211 relations: Accordion, Acetylcholine, Actinopterygii, Action potential, Aging brain, Alcoholism, Amphibian, Anastomosis, Anatomy of the cerebellum, Andreas Vesalius, Anterior inferior cerebellar artery, Anterior lobe of cerebellum, Arbor vitae (anatomy), Aristotle, Ataxia, Ataxia-telangiectasia, Attention, Auditory system, Autoimmune disease, Axon, Balance disorder, Basal ganglia, Basket cell, Bleeding, Calbindin, Cartwheel cell, Cephalopod, Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome, Cerebellar granule cell, Cerebellar peduncle, Cerebellar tentorium, Cerebellar veins, Cerebellar vermis, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral edema, Cerebral hemisphere, Cerebrum, Chiari malformation, Chondrichthyes, Class (biology), Climbing fiber, Cochlear nerve, Cognition, Cortex (anatomy), Cranial nerves, Cytoarchitecture, Dandy–Walker syndrome, David Marr (neuroscientist), Deep cerebellar nuclei, ..., Degeneration (medical), Dendrite, Dendritic spine, Dentate nucleus, Dopamine, Dorsal cochlear nucleus, Dura mater, Dysarthria, Dysdiadochokinesia, Dysmetria, Emboliform nucleus, Epigenetic clock, Essential tremor, Extracellular field potential, Eyeblink conditioning, Fastigial nucleus, Fine motor skill, Flocculonodular lobe, Fourth ventricle, Friedreich's ataxia, Functional imaging, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Gait (human), Galen, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gap junction, Gene expression, Globose nucleus, Glomerulus (cerebellum), Glutamic acid, Golgi cell, Granule cell, Grey matter, Gross anatomy, Guillain–Barré syndrome, Hagfish, Herophilos, Hindbrain, Hominidae, Homo sapiens, Huntington's disease, Hypoplasia, Hypotonia, Immunostaining, Inferior cerebellar peduncle, Inferior olivary nucleus, Injury, Intention tremor, Interneuron, Interposed nucleus, James M. Bower, James S. Albus, Jan Evangelista Purkyně, János Szentágothai, Jean Pierre Flourens, John Eccles (neurophysiologist), Joubert syndrome, Lamprey, Language, Lateral line, List of human positions, List of thalamic nuclei, Long-term depression, Lugaro cell, Luigi Rolando, Machado–Joseph disease, Magnetic resonance imaging, Masao Ito, Mathematical model, Medical ultrasound, Medication, Medulla oblongata, Medulloblastoma, Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Metencephalon, Middle cerebellar peduncle, Migraine, Model organism, Mormyridae, Mossy fiber (cerebellum), Motor control, Motor coordination, Motor learning, Multiple sclerosis, Multiple system atrophy, Myelin, Neocortex, Neoplasm, Neural tube defect, Neurochemistry, Neurological examination, Neuron, Nevoid basal-cell carcinoma syndrome, Niemann–Pick disease, Norepinephrine, Nucleus (neuroanatomy), Octopus, Olivopontocerebellar atrophy, Optimal control, Osteichthyes, Parallel fiber, Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, Parietal lobe, Perceptron, Pleistocene, Pons, Pontine nuclei, Posterior cranial fossa, Posterior inferior cerebellar artery, Posterior lobe of cerebellum, Premotor cortex, Primary fissure of cerebellum, Primary motor cortex, Progressive myoclonus epilepsy, Proprioception, Psychoactive drug, Purkinje cell, Pyramidal cell, Radial glial cell, Ramsay Hunt syndrome type 1, Red nucleus, Refractory period (physiology), Reinforcement learning, Renaissance, Rodolfo Llinás, Scholarpedia, Screening (medicine), Sense of balance, Sensitivity and specificity, Sensory nervous system, Sensory-motor coupling, Serotonin, Software, Sonic hedgehog, Species, Spinal cord, Spinocerebellar tract, Stellate cell, Stroke, Superior cerebellar artery, Superior cerebellar peduncle, Superior colliculus, Supervised learning, Synaptic plasticity, Tensor network theory, Thalamus, Thiamine deficiency, Thomas Willis, Toxic heavy metal, Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, Trigeminal nerve, Unipolar brush cell, Unsupervised learning, Upper motor neuron, Valentino Braitenberg, Vertebrate, Vestibular nuclei, Vestibulo–ocular reflex, Vitamin E, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, White matter. Expand index (161 more) » « Shrink index
Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord—"musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Actinopterygii, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Aging is a major risk factor for most common neurodegenerative diseases, including mild cognitive impairment, dementias including Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and Lou Gehrig's disease.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
An anastomosis (plural anastomoses) is a connection or opening between two things (especially cavities or passages) that are normally diverging or branching, such as between blood vessels, leaf veins, or streams.
