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Cerebral cortex

Index Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness. [1]

216 relations: Afferent nerve fiber, Allocortex, Alzheimer's disease, Amygdala, Anatomical terms of location, Apoptosis, Archicortex, Astrocyte, Attention, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Auditory cortex, Awareness, Axon, Basal ganglia, Betz cell, Brain, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Brain–computer interface, Brainstem, Broca's area, Brodmann area, Brodmann area 24, Brodmann area 25, Brodmann area 32, Brodmann area 4, Cajal–Retzius cell, Calcarine sulcus, Caudate nucleus, Cell (journal), Cell adhesion molecule, Cell cycle, Cell signaling, Central nervous system, Cerebellum, Cerebral circulation, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral Cortex (journal), Cerebrum, Chemical synapse, Cholinergic, Chromatin remodeling, Cognition, Consciousness, Corpus callosum, Cortical column, Cortical minicolumn, Cortical patterning, Cytoarchitecture, Dendrite, Dendritic spine, ..., Development of the human cortex, Development of the nervous system, Dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway, Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, Downregulation and upregulation, Dyslexia, Efferent nerve fiber, Eloquent cortex, EMX1, EMX2, Ependyma, Epigenetic regulation of neurogenesis, Excitatory postsynaptic potential, External granular layer (cerebral cortex), Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, FGF8, Fibroblast growth factor, FMR1, Forebrain, Fragile X syndrome, Frontal lobe, G1 phase, G2 phase, GABA receptor, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Ganglionic eminence, Germ layer, Gestation, Globus pallidus, Glutamate (neurotransmitter), Golgi's method, Grey matter, Gyrification, Gyrus, Headphones, Hertz, Hippocampus, Homunculus, Human body, Human brain, Hyperpolarization (biology), Inhibitory postsynaptic potential, Intellectual, Intelligence, Internal capsule, Internal granular layer (cerebral cortex), Interneuron, Jürgen Schmidhuber, Korbinian Brodmann, Lafora disease, Language, Lateral sulcus, Learning disability, Lentiform nucleus, Limbic system, Line of Gennari, List of regions in the human brain, Logarithm, Longitudinal fissure, Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, McGraw-Hill Education, MECP2, Medical News Today, Medulla oblongata, Memory, Methylation, Microgyrus, Migraine, Mitosis, Motor control, Motor cortex, Mushroom bodies, Mutation, Myelin, Nature (journal), Neocortex, Nereididae, Nervous system, Nervous tissue, Neural plate, Neural tube, Neurocognitive, Neurodevelopmental disorder, Neurogenesis, Neuroglia, Neurology (journal), Neuron, Neuroscientist, Neurotransmitter, Neurulation, Notch signaling pathway, Nucleus accumbens, Occipital lobe, Olfactory bulb, Olfactory system, Oligodendrocyte, Ontogeny, Paleocortex, Pallium (neuroanatomy), Paralimbic cortex, Parietal lobe, PAX6, Perception, Pia mater, Piriform cortex, Pons, Postcentral gyrus, Posterior parietal cortex, Precambrian, Premotor cortex, Primary motor cortex, Primary somatosensory cortex, Primate, Progenitor cell, Protein, Protein production, Protomap (neuroscience), Psychiatry, Putamen, Pyramidal cell, Radial glial cell, Radial unit hypothesis, Receptive field, Reelin, Retina, Retinoic acid, Retinotopy, Rett syndrome, Rodent, Science (journal), Sense, Sex linkage, Shrew, Skull, Soma (biology), Somatotopic arrangement, Sonic hedgehog, Stellate cell, Stem cell, Striatum, Subplate, Substantia nigra, Subthalamic nucleus, Subventricular zone, Sulcus (neuroanatomy), Supplementary motor area, Synapse, Synaptogenesis, Temporal lobe, Thalamic reticular nucleus, Thalamus, The Journal of Neuroscience, Thought, Tonotopy, Topographic map (neuroanatomy), Torsten Wiesel, Transcription factor, Trnp1, Valentino Braitenberg, Ventricular system, Ventricular zone, Vernon Benjamin Mountcastle, Vertebrate, Visual cortex, Wernicke's area, White matter. Expand index (166 more) »

Afferent nerve fiber

Afferent nerve fibers refer to axonal projections that arrive at a particular region; as opposed to efferent projections that exit the region.

