254 relations: Abrasive, Adiabatic process, Adjacent-channel interference, Aircraft, Aluminium oxide, Amorphous solid, Armoured fighting vehicle, Atomic force microscopy, Ångström, Ball bearing, Barium, Barium titanate, Bearing (mechanical), Beryllium oxide, Bioceramic, Bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide, Bone china, Boride, Boron carbide, Boron nitride, Boron oxide, Brake fade, Brick, Brittleness, Bulletproof vest, Capacitor, Carbide, Carbon, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Carnot heat engine, Catastrophic failure, Ceramic, Ceramic art, Ceramic chemistry, Ceramic engineering, Ceramic forming techniques, Ceramic glaze, Ceramic knife, Ceramic matrix composite, Ceramic nanoparticle, Ceramography, Cerium(IV) oxide, Cermet, Clay, Cockpit, Collagen, Composite armour, Composite material, Compressive strength, Copper, ..., Covalent bond, Crystal, Crystal oscillator, Crystallinity, Crystallite, Crystallographic defect, Data transmission, Deformation (engineering), Deformation (mechanics), Diamond, Dielectric, Disc brake, Dislocation, Ductility, Earthenware, Elastic modulus, Elasticity (physics), Electrical breakdown, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrical substation, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electromechanics, Electron, Energy, Engineering, Failure, Failure cause, Ferrite (magnet), Ferroelectric capacitor, Ferroelectric RAM, Ferroelectricity, Fiberglass, Figurine, Fire brick, Flooring, Fractography, Fracture toughness, Friction, Fuel cell, Fuel efficiency, Gas detector, Gas turbine, Glass, Glass transition, Grain boundary, Grain size, Graphite, Greek language, Hardness, Heat engine, Heating element, Heavy metals, High-explosive anti-tank warhead, High-temperature mineral wool, High-temperature superconductivity, Hydroxylapatite, Implant (medicine), Incoherent scatter, Indentation hardness, Infrared, Infrared homing, Injection moulding, Inorganic compound, Insulator (electricity), Interface (matter), Internal combustion engine, International Watch Company, Ionic bonding, Ionic conductivity (solid state), Isoelectronicity, Jet engine, Joule heating, Kaolinite, Kiln, Kinetic energy penetrator, Laser, Lead zirconate titanate, Light, Light-emitting diode, Lightning, Linear B, Loudspeaker, Lubricant, Luminescence, Magnesium, Magnesium diboride, Magnetic core, Magnetic-core memory, Materials science, Metal, Metalloid, Metastability, Military, Missile, Motion detector, Multi-mode optical fiber, Mycenaean Greek, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Night vision, Nitride, Nitrogen, Nonmetal, Normal mode, Nozzle, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear reactor, Ohm, Opacity (optics), Optical communication, Optical filter, Optics, Oxide, Oxygen, Oxygen sensor, Phase transition, Photonic integrated circuit, Physics, Piezoelectricity, Pipe (fluid conveyance), Plasma (physics), Plasticity (physics), Porcelain, Porosity, Pottery, Pressure, Pyroelectricity, Refraction (metallurgy), Refractory, Relative permittivity, Resonance, Rifle, Roof tiles, Scanning tunneling microscope, Scattering, Scintillation counter, Semiconductor, Shaped charge, Shear strength, Shear stress, Sherd, Sialon, Silicide, Silicon, Silicon carbide, Silicon dioxide, Silicon nitride, Sintering, Slipcasting, Small Arms Protective Insert, Sodium, Solid, Solid-state chemistry, Sonar, Space Shuttle program, Steel, Stoneware, Strength of materials, Stress (mechanics), Stress concentration, Strontium titanate, Superalloy, Superconductivity, Surge protector, Susceptor, Tableware, Tape casting, Temperature coefficient, Thermal insulation, Threshold voltage, Tissue engineering, Titanate, Titanium carbide, Tomography, Toughness, Toyota, Transducer, Transformer, Transmission medium, Transmit (file transfer tool), Transparency and translucency, Tungsten carbide, Turbine, Ultimate tensile strength, Ultrasonic transducer, Unconventional superconductor, United States, Uranium, Uranium oxide, Varistor, Vehicle armour, Viscosity, Visible spectrum, Vitrification, Wave propagation, Waveguide, Wavelength, Window, Yttrium barium copper oxide, Zinc, Zinc oxide, Zirconium dioxide. Expand index (204 more) » « Shrink index
An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away by friction.
In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.
Adjacent-channel interference (ACI) is interference caused by extraneous power from a signal in an adjacent channel.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
A ball bearing is a type of rolling-element bearing that uses balls to maintain the separation between the bearing races.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
Barium titanate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaTiO3.
A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts.
