311 relations: Abbey Curran, Abusive head trauma, Academy Awards, Activities of daily living, Age and Ageing, Ageing, Alternative medicine, American Broadcasting Company, American Family Physician, American Journal of Occupational Therapy, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, András Pető, Anthropometry of the upper arm, Antibiotic, Anticonvulsant, Antispasmodic, Apnea of prematurity, Apraxia, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Arteriovenous malformation, Arthritis, Arun Shourie, Assistive technology, Ataxic cerebral palsy, Athetoid cerebral palsy, Athletics Australia, Atlanta, Augmentative and alternative communication, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Australians, Baby Doe Law, Baclofen, Basal ganglia, Benzodiazepine, Bilirubin, Birth defect, Bisphosphonate, Bone density, Botulinum toxin, Brain, Breaking Bad, Breast self-examination, Britain's Got Talent (series 7), British Journal of Occupational Therapy, Caesarean section, Caffeine, Call the Midwife, Cardiotocography, ..., Caregiver stress, Cerebellum, Cerebral palsy sport classification, Choreoathetosis, Chorioamnionitis, Christy Brown, Chronic pain, Claude François Lallemand, Claudius, Cliffside Park, New Jersey, Clonus, Cochrane Library, Cognition, Cognitive deficit, Communication Function Classification System, Conductive education, Congenital rubella syndrome, Constipation, Constraint-induced movement therapy, Corticospinal tract, Corticosteroid, Cryptorchidism, CT scan, Daniel Day-Lewis, Deadwood (TV series), Defensive medicine, Delayed puberty, Demos Medical Publishing, Deutsches Ärzteblatt, Devaki Pandit, Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, Developmental disability, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, Diaphysis, Diazepam, Diplegia, Disability and Rehabilitation, Disability rights movement, Disability sport classification, Dominance (genetics), Drowning, Dysarthria, Dystonia, Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Elsevier, Encephalitis, Encephalopathy, Epilepsy, Epileptic seizure, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, European Journal of Human Genetics, Evan O'Hanlon, Exercise, Extrapyramidal system, Eye–hand coordination, Fatigue, Fecal incontinence, Fragile X syndrome, Francesca Martinez, GAD1, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, General movements assessment, Geri Jewell, Gestation, Gross Motor Function Classification System, Hannah Cockroft, Health visitor, Hearing, Hearing loss, Heredity, Hippocrates, Hippocratic Corpus, Human musculoskeletal system, Hyaline cartilage, Hydrocephalus, Hypertonia, Hypoglycemia, Hypotonia, Hypoventilation, Hypoxia (medical), Inclusive recreation, Infant respiratory distress syndrome, Institute for Middle East Understanding, Intellectual disability, Interdisciplinarity, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, Jack Carroll (comedian), Jason Benetti, Jaundice, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, Jim Sheridan, Johann Christian Reil, Josh Blue, Journal of Child Neurology, Journal of Children's Orthopaedics, Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Jusepe de Ribera, Kazuo Hara, Kernicterus, Language delay, Language Log, Larynx, Lawsuit, Lead poisoning, Learned helplessness, Learning disability, Lesion, List of Breaking Bad and Better Call Saul characters, Los Angeles Times, Low birth weight, Lower urinary tract symptoms, Magnesium sulfate, Magnetic resonance imaging, Malnutrition, Manner of articulation, Manual Ability Classification System, Maysoon Zayid, Meconium aspiration syndrome, Medicaid, Medical imaging, Medicine (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins journal), Meningitis, Menstruation, Metaphysis, Methylmercury, Micah Fowler, Miss USA 2008, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Motor cortex, Movement disorders, Multiple morbidities, Muscle contraction, Muscle tone, My Left Foot, National Film Awards, National Health Service (England), National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Neoplasm, Neurodegeneration, Neuroimaging, Neurology, Neurology (journal), Neuromuscular junction, Neurosurgery, New York City, New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Film, Obesity, Obesity Reviews, Occupational therapist, Occupational therapy, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Oprah Winfrey, Oprah Winfrey Network, Orthopedic cast, Orthopedic surgery, Orthotics, Osteoporosis, Paediatrics & Child Health, Paralympic Games, Paralysis, Pediatric Radiology (journal), Pediatrics, Pediatrics (journal), Pelvic examination, Pelvic floor, People-first language, Perinatal asphyxia, Pharaoh, Pharynx, Philippe Pinel, Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, Physical disability, Physical medicine and rehabilitation, Physical therapy, Pneumonia, Poliomyelitis, Porencephaly, Precocious puberty, Preterm birth, Prevalence, Primitive reflexes, Puberty, Quality of life (healthcare), Radio National, Research in Developmental Disabilities, Respiratory