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The allocortex (also known as heterogenetic cortex) is one of the two types of cerebral cortex, the other being the neocortex.

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Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

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The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.

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Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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In anatomy of animals, the archipallium or archicortex is the phylogenetically the oldest region of the brain's pallium or cortex.

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Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron.

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Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

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Auditory cortex

The primary auditory cortex is the part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans and other vertebrates.

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Awareness is the ability to directly know and perceive, to feel, or to be cognizant of events.

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An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.

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Basal ganglia

The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.

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Betz cell

Betz cells (also known as pyramidal cells of Betz) are giant pyramidal cells (neurons) located within the fifth layer of the grey matter in the primary motor cortex.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.

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Brain–computer interface

A brain–computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a neural-control interface (NCI), mind-machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain–machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device.

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The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.

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Broca's area

Broca's area or the Broca area or is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.

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Brodmann area

A Brodmann area is a region of the cerebral cortex, in the human or other primate brain, defined by its cytoarchitecture, or histological structure and organization of cells.

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Brodmann area 24

Brodmann area 24 is part of the anterior cingulate in the human brain.

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Brodmann area 25

Brodmann area 25 (BA25) is an area in the cerebral cortex of the brain and delineated based on its cytoarchitectonic characteristics.

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Brodmann area 32

The Brodmann area 32, also known in the human brain as the dorsal anterior cingulate area 32, refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex.

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Brodmann area 4

Brodmann area 4 refers to the primary motor cortex of the human brain.

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Cajal–Retzius cell

Cajal–Retzius cells (CR cells) (also known as Horizontal cells of Cajal) are a heterogeneous population of morphologically and molecularly distinct reelin-producing cell types in the marginal zone/layer I of the developmental cerebral cortex and in the immature hippocampus of different species and at different times during embryogenesis and postnatal life.

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Calcarine sulcus

The calcarine sulcus (or calcarine fissure) is an anatomical landmark located at the caudal end of the medial surface of the brain. Its name comes from the Latin "calcar" meaning "spur". It is a complete sulcus.

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Caudate nucleus

The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the dorsal striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia.

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Cell (journal)

Cell is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research papers across a broad range of disciplines within the life sciences.

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Cell adhesion molecule

Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process called cell adhesion.

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Cell cycle

The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.

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Cell signaling

Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.

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Cerebral circulation

Cerebral circulation is the movement of blood through the network of cerebral arteries and veins supplying the brain.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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Cerebral Cortex (journal)

Cerebral Cortex is a scientific journal in the neuroscience area, focusing on the development, organization, plasticity, and function of the cerebral cortex, including the hippocampus.

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The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.

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Chemical synapse

Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.

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In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.

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Chromatin remodeling

Chromatin remodeling is the dynamic modification of chromatin architecture to allow access of condensed genomic DNA to the regulatory transcription machinery proteins, and thereby control gene expression.

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Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.

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Corpus callosum

The corpus callosum (Latin for "tough body"), also callosal commissure, is a wide commissure, a flat bundle of commissural fibers, about 10 cm long beneath the cerebral cortex in the brains of placental mammals.

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Cortical column

A cortical column, also called hypercolumn, macrocolumn, functional column or sometimes cortical module, is a group of neurons in the cortex of the brain that can be successively penetrated by a probe inserted perpendicularly to the cortical surface, and which have nearly identical receptive fields.

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Cortical minicolumn

A cortical minicolumn is a vertical column through the cortical layers of the brain.

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Cortical patterning

Cortical patterning is a field of developmental neuroscience which aims to determine how the various functional areas of the cerebral cortex are generated, what size and shape they will be, and how their spatial pattern across the surface of the cortex is specified.

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Cytoarchitecture (Greek κύτος.