The anatomy of the cerebellum can be viewed at three levels.
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is one of three pairs of arteries that supplies blood to the cerebellum.
The anterior lobe of cerebellum is the portion of the cerebellum responsible for mediating unconscious proprioception.
The arbor vitae (Latin for "tree of life") is the cerebellar white matter, so called for its branched, tree-like appearance.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT or A-T), also referred to as ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome or Louis–Bar syndrome, is a rare, neurodegenerative, autosomal recessive disease causing severe disability.
Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.
The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
A balance disorder is a disturbance that causes an individual to feel unsteady, for example when standing or walking.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
Basket cells are inhibitory GABAergic interneurons of the brain, found throughout different regions of the cortex and cerebellum.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Calbindin refers to several calcium-binding proteins.
Cartwheel cells are neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) where they greatly outnumber the other inhibitory interneurons of the DCN.
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.
Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS), also called "Schmahmann's syndrome" is a condition that follows from lesions (damage) to the cerebellum of the brain.
Cerebellar granule cells form the thick granular layer of the cerebellar cortex and are among the smallest neurons in the brain.
Cerebellar peduncles connect the cerebellum to the brain stem.
The cerebellar tentorium or tentorium cerebelli (Latin: "tent of the cerebellum", Greek: "Σκηνίδιο της παρεγκεφαλίδας") is an extension of the dura mater that separates the cerebellum from the inferior portion of the occipital lobes.
Cerebellar veins are veins which drain the cerebellum.
The cerebellar vermis (Latin for worm) is located in the medial, cortico-nuclear zone of the cerebellum, which resides in the posterior fossa of the cranium.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Cerebral edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain.
The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure.
The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.
Chiari malformations (CMs) are structural defects in the cerebellum.
Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
Climbing fibers are the name given to a series of neuronal projections from the inferior olivary nucleus located in the medulla oblongata.
The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve present in amniotes, the other part being the vestibular nerve.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
In anatomy and zoology, the cortex (Latin for bark, rind, shell or husk) is the outermost (or superficial) layer of an organ.
Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).
Cytoarchitecture (Greek κύτος.
Dandy–Walker syndrome (DWS) is a rare group of congenital human brain malformations.
David Courtnay Marr (19 January 1945 – 17 November 1980) was a British neuroscientist and physiologist.
The cerebellum has four deep cerebellar nuclei embedded in the white matter in its center.
Degeneration is deterioration in the medical sense.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
A dendritic spine (or spine) is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from a single axon at the synapse.
The dentate nucleus is a cluster of neurons, or nerve cells, in the central nervous system that has a dentate – tooth-like or serrated – edge.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN, also known as the "tuberculum acusticum"), is a cortex-like structure on the dorso-lateral surface of the brainstem.
Dura mater, or dura, is a thick membrane made of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury of the motor component of the motor-speech system and is characterized by poor articulation of phonemes.
Dysdiadochokinesia, dysdiadochokinesis, dysdiadokokinesia, dysdiadokokinesis (from Greek δυς dys "bad", διάδοχος diadochos "succeeding", κίνησις kinesis "movement"), often abbreviated as DDK, is the medical term for an impaired ability to perform rapid, alternating movements (i.e., diadochokinesia).
Dysmetria (wrong length) refers to a lack of coordination of movement typified by the undershoot or overshoot of intended position with the hand, arm, leg, or eye.
The emboliform nucleus (or anterior interposed nucleus) is a deep cerebellar nucleus that lies immediately to the medial side of the nucleus dentatus, and partly covering its hilum.
An epigenetic clock is a type of a molecular age estimation method based on DNA methylation levels.
Essential tremor (ET, also referred to as benign tremor, familial tremor, or idiopathic tremor) is a progressive neurological disorder that is also the most common movement disorder.
The extracellular field potential is the electrical potential produced by cells, e.g. nerve or muscle cells, outside of the cell.
Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a form of classical conditioning that has been used extensively to study neural structures and mechanisms that underlie learning and memory.