system, Rh disease, Rhizotomy, RJ Mitte, Salutogenesis, Scoliosis, Scope (charity), Sense, Sensory processing, Sesame Street, Sigmund Freud, Siptah, Sleep disorder, Spasm, Spastic, Spastic cerebral palsy, Spastic diplegia, Spastic hemiplegia, Spastic quadriplegia, Spasticity, Speech, Speech-language pathology, Speechless (TV series), Spinal cord injury, Sport, Stem-cell therapy, Stroke, Subdural hematoma, Swallowing, T34 (classification), Tardive dyskinesia, Tendinitis, Tetraplegia, The American Journal of Medicine, The BMJ, The Clubfoot, The Facts of Life (TV series), The Lancet, The New England Journal of Medicine, The New York Times, The New York Times Company, The Young and the Restless, Tocolytic, Traumatic brain injury, Tremor, Twin, Twin Research and Human Genetics, United Cerebral Palsy, University of Delaware, University of Pennsylvania, Unlicensed assistive personnel, Upper motor neuron lesion, Urinary incontinence, Vertebral column, Visual perception, Wheelchair racing, White matter, William Gowers (neurologist), William John Little, William Osler, World Cerebral Palsy Day, World record, Ying Yang Twins, Young adult (psychology), Zach Anner, 100 metres, 200 metres, 21 Jump Street, 400 metres. 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Abbey Nicole Curran (born 1988) is an American beauty pageant contestant from Davenport, Iowa, who competed in the Miss USA pageant in 2008.
Abusive head trauma (AHT), commonly known as shaken baby syndrome (SBS), is an injury to a child's head caused by someone else.
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
Activities of daily living (ADLs or ADL) is a term used in healthcare to refer to people's daily self care activities.
Age and Ageing is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of geriatric medicine and gerontology.
Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Disney–ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
American Family Physician is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
The American Journal of Occupational Therapy is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal that is published by the American Occupational Therapy Association.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
András Pető (11 September 1893 in Szombathely, Hungary – 11 September 1967 in Budapest, Hungary) was a practitioner of physical rehabilitation whose work provided the foundation for conductive education.
The anthropometry of the upper arm is a set of measurements of the shape of the upper arms.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
An antispasmodic (synonym: spasmolytic) is a pharmaceutical drug or other agent that suppresses muscle spasms.
Apnea of prematurity is defined as cessation of breathing by a premature infant that lasts for more than 20 seconds and/or is accompanied by hypoxia or bradycardia.
Apraxia is a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain (specifically the posterior parietal cortex) in which the individual has difficulty with the motor planning to perform tasks or movements when asked, provided that the request or command is understood and he/she is willing to perform the task.
The Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation is the official journal of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM).
Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system.
Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.
Arun Shourie (born 2 November 1941) is an Indian economist, journalist, author and politician.
Assistive technology is an umbrella term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for people with disabilities while also including the process used in selecting, locating, and using them.
Ataxic cerebral palsy is clinically observed in approximately 5-10% of all cases of cerebral palsy, making it the least frequent form of cerebral palsy diagnosed.
Athetoid cerebral palsy or dyskinetic cerebral palsy (sometimes abbreviated ADCP) is a type of cerebral palsy primarily associated with damage, like other forms of CP, to the basal ganglia in the form of lesions that occur during brain development due to bilirubin encephalopathy and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.
Athletics Australia is the National Sporting Organisation (NSO) recognised by the Australian Sports Commission for the sport of athletics in Australia.
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) is an umbrella term that encompasses the communication methods used to supplement or replace speech or writing for those with impairments in the production or comprehension of spoken or written language.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statistical agency of the Government of Australia.
The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) is Australia's national agency for information and statistics on Australia’s health and welfare.
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are people associated with Australia, sharing a common history, culture, and language (Australian English).