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Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.

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Dendritic spine

A dendritic spine (or spine) is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from a single axon at the synapse.

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Development of the human cortex

The development of the human cortex is a process known as corticogenesis in which the cortex of the brain is formed during neural development.

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Development of the nervous system

Development of the nervous system refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood.

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Dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway

The dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway (DCML) (also known as the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway (PCML)) is a sensory pathway of the central nervous system that conveys sensations of fine touch, vibration, two-point discrimination, and proprioception (position) from the skin and joints.

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Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or DL-PFC) is an area in the prefrontal cortex of the brain of humans and non-human primates.

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Downregulation and upregulation

In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.

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Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence.

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Efferent nerve fiber

In the peripheral nervous system, an efferent nerve fiber is the axon of a motor neuron.

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Eloquent cortex

Eloquent cortex is a name used by neurologists for areas of cortex that—if removed—will result in loss of sensory processing or linguistic ability, minor paralysis, or paralysis.

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Homeobox protein EMX1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EMX1 gene.

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Homeobox protein Emx2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EMX2 gene.

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Ependyma is the thin neuroepithelial lining of the ventricular system of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord, made up of ependymal cells.

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Epigenetic regulation of neurogenesis

Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression which do not result from modifications to the sequence of DNA.

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Excitatory postsynaptic potential

In neuroscience, an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is a postsynaptic potential that makes the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential.

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External granular layer (cerebral cortex)

The external granular layer of the cerebral cortex is commonly known as layer II.

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Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.

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Fibroblast growth factor 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF8 gene.

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Fibroblast growth factor

The fibroblast growth factors are a family of cell signalling proteins that are involved in a wide variety of processes, most notably as crucial elements for normal development.

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FMR1 (fragile X mental retardation 1) is a human gene that codes for a protein called fragile X mental retardation protein, or FMRP.

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In the anatomy of the brain of vertebrates, the forebrain or prosencephalon is the rostral-most (forward-most) portion of the brain.

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Fragile X syndrome

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder.

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Frontal lobe

The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.

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G1 phase

The g1 phase, or Gap 1 phase, is the first of four phases of the cell cycle that takes place in eukaryotic cell division.

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G2 phase

G2 phase, or Gap 2 phase, is the second subphase of Interphase in the cell cycle directly preceding mitosis.

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GABA receptor

The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory compound in the mature vertebrate central nervous system.

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Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.

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Ganglionic eminence

In neuroanatomy and neuroembryology, a ganglionic eminence (GE) is a transitory brain structure that guides cell and axon migration.

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Germ layer

A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis.

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Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside viviparous animals.

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Globus pallidus

The globus pallidus (Latin for "pale globe") also known as paleostriatum or dorsal pallidum, is a subcortical structure of the brain.

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Glutamate (neurotransmitter)

In neuroscience, glutamate refers to the anion of glutamic acid in its role as a neurotransmitter: a chemical that nerve cells use to send signals to other cells.

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Golgi's method

Golgi's method is a silver staining technique that is used to visualize nervous tissue under light microscopy.

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Grey matter

Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.

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Gyrification is the process of forming the characteristic folds of the cerebral cortex.

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In neuroanatomy, a gyrus (pl. gyri) is a ridge on the cerebral cortex.

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Headphones (or head-phones in the early days of telephony and radio) are a pair of small loudspeaker drivers worn on or around the head over a user's ears.

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The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.

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A homunculus (Latin for "little person") is a representation of a small human being.

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Human body

The human body is the entire structure of a human being.

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Human brain

The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

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Hyperpolarization (biology)

Hyperpolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative.

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Inhibitory postsynaptic potential

An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.

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An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about society and proposes solutions for its normative problems.

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Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.

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Internal capsule

The internal capsule is a white matter structure situated in the inferomedial part of each cerebral hemisphere of the brain.

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Internal granular layer (cerebral cortex)

The internal granular layer of the cortex, also commonly referred to as the granular layer of the cortex, is the layer IV in the subdivision of the mammalian cortex into 6 layers.

