137 relations: Agriculture, Amaranthaceae, American Dairy Science Association, Annual plant, Austronesian peoples, Barley, Bean, Bengalis, Biological life cycle, Bran, Brazil, Breadfruit, Breakfast cereal, Buckwheat, Carbohydrate, Caryopsis, Cassava, Cereal germ, Cereal growth staging scales, Ceres (mythology), Chillcuring, Columbian Exchange, Combine harvester, Commercial sorghum, Common fig, Compost, Cotton, Dal, Developed country, Developing country, Domestication, Dormancy, Durum, Einkorn wheat, Emmer, Endorphins, Endosperm, Eragrostis tef, Essential amino acid, Essential fatty acid, Ethiopia, Exogeny, Exorphin, Far East, Farina (food), Fat, Fertile Crescent, Flax, Fonio, Food and Agriculture Organization, ..., Food quality, Food safety, Fruit, Gluten exorphin, Grain, Grain cradle, Grain elevator, Greater Middle East, Green Revolution, Hemp, Hybrid (biology), Injera, International Fertilizer Development Center, International Organization for Standardization, Jordan Valley (Middle East), Khorasan wheat, Lamiaceae, Latin America, Legume, Levant, Lists of foods, Livestock, Lysine, Maize, Malt, Manure, Mesopotamia, Methionine, Millet, Mineral, Mineral (nutrient), Neolithic, Neolithic founder crops, Nile, North India, Nutrition, Oat, Oatmeal, Opioid, Opioid food peptides, Opioid receptor, Pakistan, Pea, Peanut butter, Peptide, Perennial plant, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, Polyploid, Porridge, Post-harvest losses (grains), Protein (nutrient), Protein combining, Protein quality, Pseudocereal, Push–pull agricultural pest management, Quinoa, Rice, Rolled oats, Rye, Salvia hispanica, Scythe, Semolina, Siberia, Social stratification, Soil conditioner, Sorghum, South Asia, South India, Southern Cone, Spelt, Staple food, Subarctic, The Land Institute, Threshing, Tofu, Triticale, Vernalization, Vitamin, Western Asia, Wheat, Wheat gluten (food), Whole grain, Wild rice, Winnowing, Wood ash, 2007–08 world food price crisis. Expand index (87 more) » « Shrink index
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Amaranthaceae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as the amaranth family, in reference to its type genus Amaranthus.
The American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) is a non-profit professional organization for the advancement of dairy science.
An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one year, and then dies.
The Austronesian peoples are various groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania and East Africa that speak languages that are under the Austronesian language super-family.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
Bengalis (বাঙালি), also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and nation native to the region of Bengal in the Indian subcontinent, which is presently divided between most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Bran, also known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a species of flowering tree in the mulberry and jackfruit family (Moraceae) originating in the South Pacific and eventually spreading to the rest of Oceania. British and French navigators introduced a few Polynesian seedless varieties to Caribbean islands during the late 18th century, and today it is grown in some 90 countries throughout South and Southeast Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Caribbean, Central America and Africa. Its name is derived from the texture of the moderately ripe fruit when cooked, similar to freshly baked bread and having a potato-like flavor. According to DNA fingerprinting studies, breadfruit has its origins in the region of Oceania from New Guinea through the Indo-Malayan Archipelago to western Micronesia. The trees have been widely planted in tropical regions elsewhere, including lowland Central America, northern South America, and the Caribbean. In addition to the fruit serving as a staple food in many cultures, the trees' light, sturdy timber has been used for outriggers, ships and houses in the tropics.
Breakfast cereal is a food product made from processed cereal grains that is often eaten as a breakfast in primarily Western societies.
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), also known as common buckwheat, Japanese buckwheat and silverhull buckwheat, is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
In botany, a caryopsis (plural caryopses) is a type of simple dry fruit—one that is monocarpellate (formed from a single carpel) and indehiscent (not opening at maturity) and resembles an achene, except that in a caryopsis the pericarp is fused with the thin seed coat.
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
The germ of a cereal is the reproductive part that germinates to grow into a plant; it is the embryo of the seed.
Cereal growth staging scales attempt to objectively measure the growth of cereals.
In ancient Roman religion, Ceres (Cerēs) was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships.
Chillcuring is a grain ventilating process, especially of fresh-harvested shelled corn.
The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade following Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage.
The modern combine harvester, or simply combine, is a versatile machine designed to efficiently harvest a variety of grain crops.
Commercial sorghum is the cultivation and commercial exploitation of species of grasses within the genus Sorghum (often S. bicolor).
Ficus carica is an Asian species of flowering plant in the mulberry family, known as the common fig (or just the fig).
Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed in a process called composting.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Dal (also spelled daal, dail, dhal; pronunciation) is a term in the Indian subcontinent for dried, split pulses (that is, lentils, peas, and beans).
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily stopped.
Durum wheat, also called pasta wheat or macaroni wheat (Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum subsp. durum), is a tetraploid species of wheat.
Einkorn wheat (from German Einkorn, literally "single grain") can refer either to the wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum, or to the domesticated form, Triticum monococcum.
Emmer wheat, also known as farro especially in Italy, or hulled wheat, is a type of awned wheat.
Endorphins (contracted from "endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormones in humans and other animals.
The endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization.
Eragrostis tef, also known as teff, Williams' lovegrass or annual bunch grass, is an annual grass, a species of lovegrass native to Ethiopia and Eritrea.
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
In a variety of contexts, exogeny or exogeneity is the fact of an action or object originating externally.
Exorphins are exogenous opioid peptides, distinguished from endorphins (or endogenous opioid peptides).
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
Farina is a form of milled wheat often prepared as hot cereal.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.