The fastigial nucleus is located in the cerebellum.
Fine motor skill (or dexterity) is the coordination of small muscles, in movements—usually involving the synchronization of hands and fingers—with the eyes.
The flocculonodular lobe (vestibulocerebellum) is a lobe of the cerebellum consisting of the nodule and the flocculus.
The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain.
Friedreich's ataxia is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that causes progressive damage to the nervous system.
Functional imaging (or physiological imaging), is a medical imaging technique of detecting or measuring changes in metabolism, blood flow, regional chemical composition, and absorption.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.
Human gait refers to locomotion achieved through the movement of human limbs.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
A gap junction may also be called a nexus or macula communicans.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
The globose nucleus is one of the deep cerebellar nuclei.
The cerebellar glomerulus is a small, intertwined mass of nerve fiber terminals in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
In neuroscience, Golgi cells are inhibitory interneurons found within the granular layer of the cerebellum.
The name granule cell has been used by anatomists for a number of different types of neuron whose only common feature is that they all have very small cell bodies.
Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.
Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy) is the study of anatomy at the visible (macroscopic) level.
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system.
Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).
Herophilos (Ἡρόφιλος; 335–280 BC), sometimes Latinised Herophilus, was a Greek physician deemed to be the first anatomist.
The hindbrain or rhombencephalon is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system in vertebrates.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
Hypoplasia (from Ancient Greek ὑπo- hypo-, "under" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"; adjective form hypoplastic) is underdevelopment or incomplete development of a tissue or organ.
Hypotonia, commonly known as floppy baby syndrome, is a state of low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to stretch in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength.
In biochemistry, immunostaining is any use of an antibody-based method to detect a specific protein in a sample.
The upper part of the posterior district of the medulla oblongata is occupied by the inferior cerebellar peduncle, a thick rope-like strand situated between the lower part of the fourth ventricle and the roots of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. Each cerebellar inferior peduncle connects the spinal cord and medulla oblongata with the cerebellum, and comprises the juxtarestiform body and restiform body. Important fibers running through the inferior cerebellar peduncle include the dorsal spinocerebellar tract and axons from the inferior olivary nucleus, among others.
The inferior olivary nucleus (ION), is an evolutionarily conserved structure found in the medulla oblongata underneath the superior olivary nucleus.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
Intention tremor, also known as cerebellar tremor, is a dyskinetic disorder characterized by a broad, coarse, and low frequency (below 5 Hz) tremor.
An interneuron (also called internuncial neuron, relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron, intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron) is a broad class of neurons found in the human body.
The interposed nucleus is part of the deep cerebellar complex and is composed of the globose nucleus and the emboliform nucleus.
James Mason Bower (born February 17, 1954 in Northampton, Massachusetts, USA) is an American neuroscientist and CEO and Chairman of the Board of Numedeon Inc., creator of the Whyville.net educational virtual world.
James Sacra Albus (May 4, 1935 – April 17, 2011) was an American engineer, Senior NIST Fellow and founder and former chief of the Intelligent Systems Division of the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Jan Evangelista Purkyně (also written Johann Evangelist Purkinje) (17 or 18 December 1787 – 28 July 1869) was a Czech anatomist and physiologist.
János Szentágothai FRS (31 October 1912 – 8 September 1994) was a Kossuth Prize-winning Hungarian anatomist, Professor, Member of Parliament, and President of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Marie Jean Pierre Flourens (13 April 1794 – 6 December 1867), father of Gustave Flourens, was a French physiologist, the founder of experimental brain science and a pioneer in anesthesia.
Sir John Carew Eccles (27 January 1903 – 2 May 1997) was an Australian neurophysiologist and philosopher who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the synapse.
Joubert syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder that affects the cerebellum, an area of the brain that controls balance and coordination.
Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
The lateral line is a system of sense organs found in aquatic vertebrates, used to detect movement, vibration, and pressure gradients in the surrounding water.
Human positions refer to the different physical configurations that the human body can take.
This traditional list does not accord strictly with human thalamic anatomy.
Long-term depression (LTD), in neurophysiology, is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus.
Lugaro cells are primary sensory interneurons of the cerebellum, that have an inhibitory function.
Luigi Rolando (16 June 1773, Turin – 20 April 1831, Turin) was an Italian anatomist known for his pioneering research in brain localization of function.
