous lining or a longitudinal rod-like structure within.
The ectocochleate (externally shelled) cephalopods are the oldest known representatives of their class, dating back to the Cambrian period.
Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
The Ellesmerocerida is an order of primitive cephalopods belonging to the subclass Nautiloidea with a widespread distribution that lived during the Late Cambrian and Ordovician.
Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Endocerida is an extinct nautiloid order, a group of cephalopods from the Lower Paleozoic with cone-like deposits in its siphuncle.
An endotherm (from Greek ἔνδον endon "within" and θέρμη thermē "heat") is an organism that maintains its body at a metabolically favorable temperature, largely by the use of heat set free by its internal bodily functions instead of relying almost purely on ambient heat.
Euprymna scolopes, also known as the Hawaiian bobtail squid, is a species of bobtail squid in the family Sepiolidae native to the central Pacific Ocean, where it occurs in shallow coastal waters off the Hawaiian Islands and Midway Island.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
In developmental biology, fate mapping is a method of understanding the embryonic origin of various tissues in the adult organism by establishing the correspondence between individual cells (or groups of cells) at one stage of development, and their progeny at later stages of development.
The firefly squid, Watasenia scintillans, also known as the sparkling enope squid, is a species of squid in the family Enoploteuthidae.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Foraging is searching for wild food resources.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
The Furongian is the fourth and final series of the Cambrian.
The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.
Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".
The giant squid (genus Architeuthis) is a deep-ocean dwelling squid in the family Architeuthidae.
A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.
The gladius (plural: gladii), or pen, is a hard internal bodypart found in many cephalopods of the superorder Decapodiformes (particularly squids) and in a single extant member of the Octopodiformes, the vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis).
Goniatids, informally Goniatites, are ammonoid cephalopods that form the Order Goniatitida, derived from the more primitive Agoniatitida during the Middle Devonian some 390 million years ago.
In Greek mythology, a Gorgon (plural: Gorgons, Γοργών/Γοργώ Gorgon/Gorgo) is a female creature.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Hematitida is a group of coleoid cephalopods known from the early Carboniferous Period.
Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins and abbreviated Hc) are proteins that transport oxygen throughout the bodies of some invertebrate animals.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Heteroteuthis is a genus of deep-sea bobtail squid comprising five species.
was a Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Ian Lancaster Fleming (28 May 1908 – 12 August 1964) was an English author, journalist and naval intelligence officer who is best known for his James Bond series of spy novels.
Idiosepius is a genus of mollusk in the family Idiosepiidae.
Incirrata (or Incirrina) is a suborder of the order Octopoda.
Intejocerida is the name given to a group of generally straight shelled nautiloid cephalopods originally found in Lower and Middle Ordovician sediments in the Angara River basin in Russia; defined in the Treatise as an order, and combined there with the Endocerida in the Endoceratoidea.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The Japanese flying squid, Japanese common squid or Pacific flying squid, scientific name Todarodes pacificus, is a squid of the family Ommastrephidae.
Jeletzkya douglassae is a fossil coleoid from the early Pennsylvanian Mazon Creek lagerstätten and represents the earliest known crown-group squid.
A jet is a stream of fluid that is projected into a surrounding medium, usually from some kind of a nozzle, aperture or orifice.
Jet propulsion is thrust produced by passing a jet of matter (typically fluid) in the opposite direction to the direction of motion.
Knightoconus antarcticus is a species of monoplacophoran from the Cambrian Minaret Formation of Antarctica.
Knossos (also Cnossos, both pronounced; Κνωσός, Knōsós) is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and has been called Europe's oldest city.
The kraken is a legendary cephalopod-like sea monster of giant size that is said to dwell off the coasts of Norway and Greenland.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.
This list of ammonites is a comprehensive listing of genera that are included in the subclass †Ammonoidea, excluding purely vernacular terms.
This list of nautiloids is a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been included in the subclass Nautiloidea, excluding purely vernacular terms.
The Lituitida are the Lituitidae of the Treatise (Furnish & Glenister,1964), reranked as an order and combined with other orthoceratoids.
Logy Bay–Middle Cove–Outer Cove is a town in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Lolliguncula brevis, or the Atlantic brief squid, is a small species of squid in the Loliginidae family.
The longfin inshore squid (Doryteuthis pealeii) is a species of squid of the family Loliginidae.
Lytoceratina is a suborder of Jurassic and Cretaceous ammonites that produced loosely coiled, evolute and gyroconic shells in which the sutural element are said to have complex moss-like endings.
Malacology is the branch of invertebrate zoology that deals with the study of the Mollusca (mollusks or molluscs), the second-largest phylum of animals in terms of described species after the arthropods.