Fonio is the term for two cultivated grains in the genus Digitaria which are notable crops in parts of West Africa.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Food quality is the quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to consumers.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Gluten exorphins are a group of opioid peptides formed during digestion of the gluten protein.
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.
A grain cradle or cradle, is a modification to a standard scythe to keep the cut grain stems aligned.
A grain elevator is an agrarian facility complex designed to stockpile or store grain.
The Greater Middle East is a political term, introduced in the early 2000s, denoting a set of contiguously connected countries stretching from Morocco in the west all the way to Pakistan in the east.
The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution, refers to a set of research and the development of technology transfer initiatives occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s (with prequels in the work of the agrarian geneticist Nazareno Strampelli in the 1920s and 1930s), that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.
Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep), typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
Injera (Amharic: ənǧära እንጀራ; sometimes transliterated as enjera; or "taita"; Tigrinya: ጣይታ; Somali: Canjeero) is a sourdough-risen flatbread with a slightly spongy texture.
The International Fertilizer Development Center (known as IFDC) is a science-based public international organization working to alleviate global hunger by introducing improved agricultural practices and fertilizer technologies to farmers and by linking farmers to markets.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The Jordan Valley (עֵמֶק הַיַרְדֵּן, Emek HaYarden; الغور, Al-Ghor or Al-Ghawr) forms part of the larger Jordan Rift Valley.
Khorasan wheat or Oriental wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. turanicum also called Triticum turanicum), commercially known as kamut, is a tetraploid wheat species.
The Lamiaceae or Labiatae are a family of flowering plants commonly known as the mint or deadnettle family.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
This is a categorically-organized list of foods.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting".
Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Neolithic founder crops (or primary domesticates) are the eight plant species that were domesticated by early Holocene (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) farming communities in the Fertile Crescent region of southwest Asia, and which formed the basis of systematic agriculture in the Middle East, North Africa, India, Persia and Europe.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).
Oatmeal is made of hulled oat grains – groats – that have either been milled (ground), steel-cut, or rolled.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opioid food peptides include.
Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.
Peanut butter is a food paste or spread made from ground dry roasted peanuts.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
The Polygonaceae are a family of flowering plants known informally as the knotweed family or smartweed—buckwheat family in the United States.
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.
Porridge (also historically spelled porage, porrige, parritch) is a food commonly eaten as a breakfast cereal dish, made by boiling ground, crushed or chopped starchy plants—typically grain—in water or milk.
Grains may be lost in the pre-harvest, harvest, and post-harvest stages.
Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body.
Protein combining (or protein complementing) is a dietary theory for protein nutrition that purports to optimize the biological value of protein intake.
Protein quality is the digestibility and quantity of essential amino acids for providing the proteins in correct ratios for human consumption.
A pseudocereal is one of any non-grasses that are used in much the same way as cereals (true cereals are grasses).
Push–pull technology is a strategy for controlling agricultural pests by using repellent "push" plants and trap "pull" plants.
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa; (or, from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa) is a flowering plant in the amaranth family. It is a herbaceous annual plant grown as a grain crop primarily for its edible seeds. Quinoa is not a grass, but rather a pseudocereal botanically related to spinach and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.). Quinoa provides protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins, and dietary minerals in rich amounts above those of wheat, corn, rice or oats. It is gluten-free. After harvest, the seeds are processed to remove the bitter-tasting outer seed coat. Quinoa originated in the Andean region of northwestern South America, and was domesticated 3,000 to 4,000 years ago for human consumption in the Lake Titicaca basin of Peru and Bolivia, though archaeological evidence shows livestock uses 5,200 to 7,000 years ago.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Rolled oats are traditionally oat groats that have been dehusked and steamed, before being rolled into flat flakes under heavy rollers and stabilized by being lightly toasted.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
Salvia hispanica, commonly known as chia, is a species of flowering plant in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native to central and southern Mexico and Guatemala.
A scytheOxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 1933: Scythe is an agricultural hand tool for mowing grass or reaping crops.
Semolina is the coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat mainly used in making pasta and couscous.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
A soil conditioner is a product which is added to soil to improve the soil’s physical qualities, usually its fertility (ability to provide nutrition for plants) and sometimes its mechanics.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
The Southern Cone (Cono Sur, Cone Sul) is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn.
Spelt (Triticum spelta; Triticum dicoccum), also known as dinkel wheat or hulled wheat, is a species of wheat cultivated since approximately 5000 BC.
A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.
The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Alaska, Canada, Iceland, the north of Scandinavia, Siberia, and the Shetland Islands.
The Land Institute is a non-profit research, education, and policy organization dedicated to sustainable agriculture based in Salina, Kansas, United States.
Threshing is the process of loosening the edible part of grain (or other crop) from the husks and straw to which it is attached.
Tofu, also known as bean curd, is a food cultivated by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into soft white blocks.
Triticale (× Triticosecale), is a hybrid of wheat (Triticum) and rye (Secale) first bred in laboratories during the late 19th century in Scotland and Germany.
Vernalization (from Latin vernus, "of the spring") is the induction of a plant's flowering process by exposure to the prolonged cold of winter, or by an artificial equivalent.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Wheat gluten is a food made from gluten, the main protein of wheat.
A whole grain is a grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.
Wild rice (Ojibwe: Manoomin, Sanskrit: 'नीवार', IAST:; also called Canada rice, Indian rice, and water oats) are four species of grasses forming the genus Zizania, and the grain that can be harvested from them.
Wind winnowing is an agricultural method developed by ancient cultures for separating grain from chaff.
Wood ash is the residue powder left after the combustion of wood, such as burning wood in a home fireplace or an industrial power plant.
World food prices increased dramatically in 2007 and the first and second quarter of 2008, creating a global crisis and causing political and economic instability and social unrest in both poor and developed nations.