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An interneuron (also called internuncial neuron, relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron, intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron) is a broad class of neurons found in the human body.

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Jürgen Schmidhuber

Jürgen Schmidhuber (born 17 January 1963) is a computer scientist who works in the field of artificial intelligence.

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Korbinian Brodmann

Korbinian Brodmann (17 November 1868 – 22 August 1918) was a German neurologist who became famous for his definition of the cerebral cortex into 52 distinct regions from their cytoarchitectonic (histological) characteristics, known as Brodmann areas.

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Lafora disease

Lafora disease, also called Lafora progressive myoclonic epilepsy or MELF, is a fatal autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by the presence of inclusion bodies, known as Lafora bodies, within the cytoplasm of the cells in the heart, liver, muscle, and skin.

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Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Lateral sulcus

The lateral sulcus (also called Sylvian fissure or lateral fissure) is one of the most prominent features of the human brain.

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Learning disability

Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.

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Lentiform nucleus

The lentiform nucleus or lenticular nucleus comprises the putamen and the globus pallidus within the basal ganglia.

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Limbic system

The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.

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Line of Gennari

The line of Gennari (also called the "band" or "stria" of Gennari) is a band of myelinated axons that run parallel to the surface of the cerebral cortex on the banks of the calcarine fissure in the occipital lobe.

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List of regions in the human brain

The human brain anatomical regions are ordered following standard neuroanatomy hierarchies.

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In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.

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Longitudinal fissure

The longitudinal fissure (or cerebral fissure, medial longitudinal fissure, or interhemispheric fissure) is the deep groove that separates the two hemispheres of the vertebrate brain.

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Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nervous system uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce high quality two- or three-dimensional images of nervous system structures without use of ionizing radiation (X-rays) or radioactive tracers.

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McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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MECP2 (methyl CpG binding protein 2 (Rett syndrome)) is a gene that encodes the protein MECP2.

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Medical News Today

Medical News Today is a web-based outlet for medical news, targeted to both physicians and the general public.

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Medulla oblongata

The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.

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Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.

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In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.

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A microgyrus is an area of the cerebral cortex that includes only four cortical layers instead of six.

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A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.

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In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.

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Motor control

Motor control is the systematic regulation of movement in organisms that possess a nervous system.

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Motor cortex

The motor cortex is the region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements.

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Mushroom bodies

The mushroom bodies or corpora pedunculata are a pair of structures in the brain of insects, other arthropods, and some annelids (notably the ragworm).

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.

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Nereididae (formerly spelled Nereidae) are a family of polychaete worms.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Nervous tissue

Nervous tissue or nerve tissue is the main tissue component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.

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Neural plate

The neural plate is a key developmental structure that serves as the basis for the nervous system.

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Neural tube

In the developing chordate (including vertebrates), the neural tube is the embryonic precursor to the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord.

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Neurocognitive functions are cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or cortical networks in the brain substrate layers of neurological matrix at the cellular molecular level.

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Neurodevelopmental disorder

Neurodevelopmental disorder is a mental disorder.

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Neurogenesis is the process by which nervous system cells, known as neurons, are produced by neural stem cells (NSC)s, and it occurs in all species of animals except the porifera (sponges) and placozoans.

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Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.

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Neurology (journal)

Neurology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology, of which it is the official journal.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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A neuroscientist (or neurobiologist) is a scientist who has specialised knowledge in the field of neuroscience, the branch of biology that deals with the physiology, biochemistry, anatomy and molecular biology of neurons and neural circuits and especially their association with behaviour and learning.

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Neurulation refers to the folding process in vertebrate embryos, which includes the transformation of the neural plate into the neural tube.

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Notch signaling pathway

The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell signaling system present in most multicellular organisms.

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Nucleus accumbens

The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.

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Occipital lobe

The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

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Olfactory bulb

The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.

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Olfactory system

The olfactory system, or sense of smell, is the part of the sensory system used for smelling (olfaction).

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Oligodendrocytes, or oligodendroglia,.