The Baby Doe Law or Baby Doe Amendment is the name of an amendment to the Child Abuse Law passed in 1984 in the United States that sets forth specific criteria and guidelines for the treatment of seriously ill and/or disabled newborns, regardless of the wishes of the parents.
Baclofen, sold under the brand name Lioresal among others, is a medication used to treat spasticity.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs that prevent the loss of bone density, used to treat osteoporosis and similar diseases.
Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD), is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue.
Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Breaking Bad is an American neo-Western crime drama television series created and produced by Vince Gilligan.
Breast self-examination (BSE) is a screening method used in an attempt to detect early breast cancer.
Series Seven of Britain's Got Talent, a British talent competition series, began broadcasting in the UK during 2013, from 13 April to 8 June on ITV; because of England's international friendly with the Republic of Ireland that year, the show took a break on 29 May to avoid clashing with live coverage of the match.
The British Journal of Occupational Therapy is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering occupational therapy.
Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Call the Midwife is a BBC period drama series about a group of nurse midwives working in the East End of London in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
Cardiotocography (CTG) is a technical means of recording the fetal heartbeat and the uterine contractions during pregnancy.
Caregiver syndrome or caregiver stress is a condition that strongly manifests exhaustion, anger, rage, or guilt resulting from unrelieved caring for a chronically ill patient.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
Cerebral palsy sport classification is a classification system used by sports that include people with cerebral palsy (CP) with different degrees of severity to compete fairly against each other and against others with different types of disabilities.
Choreoathetosis is the occurrence of involuntary movements in a combination of chorea (irregular migrating contractions) and athetosis (twisting and writhing).
Chorioamnionitis also known as intra-amniotic infection (IAI) is an inflammation of the fetal membranes (amnion and chorion) due to a bacterial infection.
Christy Brown (5 June 1932 – 7 September 1981) was an Irish writer and painter who had cerebral palsy and was able to write or type only with the toes of one foot.
Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
Claude François Lallemand (January 26, 1790 in Metz – August 25, 1854 in Marseille) was a French physician.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
Cliffside Park is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States.
Clonus (from the Greek for "violent, confused motion") is a series of involuntary, rhythmic, muscular contractions and relaxations.
The Cochrane Library (named after Archie Cochrane) is a collection of databases in medicine and other healthcare specialties provided by Cochrane and other organizations.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.
The Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) for individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) is a five-level classification system which began development at Michigan State University and currently under further refinement at the University of Wyoming.
Conductive Education, or CE, is an educational system, based on the work of Hungarian Professor András Pető, that has been specifically developed for children and adults who have motor disorders of neurological origin such as cerebral palsy.
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella, usually in the first trimester.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
Constraint-induced movement therapy (CI, CIT, or CIMT) is a form of rehabilitation therapy that improves upper extremity function in stroke and other central nervous system damage victims by increasing the use of their affected upper limb.
The corticospinal tract is a white matter motor pathway starting at the cerebral cortex that terminates on lower motor neurons and interneurons in the spinal cord, controlling movements of the limbs and trunk.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both testes from the scrotum.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Sir Daniel Michael Blake Day-Lewis (born 29 April 1957) is a retired English actor who holds both British and Irish citizenship.
Deadwood is an American Western television series created, produced, and largely written by David Milch, that aired on the premium cable network HBO from March 21, 2004, to August 27, 2006, spanning 36 episodes and three seasons.
Defensive medicine, also called defensive medical decision making, refers to the practice of recommending a diagnostic test or medical treatment that is not necessarily the best option for the patient, but an option that mainly serves the function to protect the physician against the patient as potential plaintiff.
Delayed puberty is described as delayed puberty with exceptions when an organism has passed the usual age of onset of puberty with no physical or hormonal signs that it is beginning.
Demos Medical Publishing, now an imprint of Springer Publishing Company, publishes books on neurology, oncology, pathology, and other medical subjects.
The Deutsches Ärzteblatt is a weekly German-language medical magazine published in Germany.
Devaki Pandit (देवकी पंडित) (born 6 March 1965) is an Indian Classical Singer.
Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews (titled Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews before 2008) is a peer reviewed quarterly review journal published by John Wiley and Sons since 1995.
Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments that arise before adulthood.
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering pediatric neurology and developmental medicine.
The diaphysis is the main or midsection (shaft) of a long bone.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
Diplegia, when used singularly, refers to paralysis affecting symmetrical parts of the body.