Machado–Joseph disease (MJD), also known as Machado–Joseph Azorean disease, Machado's disease, Joseph's disease or spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive cerebellar ataxia,Paulson, H. (8 March 2011).
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
is a Japanese neuroscientist, and director of the Riken Brain Science Institute.
A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.
Medulloblastoma is the most common type of pediatric malignant primary brain tumor (cancer), originating in the part of the brain that is towards the back and the bottom, on the floor of the skull, in the cerebellum, or posterior fossa.
The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, referred to as The Merck Manual, is the world's best-selling medical textbook, and the oldest continuously published English language medical textbook.
The metencephalon is the embryonic part of the hindbrain that differentiates into the pons and the cerebellum.
The middle cerebellar peduncles (brachia pontis) are paired structures (left and right) that connect the cerebellum to the pons and are composed entirely of centripetal fibers, i.e. incoming fibers.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
The family Mormyridae, sometimes called "elephantfish" (more properly freshwater elephantfish), are freshwater fish in the order Osteoglossiformes native to Africa.
Mossy fibers are one of the major inputs to cerebellum.
Motor control is the systematic regulation of movement in organisms that possess a nervous system.
Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.
Motor learning is a change, resulting from practice or a novel experience, in the capability for responding.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Multiple system atrophy (MSA), also known as Shy–Drager syndrome, is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremors, slow movement, muscle rigidity, and postural instability (collectively known as parkinsonism) due to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, and ataxia.
Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.
The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of birth defects in which an opening in the spinal cord or brain remains from early in human development.
Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons.
A neurological examination is the assessment of sensory neuron and motor responses, especially reflexes, to determine whether the nervous system is impaired.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Nevoid basal-cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as basal-cell nevus syndrome, multiple basal-cell carcinoma syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, and Gorlin–Goltz syndrome, is an inherited medical condition involving defects within multiple body systems such as the skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine system, and bones.
Niemann–Pick disease is a group of inherited, severe metabolic disorders in which sphingomyelin accumulates in lysosomes in cells.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
In neuroanatomy, a nucleus (plural form: nuclei) is a cluster of neurons in the central nervous system, located deep within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem.
The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.
Olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) is the degeneration of neurons in specific areas of the brain – the cerebellum, pons, and inferior olivary nucleus.
Optimal control theory deals with the problem of finding a control law for a given system such that a certain optimality criterion is achieved.
Osteichthyes, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage.
Parallel fibers arise from granule cells in the cerebellar cortex.
Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with a broad variety of tumors including lung cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, Hodgkin’s lymphoma and others.
The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".
In machine learning, the perceptron is an algorithm for supervised learning of binary classifiers (functions that can decide whether an input, represented by a vector of numbers, belongs to some specific class or not).
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
The pons (Latin for "bridge") is part of the brainstem, and in humans and other bipeds lies inferior to the midbrain, superior to the medulla oblongata and anterior to the cerebellum.
The pontine nuclei (or griseum pontis) are the nuclei of the pons involved in motor activity.
The posterior cranial fossa is part of the cranial cavity, located between the foramen magnum and tentorium cerebelli.
The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), the largest branch of the vertebral artery, is one of the three main arterial blood supplies for the cerebellum, part of the brain.
The posterior lobe of cerebellum or neocerebellum, is the portion of the cerebellum below the primary fissure.
The premotor cortex is an area of motor cortex lying within the frontal lobe of the brain just anterior to the primary motor cortex.
The monticulus of the cerebellum is divided by the primary fissure (or preclival fissure) into an anterior, raised part, the culmen or summit, and a posterior sloped part, the clivus; the quadrangular lobule is similarly divided.
The primary motor cortex (Brodmann area 4) is a brain region that in humans is located in the dorsal portion of the frontal lobe.
Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) is a rare epilepsy syndrome caused by a variety of genetic disorders.
Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Purkinje cells, or Purkinje neurons, are a class of GABAergic neurons located in the cerebellum.
Pyramidal cells, or (pyramidal neurons), are a type of multipolar neuron found in areas of the brain including the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala.
Radial glial cells are bipolar-shaped cells that span the width of the cortex in the developing vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) and serve as primary progenitor cells capable of generating neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes.
Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) type 1 is a rare, degenerative, neurological disorder characterized by myoclonus epilepsy, intention tremor, progressive ataxia and occasionally cognitive impairment It has also been alternatively called dyssynergia cerebellaris myoclonica, dyssynergia cerebellaris progressiva, dentatorubral degeneration, or Ramsay Hunt cerebellar syndrome.