Beryllium oxide (BeO), also known as beryllia, is an inorganic compound with the formula BeO.
Bioceramics and bioglasses are ceramic materials that are biocompatible.
Bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide, or BSCCO (pronounced "bisko"), is a family of high-temperature superconductors having the generalized chemical formula Bi2Sr2Can−1CunO2n+4+x, with n.
Bone china is a type of soft-paste porcelain that is composed of bone ash, feldspathic material, and kaolin.
A boride is a compound between boron and a less electronegative element, for example silicon boride (SiB3 and SiB6).
Boron carbide (chemical formula approximately B4C) is an extremely hard boron–carbon ceramic, and covalent material used in tank armor, bulletproof vests, engine sabotage powders, as well as numerous industrial applications.
Boron nitride is a heat and chemically resistant refractory compound of boron and nitrogen with the chemical formula BN.
Boron oxide may refer to.
Vehicle braking system fade, or brake fade, is the reduction in stopping power that can occur after repeated or sustained application of the brakes, especially in high load or high speed conditions.
A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction.
# A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant plastic deformation.
A ballistic vest or bullet-resistant vest, often called a bulletproof vest, is an item of personal armor that helps absorb the impact and reduce or stop penetration to the body from firearm-fired projectiles- and shrapnel from explosions, and is worn on the torso.
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.
In chemistry, a carbide is a compound composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.
A Carnot heat engine is a theoretical engine that operates on the reversible Carnot cycle.
A catastrophic failure is a sudden and total failure from which recovery is impossible.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials, including clay.
Ceramic chemistry studies the relationship between the physical properties of fired ceramics and ceramic glazes and their chemistry.
Ceramic engineering is the science and technology of creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials.
Ceramic forming techniques are ways of forming ceramics, which are used to make everyday tableware from teapots, to engineering ceramics such as computer parts.
Ceramic glaze is an impervious layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fused to a ceramic body through firing.
A ceramic knife is a knife designed with a ceramic blade typically made from zirconium dioxide (ZrO2; also known as zirconia).
Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are a subgroup of composite materials as well as a subgroup of ceramics.
Nanoceramic is a type of nanoparticle that is composed of ceramics, which are generally classified as inorganic, heat-resistant, nonmetallic solids made of both metallic and nonmetallic compounds.
Ceramography is the art and science of preparation, examination and evaluation of ceramic microstructures.
Cerium(IV) oxide, also known as ceric oxide, ceric dioxide, ceria, cerium oxide or cerium dioxide, is an oxide of the rare-earth metal cerium.
A cermet is a composite material composed of ceramic (cer) and metal (met) materials.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft or spacecraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Composite armour is a type of vehicle armour consisting of layers of different material such as metals, plastics, ceramics or air.
A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
Compressive strength or compression strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size, as opposed to tensile strength, which withstands loads tending to elongate.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency.
Crystallinity refers to the degree of structural order in a solid.
A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials.
Crystalline solids exhibit a periodic crystal structure.
Data transmission (also data communication or digital communications) is the transfer of data (a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel.
In materials science, deformation refers to any changes in the shape or size of an object due to-.
Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
A disc brake is a type of brake that uses calipers to squeeze pairs of pads against a disc or "rotor" to create friction.
In materials science, a dislocation or Taylor's dislocation is a crystallographic defect or irregularity within a crystal structure.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Earthenware is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous pottery that has normally been fired below 1200°C.
An elastic modulus (also known as modulus of elasticity) is a quantity that measures an object or substance's resistance to being deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a stress is applied to it.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
Electrical breakdown or dielectric breakdown is when current flows through an electrical insulator when the voltage applied across it exceeds the breakdown voltage.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
In engineering, electromechanics combines processes and procedures drawn from electrical engineering and mechanical engineering.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
Failure is the state or condition of not meeting a desirable or intended objective, and may be viewed as the opposite of success.
Failure causes are defects in design, process, quality, or part application, which are the underlying cause of a failure or which initiate a process which leads to failure.
A ferrite is a ceramic material made by mixing and firing large proportions iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3, rust) blended with small proportions of one or more additional metallic elements, such as barium, manganese, nickel, and zinc.
Ferroelectric capacitor is a capacitor based on a ferroelectric material.
Ferroelectric RAM (FeRAM, F-RAM or FRAM) is a random-access memory similar in construction to DRAM but using a ferroelectric layer instead of a dielectric layer to achieve non-volatility.
Ferroelectricity is a characteristic of certain materials that have a spontaneous electric polarization that can be reversed by the application of an external electric field.
Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.
A figurine (a diminutive form of the word figure) or statuette is a small statue that represents a human, deity or animal, or in practice a pair or small group of them.