The mantle (also known by the Latin word pallium meaning mantle, robe or cloak, adjective pallial) is a significant part of the anatomy of molluscs: it is the dorsal body wall which covers the visceral mass and usually protrudes in the form of flaps well beyond the visceral mass itself.
In Greek mythology, Medusa (Μέδουσα "guardian, protectress") was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
Metabolic wastes or excretes are substances left over from metabolic processes (such as cellular respiration) which cannot be used by the organism (they are surplus or toxic), and must therefore be excreted.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.
The mollusc (or molluskOften spelled mollusk shell in the USA; the spelling "mollusc" are preferred by) shell is typically a calcareous exoskeleton which encloses, supports and protects the soft parts of an animal in the phylum Mollusca, which includes snails, clams, tusk shells, and several other classes.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Monoplacophora, meaning "bearing one plate", is a polyphyletic superclass of molluscs with a cap-like shell now living at the bottom of the deep sea.
A monster is a creature which produces fear or physical harm by its appearance or its actions.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
A muscular hydrostat is a biological structure found in animals.
Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.
Myopsida is an order of squid containing two families: the monotypic Australiteuthidae and the diverse and commercially important Loliginidae (~50 species).
The Nautilida constitute a large and diverse order of generally coiled nautiloid cephalopods that began in the mid Paleozoic and continues to the present with a single family, the Nautilidae which includes two genera, Nautilus and Allonautilus, with six species.
Nautiloids are a large and diverse group of marine cephalopods (Mollusca) belonging to the subclass Nautiloidea that began in the Late Cambrian and are represented today by the living Nautilus and Allonautilus.
The nautilus (from the Latin form of the original ναυτίλος, 'sailor') is a pelagic marine mollusc of the cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole extant family of the superfamily Nautilaceae and of its smaller but near equal suborder, Nautilina.
Nautilus is a genus of cephalopods in the family Nautilidae.
Nectocaris pteryx is a species of possible cephalopod affinity, known from the "early Cambrian" (Series 2) Emu Bay Shale and Chengjiang biota, and the "middle Cambrian" (Series 3, Stage 5) Burgess Shale.
Neocephalopods are a group of cephalopod mollusks that include the coleoids and all extinct species that are more closely related to extant coleoids than to the nautilus.
Neocoleoidea is a large group of marine cephalopods.
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
The nephridium (plural nephridia) is an invertebrate organ which occurs in pairs and performs a function similar to the vertebrate kidney.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neurophysiology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia, "knowledge") is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system.
Neutral buoyancy is a condition in which a physical body's average density is equal to the density of the fluid in which it is immersed.
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Octopodiformes is a superorder of the subclass Coleoidea, comprising the octopuses and the vampire squid.
The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.
Octopussy is a 1983 British spy film, the thirteenth in the ''James Bond'' series produced by Eon Productions, and the sixth to star Roger Moore as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond.
Octopussy and The Living Daylights (sometimes published as Octopussy) is the fourteenth and final James Bond book written by Ian Fleming in the Bond series.
Ocythoe tuberculata, also known as the tuberculate pelagic octopus or football octopus, is a pelagic octopus.
Oegopsida is one of the two orders of squid in the superorder Decapodiformes, in the Cephalopoda class.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
The Oncocerida comprise a diverse group of generally small nautiloid cephalopods known from the Middle Ordovician to the Mississippian (early Carboniferous), in which the connecting rings are thin and siphuncle segments are variably expanded (Flower, 1950).
Opsins are a group of proteins, made light-sensitive, via the chromophore retinal found in photoreceptor cells of the retina.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
Orthoceratoidea is a subclass, formerly considered an infraclass or a superorder (Wade 1988), that comprises Cephalopoda orders that have orthoconic to slightly cyrtoconic shells and central to subcentral siphuncles in which there may be internal deposits.
Orthocerida is an order of extinct Orthoceratoid cephalopods also known as the Michelinocerda that lived from the Early Ordovician possibly to the Late Triassic.
Pain in cephalopods is a contentious issue.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Paralarvae (singular: paralarva) are young cephalopods in the planktonic stages between hatchling and subadult.
The pericardium is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels.
The pharyngula is a stage in the embryonic development of vertebrates.
Pharyngula, a blog founded and written by PZ Myers, is hosted on ScienceBlogs (2005–2011, in full, and 2011–present, in part) and on FreeThoughtBlogs (2011–present).
A photophore is a glandular organ that appears as luminous spots on various marine animals, including fish and cephalopods.
Phragmoteuthida is an order of coleoid cephalopodsDoguzhaeva, L. 2002.