Disability and Rehabilitation is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of disability and rehabilitation medicine, including practise and policy aspects of the rehabilitation process.
The disability rights movement is a global social movement to secure equal opportunities and equal rights for all people with disabilities.
Disability sports classification is a system that allows for fair competition between people with different types of disabilities.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
Drowning is defined as respiratory impairment from being in or under a liquid.
Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury of the motor component of the motor-speech system and is characterized by poor articulation of phonemes.
Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures.
Early Childhood Research Quarterly is an academic journal providing current research (predominantly empirical) in the field of early childhood (birth through eight years of age) education and development that was established in 1986.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.
Encephalopathy (from ἐγκέφαλος "brain" + πάθος "suffering") means any disorder or disease of the brain, especially chronic degenerative conditions.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
The European Journal of Clinical Nutrition is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering nutrition science and published by the Nature Publishing Group.
The European Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group on behalf of the European Society of Human Genetics.
Evan George O'Hanlon, OAM (born 4 May 1988) is an Australian Paralympic athlete, who competes mainly in category T38 sprint events.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
In anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a part of the motor system network causing involuntary actions.
Eye–hand coordination (also known as hand–eye coordination) is the coordinated control of eye movement with hand movement, and the processing of visual input to guide reaching and grasping along with the use of proprioception of the hands to guide the eyes.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fecal incontinence (FI), also known as anal incontinence, or in some forms encopresis, is a lack of control over defecation, leading to involuntary loss of bowel contents—including flatus (gas), liquid stool elements and mucus, or solid feces.
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder.
Francesca Martinez (born 1978) is an English comedian, writer and actress, born in London to a Spanish father and half-Swedish, half-English mother.
Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (brain, 67kDa) (GAD67), also known as GAD1, is a human gene.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.
A general movements assessment is a type of medical assessment used in the diagnosis of cerebral palsy.
Geraldine Ann "Geri" Jewell (born September 13, 1956) is an American actress noted for roles on the 1980s sitcom The Facts of Life and the mid 2000s western Deadwood.
Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside viviparous animals.
The Gross Motor Function Classification System or GMFCS is a 5 level clinical classification system that describes the gross motor function of people with cerebral palsy on the basis of self-initiated movement abilities.
Hannah Lucy Cockroft MBE (born 30 July 1992) is a British wheelchair racer specialising in sprint distances in the T34 classification.
Health visitors are professional individuals engaged in public health work within the domestic setting, predominantly found in countries with state-funded health systems.
Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.
Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
The Hippocratic Corpus (Latin: Corpus Hippocraticum), or Hippocratic Collection, is a collection of around 60 early Ancient Greek medical works strongly associated with the physician Hippocrates and his teachings.
The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.
Hyaline cartilage is glass-like (hyaline) but translucent cartilage.
Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain.
Hypertonia is a term sometimes used synonymously with spasticity and rigidity in the literature surrounding damage to the central nervous system, namely upper motor neuron lesions.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Hypotonia, commonly known as floppy baby syndrome, is a state of low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to stretch in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength.
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
Inclusive recreation, also known as adaptive or accessible recreation, is a concept whereby people with disabilities are given the opportunity to participate in recreational activities.
Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), also called neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS), respiratory distress syndrome of newborn, or increasingly surfactant deficiency disorder (SDD), and previously called hyaline membrane disease (HMD), is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of pulmonary surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs.
Institute for Middle East Understanding (IMEU) is a 501(c)(3) pro-Palestinian non-profit organisation, not aligned to any political or government organisation.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a classification of the health components of functioning and disability.
The International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders is a peer-reviewed medical journal that covers topics relevant to speech and language disorders and speech and language therapy.
Jack Carroll (born 18 October 1998) is a British comedian, writer and actor.
Jason Benetti (born September 9, 1983) is an American sportscaster.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
Jessica Kingsley Publishers (JKP) is an independent, multinational publishing house headquartered in London, and founded in 1987 by Jessica Kingsley.
Jim Sheridan (born 6 February 1949) is an Irish playwright, screenwriter, film director, and film producer.
Johann Christian Reil (20 February 1759, Rhaude (an urban district of Rhauderfehn) – 22 November 1813, Halle an der Saale) was a German physician, physiologist, anatomist, and psychiatrist.