A fire brick, firebrick, or refractory brick is a block of refractory ceramic material used in lining furnaces, kilns, fireboxes, and fireplaces.
Flooring is the general term for a permanent covering of a floor, or for the work of installing such a floor covering.
Fractography is the study of the fracture surfaces of materials.
In materials science, fracture toughness is a property which describes the ability of a material to resist fracture, and is one of the most important properties of any material for many design applications.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the ratio from effort to result of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier (fuel) into kinetic energy or work.
A gas detector is a device that detects the presence of gases in an area, often as part of a safety system.
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
The glass–liquid transition, or glass transition, is the gradual and reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials), from a hard and relatively brittle "glassy" state into a viscous or rubbery state as the temperature is increased.
A grain boundary is the interface between two grains, or crystallites, in a polycrystalline material.
Grain size (or particle size) is the diameter of individual grains of sediment, or the lithified particles in clastic rocks.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.
In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.
A heating element converts energy into heat through the process of resistive or Joule heating.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
A high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) warhead is a type of shaped charge explosive that uses the Munroe effect to penetrate thick tank armor.
High-temperature mineral wool (HTMW) is a type of mineral wool (a wool-like material made from mineral fibers), created for use as high-temperature insulation - usually for use in industrial furnaces and foundries - generally defined as being resistant to temperatures above 1000°C.
High-temperature superconductors (abbreviated high-Tc or HTS) are materials that behave as superconductors at unusually high temperatures.
Hydroxylapatite, also called hydroxyapatite (HA), is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two entities.
An implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure.
Incoherent scattering is a type of scattering phenomenon in physics.
Indentation hardness tests are used in mechanical engineering to determine the hardness of a material to deformation.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Infrared homing is a passive weapon guidance system which uses the infrared (IR) light emission from a target to track and follow it.
Injection moulding (British English) or injection molding (American English) is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting molten material into a mould.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
In the physical sciences, an interface is the boundary between two spatial regions occupied by different matter, or by matter in different physical states.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
International Watch Co., also known as IWC, is a luxury Swiss watch manufacturer located in Schaffhausen, Switzerland, and founded by American watchmaker Florentine Ariosto Jones in 1868.
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
Ionic conduction (denoted by -lambda) is the movement of an ion from one site to another through defects in the crystal lattice of a solid or aqueous solution.
Isoelectronicity is the phenomenon of two or more chemical species (atoms, molecules, radicals, ions etc.) differing in the atoms that comprise them but having the same number of valence electrons and the same structure (that is, the same number of atoms with the same connectivity).
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
Joule heating, also known as Ohmic heating and resistive heating, is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor produces heat.
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
A kiln (or, originally pronounced "kill", with the "n" silent) is a thermally insulated chamber, a type of oven, that produces temperatures sufficient to complete some process, such as hardening, drying, or chemical changes.
A kinetic energy penetrator (KEP, KE weapon, long-rod penetrator or LRP) is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate vehicle armour.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Lead zirconate titanate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Pb (0≤x≤1).
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.
A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
Luminescence is emission of light by a substance not resulting from heat; it is thus a form of cold-body radiation.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium diboride (MgB2) is a simple ionic binary compound that has proven to be an inexpensive and useful superconducting material.
A magnetic core is a piece of magnetic material with a high magnetic permeability used to confine and guide magnetic fields in electrical, electromechanical and magnetic devices such as electromagnets, transformers, electric motors, generators, inductors, magnetic recording heads, and magnetic assemblies.
Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
A motion detector is a device that detects moving objects, particularly people.
Multi-mode optical fiber is a type of optical fiber mostly used for communication over short distances, such as within a building or on a campus.
Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
Night vision is the ability to see in low-light conditions.
In chemistry, a nitride is a compound of nitrogen where nitrogen has a formal oxidation state of 3-.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, as an s-block element, would normally be placed next to hydrogen and above beryllium. However, since it is a noble gas, it is instead placed above neon (in the p-block). In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.
A normal mode of an oscillating system is a pattern of motion in which all parts of the system move sinusoidally with the same frequency and with a fixed phase relation.
A nozzle is a device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid flow (especially to increase velocity) as it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or pipe.
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.
Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.
Optical communication, also known as optical telecommunication, is communication at a distance using light to carry information.
An optical filter is a device that selectively transmits light of different wavelengths, usually implemented as a glass plane or plastic device in the optical path, which are either dyed in the bulk or have interference coatings.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
An oxygen sensor (or lambda sensor) is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analysed.
The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.
A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) or integrated optical circuit is a device that integrates multiple (at least two) photonic functions and as such is similar to an electronic integrated circuit.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders and masses of small solids.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e. "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0% and 100%.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Pyroelectricity (from the Greek pyr, fire, and electricity) is the property of certain crystals which are naturally electrically polarized and as a result contain large electric fields.