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Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.

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In anatomy of animals, the paleopallium or paleocortex is a region within the telencephalon in the brain which is younger in an evolutionary sense (i.e. phylogenetically) than archicortex (or archipallium), but phylogenetically older than neocortex (or neopallium).

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Pallium (neuroanatomy)

In neuroanatomy, pallium refers to the layers of grey and white matter that cover the upper surface of the cerebrum in vertebrates.

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Paralimbic cortex

The paralimbic cortex is an area of three-layered cortex that includes the following regions: the piriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, the parahippocampal cortex on the medial surface of the temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex just above the corpus callosum.

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Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".

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Paired box protein Pax-6, also known as aniridia type II protein (AN2) or oculorhombin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX6 gene.

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Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.

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Pia mater

Pia mater (or in, retrieved 2012-07-28.), often referred to as simply the pia, is the delicate innermost layer of the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

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Piriform cortex

The piriform cortex, or pyriform cortex, is a region in the brain, part of the rhinencephalon situated in the cerebrum.

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The pons (Latin for "bridge") is part of the brainstem, and in humans and other bipeds lies inferior to the midbrain, superior to the medulla oblongata and anterior to the cerebellum.

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Postcentral gyrus

The postcentral gyrus is a prominent gyrus in the lateral parietal lobe of the human brain.

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Posterior parietal cortex

The posterior parietal cortex (the portion of parietal neocortex posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex) plays an important role in planned movements, spatial reasoning, and attention.

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The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.

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Premotor cortex

The premotor cortex is an area of motor cortex lying within the frontal lobe of the brain just anterior to the primary motor cortex.

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Primary motor cortex

The primary motor cortex (Brodmann area 4) is a brain region that in humans is located in the dorsal portion of the frontal lobe.

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Primary somatosensory cortex

The primary somatosensory cortex is located in the postcentral gyrus, and is part of the somatosensory system.

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A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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Progenitor cell

A progenitor cell is a biological cell that, like a stem cell, has a tendency to differentiate into a specific type of cell, but is already more specific than a stem cell and is pushed to differentiate into its "target" cell.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein production

Protein production is the biotechnological process of generating a specific protein.

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Protomap (neuroscience)

The Protomap is a primordial molecular map of the functional areas of the mammalian cerebral cortex during early embryonic development, at a stage when neural stem cells are still the dominant cell type.

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Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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The putamen is a round structure located at the base of the forebrain (telencephalon).

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Pyramidal cell

Pyramidal cells, or (pyramidal neurons), are a type of multipolar neuron found in areas of the brain including the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala.

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Radial glial cell

Radial glial cells are bipolar-shaped cells that span the width of the cortex in the developing vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) and serve as primary progenitor cells capable of generating neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes.

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Radial unit hypothesis

The Radial Unit Hypothesis (RUH) is a conceptual theory of cerebral cortex development, first described by Pasko Rakic.

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Receptive field

The receptive field of an individual sensory neuron is the particular region of the sensory space (e.g., the body surface, or the visual field) in which a stimulus will modify the firing of that neuron.

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Reelin (RELN) is a large secreted extracellular matrix glycoprotein that helps regulate processes of neuronal migration and positioning in the developing brain by controlling cell-cell interactions.

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The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Retinoic acid

Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development.

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Retinotopy (from Greek τόπος, place) is the mapping of visual input from the retina to neurons, particularly those neurons within the visual stream.

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Rett syndrome

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a genetic brain disorder which typically becomes apparent after 6 to 18 months of age in females.

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Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.

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Sex linkage

Sex linkage is the phenotypic expression of an allele related to the allosome (sex chromosome) of the individual.

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A shrew (family Soricidae) is a small mole-like mammal classified in the order Eulipotyphla.

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The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.

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Soma (biology)

The soma (pl. somata or somas), perikaryon (pl. perikarya), neurocyton, or cell body is the bulbous, non-process portion of a neuron or other brain cell type, containing the cell nucleus.

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Somatotopic arrangement

Somatotopy is the point-for-point correspondence of an area of the body to a specific point on the central nervous system.