Josh Blue (born November 27, 1978) is an American comedian.
The Journal of Child Neurology is a peer-reviewed medical journal that covers the field of pediatric neurology.
The Journal of Children's Orthopaedics is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal, which was first published in March 2007.
The Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering developmental behavioral pediatrics.
The Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal that covers obstetric, medical, genetic, mental health, and surgical complications of pregnancy and their effects on the mother, fetus, and neonate.
The Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by the BMJ Group.
The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development was a peer-reviewed open access medical journal published by the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service of the Veterans Health Administration Office of Research and Development.
Jusepe de Ribera (baptized February 17, 1591; died September 2, 1652) was a Spanish Tenebrist painter and printmaker, also known as José de Ribera and Josep de Ribera.
is a Japanese documentary film director.
Kernicterus is a bilirubin-induced brain dysfunction.
Language delay is a failure in children to develop language abilities on the usual age-appropriate for their developmental timetable.
Language Log is a collaborative language blog maintained by Mark Liberman, a phonetician at the University of Pennsylvania.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
Learned helplessness is behavior typical of an animal and occurs where the subject endures repeatedly painful or otherwise aversive stimuli which it is unable to escape or avoid.
Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.
A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.
Breaking Bad is an American television series created by Vince Gilligan.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of a infant of 2,499 g or less, regardless of gestational age.
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) refer to a group of clinical symptoms involving the bladder, urinary sphincter, urethra, and, in men, the prostate.
Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula MgSO4(H2O)x where 0≤x≤7.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.
The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) is a medical classification system used to describe how children aged from 4 to 18 years old with cerebral palsy use their hands with objects during activities of daily living, with a focus on the use of both hands together.
Maysoon Zayid (ميسون زايد) is an American actress and comedian.
Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) also known as neonatal aspiration of meconium is a medical condition affecting newborn infants.
Medicaid in the United States is a joint federal and state program that helps with medical costs for some people with limited income and resources.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Medicine is an open access peer-reviewed medical journal published by.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
The metaphysis is the narrow portion of a long bone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis.
Methylmercury (sometimes methyl mercury) is an organometallic cation with the formula.
Micah D. Fowler (born March 5, 1998) is an American actor with cerebral palsy.
Miss USA 2008, the 57th Miss USA pageant, was held in Las Vegas, Nevada on April 11, 2008.
The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report is a weekly epidemiological digest for the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
The motor cortex is the region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements.
Movement disorders are clinical syndromes with either an excess of movement or a paucity of voluntary and involuntary movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity.
Multiple morbidities or Multimorbidities is a term which means co-occurring diseases.
Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.
In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state.
My Left Foot: The Story of Christy Brown is a 1989 biographical drama film co-written and directed by Jim Sheridan and starring Daniel Day-Lewis, Brenda Fricker, Ray McAnally and Fiona Shaw.
The National Film Awards is the most prominent film award ceremonies in India.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly funded national healthcare system for England and one of the four National Health Services for each constituent country of the United Kingdom.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is a part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH).
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neurology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology, of which it is the official journal.
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Picture is an award given by the New York Film Critics Circle, honoring the finest achievements in filmmaking.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Obesity Reviews is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal, established in 2000, which publishes reviews on all obesity-related disciplines.
An occupational therapist works with a client to help them achieve a fulfilled and satisfied state in life through the use of "purposeful activity or interventions designed to achieve occupational outcomes which promote health, prevent injury or disability to develop, improve, sustain or restore the highest possible level of independence." A practical definition for OT can also be illustrated with the use of models such as the Occupational Performance Model (Australia), known as the OPM(A).
Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities.
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a continuously updated catalog of human genes and genetic disorders and traits, with a particular focus on the gene-phenotype relationship.
Oprah Winfrey (born Orpah Gail Winfrey; January 29, 1954) is an American media proprietor, talk show host, actress, producer, and philanthropist.
The Oprah Winfrey Network (OWN) is an American pay television channel owned by Harpo Studios and Discovery Inc. It debuted on January 1, 2011, in approximately 80 million homes, replacing the Discovery Health Channel (DHC).
An orthopedic cast, or simply cast, is a shell, frequently made from plaster or fiberglass, encasing a limb (or, in some cases, large portions of the body) to stabilize and hold anatomical structures, most often a broken bone (or bones), in place until healing is confirmed.
