31 relations: Autonomic nervous system, Bathyteuthis, Bilateria, Blind spot (vision), Cephalopod, Chambered nautilus, Common octopus, Convergent evolution, Cornea, Crystallin, Cuttlefish, Drosophila, Evolution of the eye, Eye, Eye development, Eye disease, Gene expression, Invagination, Lens (anatomy), Mollusc eye, Natural selection, Octopus, Ommatidium, Orthogonality, Parallel evolution, PAX6, Photoreceptor cell, Polarization (waves), Retina, Squid, Vertebrate.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
Bathyteuthis is the singular genus of squid in the family Bathyteuthidae, encompassing three species.
The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.
A blind spot, scotoma, is an obscurity of the visual field.
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.
The chambered nautilus, Nautilus pompilius, also called the pearly nautilus, is the best-known species of nautilus.
The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) is a mollusc belonging to the class Cephalopoda.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
In anatomy, a crystallin is a water-soluble structural protein found in the lens and the cornea of the eye accounting for the transparency of the structure.
Cuttlefish or cuttles are marine animals of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda, which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses. Cuttlefish have a unique internal shell, the cuttlebone. Despite their name, cuttlefish are not fish but molluscs. Cuttlefish have large, W-shaped pupils, eight arms, and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey. They generally range in size from, with the largest species, Sepia apama, reaching in mantle length and over in mass. Cuttlefish eat small molluscs, crabs, shrimp, fish, octopus, worms, and other cuttlefish. Their predators include dolphins, sharks, fish, seals, seabirds, and other cuttlefish. The average life expectancy of a cuttlefish is about one to two years. Recent studies indicate cuttlefish are among the most intelligent invertebrates. (television program) NOVA, PBS, April 3, 2007. Cuttlefish also have one of the largest brain-to-body size ratios of all invertebrates. The 'cuttle' in 'cuttlefish' comes from the Old English name for the species, cudele, which may be cognate with the Old Norse koddi ('cushion') and the Middle Low German Kudel ('rag'). The Greco-Roman world valued the cuttlefish as a source of the unique brown pigment the creature releases from its siphon when it is alarmed. The word for it in both Greek and Latin, sepia, now refers to the reddish-brown color sepia in English.
Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.
The evolution of the eye is attractive to study, because the eye distinctively exemplifies an analogous organ found in many animal forms.
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
Eye formation in the human embryo begins at approximately three weeks into embryonic development and continues through the tenth week.
This is a partial list of human eye diseases and disorders.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
In developmental biology, invagination is a mechanism that takes place during gastrulation.
The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.
The molluscs have the widest variety of eye morphologies of any phylum, and a large degree of variation in their function.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.
The compound eyes of arthropods like insects, crustaceans and millipedes are composed of units called ommatidia (singular: ommatidium).
In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.
Parallel evolution is the development of a similar trait in related, but distinct, species descending from the same ancestor, but from different clades.
Paired box protein Pax-6, also known as aniridia type II protein (AN2) or oculorhombin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX6 gene.
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).