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Sonic hedgehog

Sonic hedgehog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SHH ("sonic hedgehog") gene.

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Stellate cell

In neuroscience, stellate cells are any neuron that have a star-like shape formed by dendritic processes radiating from the cell body. The three most common stellate cells are the inhibitory interneurons found within the molecular layer of the cerebellum, excitatory spiny stellate cells and inhibitory aspiny stellate interneurons. Cerebellar stellate cells synapse onto the dendritic arbors of Purkinje cells. Cortical spiny stellate cells are found in layer IVC of the V1 region in the visual cortex. They receive excitatory synaptic fibres from the thalamus and process feed forward excitation to 2/3 layer of V1 visual cortex to pyramidal cells. Cortical spiny stellate cells have a 'regular' firing pattern. Stellate cells are chromophobes, that is cells that does not stain readily, and thus appears relatively pale under the microscope.

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Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

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The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.

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The transient fetal subplate zone, together with the marginal zone and the cortical plate, represents the developmental anlage of the mammalian cerebral cortex.

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Substantia nigra

The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.

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Subthalamic nucleus

The subthalamic nucleus is a small lens-shaped nucleus in the brain where it is, from a functional point of view, part of the basal ganglia system.

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Subventricular zone

The subventricular zone (SVZ) is a term used to describe both embryonic and adult neural tissues in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).

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Sulcus (neuroanatomy)

In neuroanatomy, a sulcus (Latin: "furrow", pl. sulci) is a depression or groove in the cerebral cortex.

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Supplementary motor area

The supplementary motor area (SMA) is a part of the primate cerebral cortex that contributes to the control of movement.

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In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.

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Synaptogenesis is the formation of synapses between neurons in the nervous system.

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Temporal lobe

The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

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Thalamic reticular nucleus

The thalamic reticular nucleus is part of the ventral thalamus that forms a capsule around the thalamus laterally.

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The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.

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The Journal of Neuroscience

The Journal of Neuroscience is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Society for Neuroscience.

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Thought encompasses a “goal oriented flow of ideas and associations that leads to reality-oriented conclusion.” Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood.

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In physiology, tonotopy (from Greek tono.

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Topographic map (neuroanatomy)

A topographic map is the ordered projection of a sensory surface, like the retina or the skin, or an effector system, like the musculature, to one or more structures of the central nervous system.

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Torsten Wiesel

Torsten Nils Wiesel (born 3 June 1924) is a Swedish neurophysiologist.

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Transcription factor

In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.

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TMF regulated nuclear protein 1 is a nuclear protein with a crucial role in cellular proliferation and brain development.

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Valentino Braitenberg

Valentino Braitenberg (or Valentin von Braitenberg; 18 June 1926 – 9 September 2011) was an Italian neuroscientist and cyberneticist.

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Ventricular system

The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.

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Ventricular zone

In vertebrate organisms, the ventricular zone (VZ) is a transient embryonic layer of tissue containing neural stem cells, principally radial glial cells, of the central nervous system (CNS).

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Vernon Benjamin Mountcastle

Vernon Benjamin Mountcastle (July 15, 1918 – January 11, 2015) was Professor Emeritus of Neuroscience at Johns Hopkins University.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Visual cortex

The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.

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Wernicke's area

Wernicke's area, also called Wernicke's speech area, is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex that are linked to speech (the other is Broca's area).

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White matter

White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.

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Association area, Association areas, Association center, Association centre, Association cortex, Brain cortex, Cerebral Cortex, Cerebral development, Cortex (neuroanatomy), Cortex cerebri, Cortical area, Cortical layer, Cortical layers, Cortical neuron, Cortical neurons, Cortical plate, Lamina granularis interna, Lamina molecularis, Lamina multiformis, Lamina pyramidalis externa, Lamina pyramidalis interna, Layer V, Multiform layer, Pial surface, Primary Cortex, Primary cerebral cortex, Primary cortex, Subcortex, Subcortical.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerebral_cortex

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