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.
Orthotics (Greek: Ορθός, ortho, "to straighten" or "align") is a specialty within the medical field concerned with the design, manufacture and application of orthoses.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Paediatrics & Child Health is a peer-reviewed medical journal of paediatrics and is the official journal of the Canadian Paediatric Society.
The Paralympic Games is a major international multi-sport event involving athletes with a range of disabilities, including impaired muscle power (e.g. paraplegia and quadriplegia, muscular dystrophy, post-polio syndrome, spina bifida), impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency (e.g. amputation or dysmelia), leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, vision impairment and intellectual impairment.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
Pediatric Radiology is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering all areas of pediatric imaging and related fields published by Springer Science+Business Media.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
Pediatrics is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
A pelvic examination is the physical examination of the external and internal female pelvic organs.
The pelvic floor or pelvic diaphragm is composed of muscle fibers of the levator ani, the coccygeus muscle, and associated connective tissue which span the area underneath the pelvis.
People-first language (PFL), also called person-first language (PFL), is a type of linguistic prescription to avoid marginalization or dehumanization (either conscious or subconscious) when discussing people with a health issue or disability.
Perinatal asphyxia, neonatal asphyxia or birth asphyxia is the medical condition resulting from deprivation of oxygen to a newborn infant that lasts long enough during the birth process to cause physical harm, usually to the brain.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
Philippe Pinel (20 April 1745 – 25 October 1826) was a French physician who was instrumental in the development of a more humane psychological approach to the custody and care of psychiatric patients, referred to today as moral therapy.
Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics is a medical journal that provides information to all therapists involved in developmental and physical rehabilitation of infants, children and youth.
A physical disability is a limitation on a person's physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina.
Physical medicine and rehabilitation, also known as physiatry, is a branch of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities.
Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
Porencephaly is an extremely rare cephalic disorder involving encephalomalacia.
In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age.
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.
Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use).
Primitive reflexes are reflex actions originating in the central nervous system that are exhibited by normal infants, but not neurologically intact adults, in response to particular stimuli.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
In general, quality of life (QoL or QOL) is the perceived quality of an individual's daily life, that is, an assessment of their well-being or lack thereof.
ABC Radio National, known on-air as RN, is an Australia-wide Public Service Broadcasting radio network run by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
Research in Developmental Disabilities is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering developmental disabilities.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Rh disease (also known as rhesus isoimmunisation, Rh (D) disease, rhesus incompatibility, rhesus disease, RhD hemolytic disease of the newborn, rhesus D hemolytic disease of the newborn or RhD HDN) is a type of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN).
A Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy (SDR), also known as a Rhizotomy, Dorsal Rhizotomy, or a Selective Posterior Rhizotomy, is a neurosurgical procedure that selectively destroys problematic nerve roots in the spinal cord.
Roy Frank "RJ" Mitte III (born August 21, 1992) is an American actor, producer, and model.
Salutogenesis is a term coined by Aaron Antonovsky,Antonovsky, A. "Health, Stress and Coping" San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1979 a professor of medical sociology.
Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person's spine has a sideways curve.
Scope is a national disability charity that campaigns to challenge and change negative attitudes about disability and provides direct services.
A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.
Sensory processing is the process that organizes sensation from one’s own body and the environment, thus making it possible to use the body effectively within the environment.
Sesame Street is an American educational children's television series that combines live action, sketch comedy, animation and puppetry.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Akhenre Setepenre Siptah or Merenptah Siptah was the penultimate ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.
Derived via Latin from the Greek spastikos ("drawing in", "tugging" or "shaking uncontrolably"), the word spastic refers to an alteration in muscle tone affected by the medical condition spasticity, which is seen in spastic diplegia and many other forms of cerebral palsy and also in terms such as "spastic colon".
Spastic cerebral palsy is the type of cerebral palsy wherein spasticity is the exclusive impairment present.
Spastic diplegia, historically known as Little's Disease, is a form of cerebral palsy (CP) that is a chronic neuromuscular condition of hypertonia and spasticity—manifested as an especially high and constant "tightness" or "stiffness"—in the muscles of the lower extremities of the human body, usually those of the legs, hips and pelvis.
