219 relations: Acceleration, Accretion (astrophysics), Adaptive optics, Ahuna Mons, Albedo, Aluminium-26, Ammonia, Antifreeze, Apparent magnitude, Apsis, Argentina, Asteroid, Asteroid belt, Asteroid family, Asteroid mining, Astronomical symbols, Astronomical unit, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Atmosphere, Axial tilt, Barnaba Oriani, Berlin, Binoculars, Bright spots on Ceres, Brine, C-type asteroid, Callisto (moon), Carbonaceous chondrite, Carbonate minerals, Caribbean, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Ceres (dwarf planet) in fiction, Ceres (mythology), Cerium, China National Space Administration, Cis-Neptunian object, Clay, Clay minerals, Clearing the neighbourhood, Cold trap, Comet, Computer simulation, Conjunction (astronomy), Constellation, Cosmic ray, Cronstedtite, Cryovolcano, Dawn (spacecraft), Declination, Definition of planet, ..., Delta Draconis, Demeter, Discovery Program, Discovery, Inc., Dolomite, Draco (constellation), Dwarf planet, Earth, Earth mass, Ecliptic, Ejecta, Enceladus, Epoch (astronomy), Eris (dwarf planet), Europa (moon), European Space Agency, Extinct radionuclide, Extraterrestrial life, Extraterrestrial liquid water, Ezinu (crater), Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, Flattening, Franz Xaver von Zach, Fresh water, G-force, G-type asteroid, Gamma ray, Gauss' method, Gefion family, Genitive case, Geophysical Research Letters, Giuseppe Piazzi, Gravity assist, Haulani (crater), Haumea, Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers, Hera, Herschel Space Observatory, Hubble Space Telescope, Hydrate, Hydrostatic equilibrium, Hydroxide, Ice, Image map, Impact crater, India, Infrared, International Astronomical Union, International Ultraviolet Explorer, Invariable plane, Ion thruster, Isostasy, Jérôme Lalande, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Johann Elert Bode, Johann Hieronymus Schröter, Johannes Kepler, Julian day, Julian year (astronomy), Jupiter, Kelvin, Kingdom of Sicily, Kuiper belt, Lake Lugano, Latin, Life on Mars, Life on Titan, List of exceptional asteroids, List of geological features on Ceres, List of Solar System objects by size, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Magnesium sulfate, Makemake, Mantle (geology), Mars, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Mercury (planet), Mexico, Microorganism, Milan, Minor planet, Minor Planet Center, Minor planet designation, Moment of inertia factor, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moon, Naked eye, NASA, Nature Communications, Neutron, New Horizons, Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille, Occator (crater), Occultation, Ocean, Orbit determination, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital inclination, Orbital period, Orbital resonance, Order of magnitude, Organic compound, Osculating orbit, Palermo, Palladium, Peterborough Examiner, Phys.org, Planetary core, Planetary differentiation, Planetary habitability, Planetesimal, Pluto, Proper orbital elements, Protoplanet, Quadrangle (geography), Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Rare-earth element, Rhea (moon), Right ascension, Rock (geology), Roman mythology, Salt (chemistry), Saturn, Science (journal), Semi-major and semi-minor axes, Sickle, Siderite, Slate (magazine), Small Solar System body, Sodium carbonate, Solar System, Solution, Spacecraft, Spectrometer, Spectrum, Star, Sublimation (phase transition), Sulfate minerals, Sulfuric acid, Sun, Tectonics, Terrestrial planet, Tethys (moon), The Planetary Society, Tholin, Titius–Bode law, Transit (astronomy), Trojan (astronomy), Ultraviolet, United States Geological Survey, Universe Today, Uranus, Venus, Vesta (spacecraft), Viscoelasticity, Volatiles, Volcanism, Volume, W. M. Keck Observatory, William Herschel, 10 Hygiea, 1108 Demeter, 1272 Gefion, 2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 433 Eros, 7 Iris. Expand index (169 more) » « Shrink index
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.
In astrophysics, accretion is the accumulation of particles into a massive object by gravitationally attracting more matter, typically gaseous matter, in an accretion disk.
Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of incoming wavefront distortions by deforming a mirror in order to compensate for the distortion.
Ahuna Mons is the largest mountain on the dwarf planet and asteroid Ceres.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
Aluminium-26, 26Al, is a radioactive isotope of the chemical element aluminium, decaying by either of the modes beta-plus or electron capture, both resulting in the stable nuclide magnesium-26.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid and increases its boiling point.
The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.
An asteroid family is a population of asteroids that share similar proper orbital elements, such as semimajor axis, eccentricity, and orbital inclination.
Asteroid mining is the exploitation of raw materials from asteroids and other minor planets, including near-Earth objects.
Astronomical symbols are symbols used to represent astronomical objects, theoretical constructs and observational events in astronomy.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.