In metallurgy, refraction is a property of metals that indicates their ability to withstand heat.
A refractory mineral is a mineral that is resistant to decomposition by heat, pressure, or chemical attack.
The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
A rifle is a portable long-barrelled firearm designed for precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, and with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the bore walls.
Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made from locally available materials such as terracotta or slate.
A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
A scintillation counter is an instrument for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by using the excitation effect of incident radiation on a scintillator material, and detecting the resultant light pulses.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosive's energy.
In engineering, shear strength is the strength of a material or component against the type of yield or structural failure where the material or component fails in shear.
A shear stress, often denoted by (Greek: tau), is the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section.
In archaeology, a sherd, or more precisely, potsherd, is commonly a historic or prehistoric fragment of pottery, although the term is occasionally used to refer to fragments of stone and glass vessels, as well.
SiAlON ceramics are a specialist class of high-temperature refractory materials, with high strength at ambient and high temperatures, good thermal shock resistance and exceptional resistance to wetting or corrosion by molten non-ferrous metals, compared to other refractory materials such as, for example, alumina.
A silicide is a compound that has silicon with (usually) more electropositive elements.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silicon nitride is a chemical compound of the elements silicon and nitrogen.
Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.
Slipcasting or slip casting is a technique for the mass-production of pottery and ceramics, especially for shapes not easily made on a wheel.
The Small Arms Protective Insert (SAPI) is a ceramic trauma plate used by the United States Armed Forces.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
Solid-state chemistry, also sometimes referred to as materials chemistry, is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not necessarily exclusively of, non-molecular solids.
Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
The Space Shuttle program was the fourth human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished routine transportation for Earth-to-orbit crew and cargo from 1981 to 2011.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
--> Stoneware is a rather broad term for pottery or other ceramics fired at a relatively high temperature.
Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
A stress concentration (often called stress raisers or stress risers) is a location in an object where stress is concentrated.
Strontium titanate is an oxide of strontium and titanium with the chemical formula SrTiO3.
A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy that exhibits several key characteristics: excellent mechanical strength, resistance to thermal creep deformation, good surface stability, and resistance to corrosion or oxidation.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
A surge protector (or surge suppressor or surge diverter) is an appliance or device designed to protect electrical devices from voltage spikes.
A susceptor is a material used for its ability to absorb electromagnetic energy and convert it to heat (which is sometimes designed to be re-emitted as infrared thermal radiation).
Tableware are the dishes or dishware used for setting a table, serving food and dining.
Tape casting (also called doctor blading and knife coating) is a casting process used in the manufacture of thin ceramic tapes and sheets from ceramic slurry.
A temperature coefficient describes the relative change of a physical property that is associated with a given change in temperature.
Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (i.e. the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence.
The threshold voltage, commonly abbreviated as Vth, of a field-effect transistor (FET) is the minimum gate-to-source voltage VGS (th) that is needed to create a conducting path between the source and drain terminals.
Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues.
In chemistry, titanate usually refers to inorganic compounds composed of titanium oxides.
Titanium carbide, TiC, is an extremely hard (Mohs 9–9.5) refractory ceramic material, similar to tungsten carbide.
Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave.
In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing.
, usually shortened to Toyota, is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan.
A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another.
A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.
A transmission medium is a material substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) that can propagate energy waves.
Transmit is a file transfer program for macOS.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Tungsten carbide (chemical formula: WC) is a chemical compound (specifically, a carbide) containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms.
A turbine (from the Latin turbo, a vortex, related to the Greek τύρβη, tyrbē, meaning "turbulence") is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
Ultrasonic transducers or ultrasonic sensors are a type of acoustic sensor divided into three broad categories: transmitters, receivers and transceivers.
Unconventional superconductors are materials that display superconductivity which does not conform to either the conventional BCS theory or Nikolay Bogolyubov's theory or its extensions.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium oxide is an oxide of the element uranium.
A varistor is an electronic component with an electrical resistance that varies with the applied voltage.
Military vehicles are commonly armoured (or armored; see spelling differences) to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets, missiles or shells, protecting the personnel inside from enemy fire.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Vitrification (from Latin vitreum, "glass" via French vitrifier) is the transformation of a substance into a glass, that is to say a non-crystalline amorphous solid.
Wave propagation is any of the ways in which waves travel.
A waveguide is a structure that guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound, with minimal loss of energy by restricting expansion to one dimension or two.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light, sound, and air.
Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) is a family of crystalline chemical compounds, famous for displaying high-temperature superconductivity.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.
Zirconium dioxide, sometimes known as zirconia (not to be confused with zircon), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium.
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