The red nucleus or nucleus ruber is a structure in the rostral midbrain involved in motor coordination.
Refractoriness is the fundamental property of any object of autowave nature (especially excitable medium) not to respond on stimuli, if the object stays in the specific refractory state.
Reinforcement learning (RL) is an area of machine learning inspired by behaviourist psychology, concerned with how software agents ought to take actions in an environment so as to maximize some notion of cumulative reward.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Rodolfo R. Llinás (Bogotá, Colombia 16 December 1934) is a Colombian neuroscientist.
Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.
Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used in a population to identify the possible presence of an as-yet-undiagnosed disease in individuals without signs or symptoms.
The sense of balance or equilibrioception is one of the physiological senses related to balance.
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.
The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information.
Sensory-motor coupling is the coupling or integration of the sensory system and motor system.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
Sonic hedgehog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SHH ("sonic hedgehog") gene.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
The spinocerebellar tract is a nerve tract originating in the spinal cord and terminating in the same side (ipsilateral) of the cerebellum.
In neuroscience, stellate cells are any neuron that have a star-like shape formed by dendritic processes radiating from the cell body. The three most common stellate cells are the inhibitory interneurons found within the molecular layer of the cerebellum, excitatory spiny stellate cells and inhibitory aspiny stellate interneurons. Cerebellar stellate cells synapse onto the dendritic arbors of Purkinje cells. Cortical spiny stellate cells are found in layer IVC of the V1 region in the visual cortex. They receive excitatory synaptic fibres from the thalamus and process feed forward excitation to 2/3 layer of V1 visual cortex to pyramidal cells. Cortical spiny stellate cells have a 'regular' firing pattern. Stellate cells are chromophobes, that is cells that does not stain readily, and thus appears relatively pale under the microscope.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
The superior cerebellar artery (SCA) arises near the termination of the basilar artery.
In the human brain, the superior cerebellar peduncle (brachium conjunctivum) is a paired structure of white matter that connects the cerebellum to the midbrain.
The superior colliculus (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.
Supervised learning is the machine learning task of learning a function that maps an input to an output based on example input-output pairs.
In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.
Tensor network theory is a theory of brain function (particularly that of the cerebellum) that provides a mathematical model of the transformation of sensory space-time coordinates into motor coordinates and vice versa by cerebellar neuronal networks.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
Thiamine deficiency is a medical condition of low levels of thiamine (vitamin B1).
Thomas Willis (27 January 1621 – 11 November 1675) was an English doctor who played an important part in the history of anatomy, neurology and psychiatry.
A toxic heavy metal is any relatively dense metal or metalloid that is noted for its potential toxicity, especially in environmental contexts.
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases, are a group of progressive, invariably fatal, conditions that affect the brain (encephalopathies) and nervous system of many animals, including humans.
The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, or simply CN V) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing; it is the largest of the cranial nerves.
Unipolar brush cells (UBCs) are a class of excitatory glutamatergic interneuron found in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex and also in the granule cell domain of the cochlear nucleus.
Unsupervised machine learning is the machine learning task of inferring a function that describes the structure of "unlabeled" data (i.e. data that has not been classified or categorized).
Upper motor neurons (UMNs) are the main source of voluntary movement.
Valentino Braitenberg (or Valentin von Braitenberg; 18 June 1926 – 9 September 2011) was an Italian neuroscientist and cyberneticist.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
The vestibular nuclei (VN) are the cranial nuclei for the vestibular nerve.
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is a reflex, where activation of the vestibular system causes eye movement.
Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.
Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is the combined presence of Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) and alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome.
White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.
Anterior lobe, Archicerebellum, Brachium restiformis, Celebellum, Cerebelar, Cerebellar, Cerebellar Arteries, Cerebellar cortex, Cerebellar diseases, Cerebellar hemispheres, Cerebellar lesion, Cerebellar nuclei, Cerebellar nucleus, Cerebelum, Declive, Embolliform, Embolliform nucleus, Evolution of the cerebellum, External granular layer (cerebellar cortex), Folium (brain), Folium of cerebellum, Granule cell layer, Lateral cerebellum, Molecular layer, Neocerebellum, Palaeocerebellum, Paleocerebellum, Posterior lobe, Primary fissure, Purkinje layer.