Barnaba Oriani FRS FRSE (17 July 1752 – 12 November 1832) was an Italian priest, geodesist, astronomer and scientist.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Binoculars or field glasses are two telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects.
Several bright surface features (also known as faculae) were discovered on the dwarf planet Ceres by the ''Dawn'' spacecraft in 2015.
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.
C-type (carbonaceous) asteroids are the most common variety, forming around 75% of known asteroids.
Callisto (Jupiter IV) is the second-largest moon of Jupiter, after Ganymede.
Carbonaceous chondrites or C chondrites are a class of chondritic meteorites comprising at least 8 known groups and many ungrouped meteorites.
Carbonate minerals are those minerals containing the carbonate ion, CO32−.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß; Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields, including algebra, analysis, astronomy, differential geometry, electrostatics, geodesy, geophysics, magnetic fields, matrix theory, mechanics, number theory, optics and statistics.
As the largest body in the asteroid belt, the dwarf planet Ceres (formally "1 Ceres") frequently appears in science fiction.
In ancient Roman religion, Ceres (Cerēs) was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
The China National Space Administration (CNSA) is the national space agency of China.
A cis-Neptunian object is, literally, any astronomical body found within the orbit of Neptune.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces.
"Clearing the neighbourhood around its orbit" is a criterion for a celestial body to be considered a planet in the Solar System.
In vacuum applications, a cold trap is a device that condenses all vapors except the permanent gases into a liquid or solid.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
In astronomy, a conjunction occurs when two astronomical objects or spacecraft have either the same right ascension or the same ecliptic longitude, usually as observed from Earth.
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Cronstedtite is a complex iron silicate mineral belonging to the serpentine group of minerals.
A cryovolcano (sometimes informally called an ice volcano) is a type of volcano that erupts volatiles such as water, ammonia or methane, instead of molten rock.
Dawn is a space probe launched by NASA in September 2007 with the mission of studying two of the three known protoplanets of the asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres.
In astronomy, declination (abbreviated dec; symbol δ) is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle.
The definition of planet, since the word was coined by the ancient Greeks, has included within its scope a wide range of celestial bodies.
Delta Draconis (δ Draconis, abbreviated Delta Dra, δ Dra), also named Altais, is a yellow star in the constellation of Draco.
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Demeter (Attic: Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr,; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the goddess of the grain, agriculture, harvest, growth, and nourishment, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth.
NASA's Discovery Program is a series of lower-cost (as compared to New Frontiers or Flagship Programs), highly focused American scientific space missions that are exploring the Solar System.
Discovery, Inc. (formerly Discovery Communications) is an American mass media company based in Silver Spring, Maryland, first established in 1985.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
Draco is a constellation in the far northern sky.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth mass (where ⊕ is the standard astronomical symbol for planet Earth) is the unit of mass equal to that of Earth.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
Ejecta (from the Latin: "things thrown out", singular ejectum) are particles ejected from an area.
Enceladus is the sixth-largest moon of Saturn.
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.
Eris (minor-planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most massive and second-largest (by volume) dwarf planet in the known Solar System.
Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
An extinct radionuclide is a radionuclide that was formed by nucleosynthesis before the formation of the Solar System, about 4.6 billion years ago, and incorporated into it, but has since decayed to virtually zero abundance, due to having a half-life shorter than about 100 million years.
Extraterrestrial life,Where "extraterrestrial" is derived from the Latin extra ("beyond", "not of") and terrestris ("of Earth", "belonging to Earth").
Extraterrestrial liquid water (from the Latin words: extra and terrestris) is water in its liquid state that naturally occurs outside Earth.
Ezinu is a large crater on Ceres.
Ferdinand I (12 January 1751 – 4 January 1825), was the King of the Two Sicilies from 1816, after his restoration following victory in the Napoleonic Wars.
Flattening is a measure of the compression of a circle or sphere along a diameter to form an ellipse or an ellipsoid of revolution (spheroid) respectively.
Baron Franz Xaver von Zach (Franz Xaver Freiherr von Zach) (4 June 1754 – 2 September 1832) was a Hungarian astronomer born at Pest, Hungary (now Budapest in Hungary).
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
The gravitational force, or more commonly, g-force, is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight.
G-type asteroids are a relatively uncommon type of carbonaceous asteroid that makes up approximately 5% of asteroids.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
In orbital mechanics (subfield of celestial mechanics), Gauss's method is used for preliminary orbit determination from at least three observations (more observations increases the accuracy of the determined orbit) of the orbiting body of interest at three different times.
The Gefion family (FIN: 516; adj. Gefionian; also known as Ceres family and Minerva family) is an asteroid family located the in intermediate asteroid belt between 2.74 and 2.82 AU at inclinations of 7.4° to 10.5°.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Geophysical Research Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal of geoscience published by the American Geophysical Union that was established in 1974.