Spastic hemiplegia is a neuromuscular condition of spasticity that results in the muscles on one side of the body being in a constant state of contraction.
Spastic quadriplegia, also known as spastic tetraplegia, is a subset of spastic cerebral palsy that affects all four limbs (both arms and legs).
Spasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance with a combination of paralysis, increased tendon reflex activity, and hypertonia.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also sometimes referred to as a speech and language therapist or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with audiology, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others.
Speechless is an American sitcom television series that debuted on ABC on September 21, 2016.
A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes temporary or permanent changes in its function.
Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.
Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
A subdural hematoma (SDH), is a type of hematoma, usually associated with traumatic brain injury.
Swallowing, sometimes called deglutition in scientific contexts, is the process in the human or animal body that allows for a substance to pass from the mouth, to the pharynx, and into the esophagus, while shutting the epiglottis.
T34 is a disability sport classification for disability athletics.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that results in involuntary, repetitive body movements.
Tendinitis (also tendonitis), meaning inflammation of a tendon, is a type of tendinopathy often confused with the more common tendinosis, which has similar symptoms but requires different treatment.
Tetraplegia, also known as quadriplegia, is paralysis caused by illness or injury that results in the partial or total loss of use of all four limbs and torso; paraplegia is similar but does not affect the arms.
The American Journal of Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal and the official journal of the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Clubfoot (also known as The Club-Footed Boy) is a 1642 oil on canvas painting by Jusepe de Ribera.
The Facts of Life is an American sitcom and a spin-off of Diff'rent Strokes that originally aired on NBC from August 24, 1979 to May 7, 1988, making it one of the longest-running sitcoms of the 1980s.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New York Times Company is an American media company which publishes its namesake, The New York Times.
The Young and the Restless (often abbreviated as Y&R) is an American television soap opera created by William J. Bell and Lee Phillip Bell for CBS.
Tocolytics (also called anti-contraction medications or labor suppressants) are medications used to suppress premature labor (from the Greek tokos, childbirth, and lytic, capable of dissolving).
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.
Twin Research and Human Genetics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published bimonthly by the Cambridge University Press.
United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) is an international nonprofit charitable organization consisting of a network of affiliates.
The University of Delaware (colloquially UD, UDel, or U of D) is a public research university located in Newark, Delaware.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
Unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) is a class of paraprofessionals who assist individuals with physical disabilities, mental impairments, and other health care needs with their activities of daily living (ADLs) and provide bedside care—including basic nursing procedures—all under the supervision of a registered nurse, licensed practical nurse or other health care professional.
An upper motor neuron lesion (also known as pyramidal insufficiency) occurs in the neural pathway above the anterior horn cell of the spinal cord or motor nuclei of the cranial nerves.
Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
Wheelchair racing is the racing of wheelchairs in track and road races.
White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.
Sir William Richard Gowers (20 March 1845 – 4 May 1915) was a British neurologist, described by Macdonald Critchley in 1949 as "probably the greatest clinical neurologist of all time".
William John Little (1810–1894) was an English surgeon who is credited with the first medical identification of spastic diplegia, when he observed it in the 1860s amongst children.
Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet, (July 12, 1849 – December 29, 1919) was a Canadian physician and one of the four founding professors of Johns Hopkins Hospital.
Cerebral Palsy Day is an social movement and a day to celebrate and affirm the lives of the 17 million people living with cerebral palsy (CP).
A world record is usually the best global performance ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill or sport.
The Ying Yang Twins are an American hip hop duo consisting of Kaine (born Eric Jackson on December 16, 1978) and D-Roc (born Deongelo Holmes on February 23, 1979).
A young adult is generally a person ranging in age from their late teens or early twenties to their thirties, although definitions and opinions, such as Erik Erikson's stages of human development, vary.
Zach Anner (born November 17, 1984 in Buffalo, New York) is an Austin, Texas-based comedian, actor and writer with cerebral palsy who gained worldwide attention with the submission of a video to Oprah Winfrey's "Search for the Next TV Star" competition.
The 100 metres, or 100-metre dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions.
The 200 metres (also spelled 200 meters) is a sprint running event.
21 Jump Street is an American police procedural television series that aired on the Fox network and in first run syndication from April 12, 1987, to April 27, 1991, with a total of 103 episodes.
The 400 metres, or 400 metre dash, is a sprinting event in track and field competitions.