The Phyllocertina comprise a suborder of ammonoid cephalopods, belonging to the Ammonitida, whose range extends from the Lower Triassic to the Upper Cretaceous.
A pinhole camera is a simple camera without a lens but with a tiny aperture, a pinhole – effectively a light-proof box with a small hole in one side.
Plectronoceras is the earliest known shelly cephalopod, dating to the Late Cambrian.
Plectronocerida is a primitive order from which subsequent cephalopod orders are ultimately derived.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
A primary transcript is the single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) product synthesized by transcription of DNA, and processed to yield various mature RNA products such as mRNAs, tRNAs, and rRNAs.
Prolecanitida is an order of extinct ammonoid cephalopods with discoidal to thinly lenticular shells with goniatitic or ceratitic sutures and which retained the simple retrochoanitic siphuncle with backward extending septal necks.
A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pseudorthocerida is an order of generally straight longiconic Orthoceratoids with a subcentral to marginal cyrtochoanitic siphuncle composed of variably expanded segments which may contain internal deposits that may develop into a continuous parietal lining.(Sweet 1964).
Paul Zachary "PZ" Myers (born March 9, 1957) is an American biologist who founded and writes the Pharyngula science-blog.
The radula (plural radulae or radulas) is an anatomical structure that is used by mollusks for feeding, sometimes compared to a tongue.
Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde.
The Reynolds number is an important dimensionless quantity in fluid mechanics used to help predict flow patterns in different fluid flow situations.
Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransduction.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Sepia is a genus of cuttlefish in the family Sepiidae encompassing some of the best known and most common species.
Sepia latimanus, also known as the broadclub cuttlefish, is widely distributed from the Andaman Sea, east to Fiji, and south to northern Australia.
Sepioteuthis, commonly known as reef squids or oval squids, is a genus of pencil squid.
Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).
In biology, any group of fish that stay together for social reasons are shoaling (pronounced), and if the group is swimming in the same direction in a coordinated manner, they are schooling (pronounced). In common usage, the terms are sometimes used rather loosely.
is a Japanese term for erotic art.
Within evolutionary biology, signalling theory is a body of theoretical work examining communication between individuals, both within species and across species.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
A siphon is an anatomical structure which is part of the body of aquatic molluscs in three classes: Gastropoda, Bivalvia and Cephalopoda (members of these classes include saltwater and freshwater snails, clams, octopus, squid and relatives).
The siphuncle is a strand of tissue passing longitudinally through the shell of a cephalopod mollusk.
A smoke screen is smoke released to mask the movement or location of military units such as infantry, tanks, aircraft or ships.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Spirula spirula is a species of deep-water squid-like cephalopod mollusk.
Spirulida is an order of cephalopods comprising one extant species (Spirula spirula) and several extinct taxa.
Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.
The statocyst is a balance sensory receptor present in some aquatic invertebrates, including molluscs, bivalves, cnidarians, ctenophorans, echinoderms, cephalopods, and crustaceans.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes within the body of an organism.
(originally in Latin written with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.
The Tarphycerida were the first of the coiled cephalopods, found in marine sediments from the Lower Ordovician (middle and upper Canad) to the Middle Devonian.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.
In zoology, a tentacle is a flexible, mobile, elongated organ present in some species of animals, most of them invertebrates.
is found in some horror or hentai titles, with tentacled creatures (usually fictional monsters) having sexual intercourse with predominantly females.
Teuthology (from Greek τεῦθος, "cuttlefish, squid", and -λογία, -logia) is the study of cephalopods.
, also known as Girl Diver and Octopuses, Diver and Two Octopuses, etc., is a woodblock-printed design by the Japanese artist Hokusai.
The Journal of Experimental Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of comparative physiology and integrative biology.
Thrombolites are ancient forms of microbial communities that photosynthesize.
Toilers of the Sea (Les Travailleurs de la mer) is a novel by Victor Hugo published in 1866.
Trachyteuthis is a genus of fossil cephalopod, comprising five species: T. hastiformis, T. latipinnis, T. nusplingensis, T. teudopsiformis, T. covacevichi and T. chilensis.
Ukiyo-e is a genre of Japanese art which flourished from the 17th through 19th centuries.
The vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis, lit. "vampire squid from Hell") is a small cephalopod found throughout temperate and tropical oceans in extreme deep sea conditions.
Vampyromorphida is an order of cephalopods comprising one known extant species (Vampyroteuthis infernalis) and many extinct taxa.
The venae cavae (from the Latin for "hollow veins", singular "vena cava") are two large veins (venous trunks) that return deoxygenated blood from the body into the heart.
Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.
Among animals which produce one, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo.
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