Giuseppe Piazzi (16 July 1746 – 22 July 1826) was an Italian Catholic priest of the Theatine order, mathematician, and astronomer.
In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist maneuver, or swing-by is the use of the relative movement (e.g. orbit around the Sun) and gravity of a planet or other astronomical object to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft, typically to save propellant and reduce expense.
Haulani is an impact crater located on Ceres that contains "Spot 1", one of the bright spots observed by the Dawn spacecraft.
Haumea, minor-planet designation 136108 Haumea, is a dwarf planet located beyond Neptune's orbit.
Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers (October 11, 1758 – March 2, 1840) was a German physician and astronomer.
Hera (Ἥρᾱ, Hērā; Ἥρη, Hērē in Ionic and Homeric Greek) is the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth in Ancient Greek religion and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus.
The Herschel Space Observatory was a space observatory built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA).
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
In fluid mechanics, a fluid is said to be in hydrostatic equilibrium or hydrostatic balance when it is at rest, or when the flow velocity at each point is constant over time.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
In HTML and XHTML, an image map is a list of coordinates relating to a specific image, created in order to hyperlink areas of the image to different destinations (as opposed to a normal image link, in which the entire area of the image links to a single destination).
An impact crater is an approximately circular depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or other solid body in the Solar System or elsewhere, formed by the hypervelocity impact of a smaller body.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) was an astronomical observatory satellite primarily designed to take ultraviolet spectra.
The invariable plane of a planetary system, also called Laplace's invariable plane, is the plane passing through its barycenter (center of mass) perpendicular to its angular momentum vector.
An ion thruster or ion drive is a form of electric propulsion used for spacecraft propulsion.
Isostasy (Greek ''ísos'' "equal", ''stásis'' "standstill") is the state of gravitational equilibrium between Earth's crust and mantle such that the crust "floats" at an elevation that depends on its thickness and density.
Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande (11 July 1732 – 4 April 1807) was a French astronomer, freemason and writer.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
Johann Elert Bode (19 January 1747 – 23 November 1826) was a German astronomer known for his reformulation and popularisation of the Titius–Bode law.
Johann Hieronymus Schröter (30 August 1745, Erfurt – 29 August 1816, Lilienthal) was a German astronomer.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
Julian day is the continuous count of days since the beginning of the Julian Period and is used primarily by astronomers.
In astronomy, a Julian year (symbol: a) is a unit of measurement of time defined as exactly 365.25 days of SI seconds each.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.
Lake Lugano (Lago di Lugano or Ceresio, from Ceresius lacus; Luganersee) is a glacial lake which is situated on the border between southern Switzerland and northern Italy.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The possibility of life on Mars is a subject of significant interest to astrobiology due to its proximity and similarities to Earth.
Whether there is life on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is at present an open question and a topic of scientific assessment and research.
The following is a collection of lists of exceptional asteroids in the Solar System.
Official Nomenclature of Ceres(August 2015)---> Ceres is a dwarf planet in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
This is a partial list of Solar System objects by size, arranged in descending order of mean volumetric radius, and subdivided into several size classes.
The Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC), jointly sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), brings together international specialists in petrology, geochemistry, geophysics, geology, and astronomy to present the latest results of research in planetary science.
Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula MgSO4(H2O)x where 0≤x≤7.
Makemake (minor-planet designation 136472 Makemake) is a dwarf planet and perhaps the largest Kuiper belt object in the classical population, with a diameter approximately two thirds that of Pluto.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
The Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (abbreviation: MPS; Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung) is a research institute in astronomy and astrophysics located in Göttingen, Germany, where it relocated in February 2014 from the nearby village of Lindau.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun (or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.
The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the official worldwide organization in charge of collecting observational data for minor planets (such as asteroids and comets), calculating their orbits and publishing this information via the Minor Planet Circulars.
A formal minor planet designation is, in its final form, a number–name combination given to a minor planet (asteroid, centaur, trans-Neptunian object and dwarf planet but not comet).
In planetary sciences, the moment of inertia factor or normalized polar moment of inertia is a dimensionless quantity that characterizes the radial distribution of mass inside a planet or satellite.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Naked eye, also called bare eye or unaided eye, is the practice of engaging in visual perception unaided by a magnifying or light-collecting optical instrument, such as a telescope or microscope.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nature Communications is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group since 2010.
New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.
Abbé Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille, formerly sometimes spelled de la Caille, (15 March 1713 – 21 March 1762) was a French astronomer.
Occator is an impact crater located on Ceres that contains "Spot 5", the brightest of the bright spots observed by the Dawn spacecraft.
An occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
Orbit determination is the use of a set of techniques for estimating the orbits of objects such as moons, planets, and spacecraft.
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.
In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers.
An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In astronomy, and in particular in astrodynamics, the osculating orbit of an object in space at a given moment in time is the gravitational Kepler orbit (i.e. ellipse or other conic) that it would have about its central body if perturbations were not present.
Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
The Peterborough Examiner is a newspaper that services Peterborough, Ontario and area.
Phys.org is a science, research and technology news aggregator where much of the content is republished directly from press releases and news agencies-in a practice known as churnalism.
The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet; which may be composed of solid and liquid layers.
In planetary science, planetary differentiation is the process of separating out different constituents of a planetary body as a consequence of their physical or chemical behaviour, where the body develops into compositionally distinct layers; the denser materials of a planet sink to the center, while less dense materials rise to the surface, generally in a magma ocean.
Planetary habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to have habitable environments hospitable to life, or its ability to generate life endogenously.
Planetesimals are solid objects thought to exist in protoplanetary disks and in debris disks.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
The proper orbital elements of an orbit are constants of motion of an object in space that remain practically unchanged over an astronomically long timescale.
A protoplanet is a large planetary embryo that originated within a protoplanetary disc and has undergone internal melting to produce a differentiated interior.
In geology or geography, the word "quadrangle" usually refers to a United States Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5-minute quadrangle map, which are usually named after a local physiographic feature.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
Rhea (Ῥέᾱ) is the second-largest moon of Saturn and the ninth-largest moon in the Solar System.
Right ascension (abbreviated RA; symbol) is the angular distance measured only eastward along the celestial equator from the Sun at the March equinox to the (hour circle of the) point above the earth in question.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.
A sickle, or bagging hook, is a hand-held agricultural tool designed with variously curved blades and typically used for harvesting, or reaping, grain crops or cutting succulent forage chiefly for feeding livestock, either freshly cut or dried as hay.
Siderite is a mineral composed of iron(II) carbonate (FeCO3).
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
A small Solar System body (SSSB) is an object in the Solar System that is neither a planet, nor a dwarf planet, nor a natural satellite.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
A spectrometer is a scientific instrument used to separate and measure spectral components of a physical phenomenon.
A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
The sulfate minerals are a class of minerals that include the sulfate ion (SO42−) within their structure.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
Tethys (or Saturn III) is a mid-sized moon of Saturn about across.
The Planetary Society is an American internationally active, non-governmental, nonprofit foundation.
Tholins (after the Greek θολός (tholós) "hazy" or "muddy"; from the ancient Greek word meaning "sepia ink") are a wide variety of organic compounds formed by solar ultraviolet irradiation or cosmic rays from simple carbon-containing compounds such as carbon dioxide, methane or ethane, often in combination with nitrogen.
The Titius–Bode law (sometimes termed just Bode's law) is a hypothesis that the bodies in some orbital systems, including the Sun's, orbit at semi-major axes in a function of planetary sequence.
In astronomy, a transit or astronomical transit is the phenomenon of at least one celestial body appearing to move across the face of another celestial body, hiding a small part of it, as seen by an observer at some particular vantage point.
In astronomy, a trojan is a minor planet or moon that shares the orbit of a planet or larger moon, wherein the trojan remains in the same, stable position relative to the larger object.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Universe Today (UT) is a popular North American-based non-commercial space and astronomy news website.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Vesta was a planned multiple-asteroid-flyby mission that the Soviet Union was assessed in the 1980s.
Viscoelasticity is the property of materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing deformation.
In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust or atmosphere.
Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.
Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.
The W. M. Keck Observatory is a two-telescope astronomical observatory at an elevation of 4,145 meters (13,600 ft) near the summit of Mauna Kea in the U.S. state of Hawaii.
Frederick William Herschel, (Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel; 15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, composer and brother of fellow astronomer Caroline Herschel, with whom he worked.
10 Hygiea is the fourth-largest asteroid in the Solar System by volume and mass, and it is located in the asteroid belt.
1108 Demeter, provisional designation, is a dark asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately in diameter.
1272 Gefion, provisional designation, is a stony asteroid and parent body of the Gefion family from the central region of the asteroid belt, approximately 7 kilometers in diameter.
Pallas, minor-planet designation 2 Pallas, is the second asteroid to have been discovered (after Ceres), and is one of the largest asteroids in the Solar System.
Juno, minor-planet designation 3 Juno in the Minor Planet Center catalogue system, is an asteroid in the asteroid belt.
Vesta, minor-planet designation 4 Vesta, is one of the largest objects in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of.
433 Eros, provisional designation, is a stony and elongated asteroid of the Amor group and the first discovered and second-largest near-Earth object with a mean-diameter of approximately 16.8 kilometers.
7 Iris is a large main-belt asteroid orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter.
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