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Cervical cancer

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Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix. [1]

134 relations: Abdomen, Acetic acid, Adenocarcinoma, Adenosquamous carcinoma, Adjuvant, American Cancer Society, Anemia, Anorexia (symptom), Asymptomatic, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Benignity, Beta-Carotene, Bethesda system, Biopsy, Brachytherapy, Breast cancer, Burkitt's lymphoma, Cancer, Carcinoma in situ, Cell (biology), Cell culture, Cervarix, Cervical conization, Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, Cervical screening, Cervicectomy, Cervix, Chemotherapy, Cisplatin, Colposcopy, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Condom, Curettage, Cystoscopy, Cytopathology, Developed country, Developing country, Dyspareunia, Dysplasia, Electron microscope, Endometrial cancer, Epidemiology, Epithelium, False positives and false negatives, Female reproductive system, Five-year survival rate, Food and Drug Administration, Gardasil, Genital wart, Georgetown University, ..., Georgios Papanikolaou, Glassy cell carcinoma of the cervix, Harald zur Hausen, HeLa, Henrietta Lacks, Herpes simplex virus, Hippocrates, Histology, Histopathology, HIV, HPV vaccines, Human lung, Human papillomavirus, Hysterectomy, Hysteroscopy, Ian Frazer, Immunodeficiency, Instruments used in obstetrics and gynecology, International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Intravenous pyelogram, Janette Howard, John Howard, Loop electrical excision procedure, Lymph node, Lymphoma, Marek's disease, Medical imaging, Medical Research Council (United Kingdom), Melanoma, Merck & Co., Metastasis, Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare, Nasopharynx cancer, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Neoplasm, Neuroendocrine tumor, Neutropenia, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nordic countries, Nun, Oncology, Ovarian cancer, Pap test, Pathology, Pelvic pain, Perineum, Precancerous condition, Prostaglandin, Rabbit, Radiation therapy, Rectoscope, Relative survival, Safe sex, Screening (medicine), Semen, Sex worker, Small-cell carcinoma, Smegma, Smoking, Squamous-cell carcinoma, Surgery, Thrombocytopenia, TNM staging system, Topotecan, Ultrasound, United States, United States Preventive Services Task Force, University of Pennsylvania, University of Queensland, University of Rochester, Vagina, Vaginal bleeding, Villoglandular adenocarcinoma of the cervix, Vinegar, Virus, Vitamin A, Vitamin B12, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, WebMD, World Health Organization, X-ray, Years of potential life lost. Expand index (84 more) »

The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.

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Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).

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Adenocarcinoma (plural adenocarcinomas or adenocarcinomata) is a type of cancerous tumor that can occur in several parts of the body.

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Adenosquamous carcinoma is a type of cancer that contains two types of cells: squamous cells (thin, flat cells that line certain organs) and gland-like cells.

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An adjuvant (from Latin, adjuvare: to aid) is a pharmacological and/or immunological agent that modifies the effect of other agents.

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The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.

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Anemia or anaemia (also spelled anæmia) is usually defined as a decrease in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood.

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Anorexia is the decreased sensation of appetite.

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In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.

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The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) is Australia's state-owned and funded national public broadcaster.

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Benignity (from Latin benignus "kind, good", itself deriving from bonus "good" and genus "origin") is any condition that is harmless in the long run.

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β-Carotene is a strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits.

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The Bethesda system (TBS) is a system for reporting cervical or vaginal cytologic diagnoses, used for reporting Pap smear results.

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A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving sampling of cells or tissues for examination.

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Brachytherapy (from the Greek word βραχύς brachys, meaning "short-distance"), also known as internal radiotherapy, sealed source radiotherapy, curietherapy or endocurietherapy, is a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.

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Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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Burkitt lymphoma (Burkitt's tumor, Burkitt's lymphoma, or malignant lymphoma, Burkitt's type) is a cancer of the lymphatic system, particularly B lymphocytes found in the germinal center.

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Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Carcinoma in situ (CIS), also known as in situ neoplasm, is a group of abnormal cells.

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The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside of their natural environment.

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Cervarix is a vaccine against certain types of cancer-causing human papillomavirus (HPV).

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Cervical conization (CPT codes 57520(Cold Knife) and 57522(Loop Excision)) refers to an excision of a cone-shaped sample of tissue from the mucous membrane of the cervix.

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Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), also known as cervical dysplasia and cervical interstitial neoplasia, is the potentially premalignant transformation and abnormal growth (dysplasia) of squamous cells on the surface of the cervix.

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Cervical screening is the process of detecting abnormal changes in the cervix before they can develop into cervical cancer.

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In gynecologic oncology, trachelectomy, also cervicectomy, is a surgical removal of the uterine cervix.

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The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.

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Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a category of cancer treatment that uses chemical substances, especially one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) that are given as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

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Cisplatin, cisplatinum, platamin, neoplatin, cismaplat or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) is a chemotherapy drug.

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Colposcopy (hollow, womb, vagina + skopos "look at") is a medical diagnostic procedure to examine an illuminated, magnified view of the cervix and the tissues of the vagina and vulva.

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Combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a birth control method that includes a combination of an estrogen (estradiol) and a progestogen (progestin).

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A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device that may be used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy and spreading sexually transmitted infections (STIs/STDs) such as HIV/AIDS.

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Curettage, in medical procedures, is the use of a curette (French, meaning scoop) to remove tissue by scraping or scooping.

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Cystoscopy (si-ˈstäs-kə-pē) is endoscopy of the urinary bladder via the urethra.

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Cytopathology (from Greek κύτος, kytos, "a hollow"; πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level.

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A developed country, industrialized country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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A developing country, also called a less developed country or underdeveloped country, is a nation with an underdeveloped industrial base, and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse due to medical or psychological causes.

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Dysplasia (from Ancient Greek δυσ- dys-, "bad" or "difficult" and πλάσις plasis, "formation") is an ambiguous term used in pathology to refer to an abnormality of development or an epithelial anomaly of growth and differentiation (epithelial dysplasia)). The terms hip dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia, renal dysplasia refer to an abnormal development, at macroscopic or microscopical level. Myelodysplastic syndromes, or dysplasia of blood-forming cells, show increased numbers of immature cells in the bone marrow, and a decrease in mature, functional cells in the blood.

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An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb).

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Epidemiology is the study of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

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Epithelium (''epi-'' + ''thele'' + ''-ium'') is one of the four basic types of animal tissue.

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In medical testing, and more generally in binary classification, a false positive is an error in data reporting in which a test result improperly indicates presence of a condition, such as a disease (the result is positive), when in reality it is not, while a false negative is an error in which a test result improperly indicates no presence of a condition (the result is negative), when in reality it is present.

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The female reproductive system (or female genital system) contains two main parts: the uterus, which hosts the developing fetus, produces vaginal and uterine secretions, and can pass sperm through to the Fallopian tubes; and the ovaries, which produce the female's egg cells.

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The five-year survival rate is a type of survival rate for estimating the prognosis of a particular disease, normally calculated from the point of diagnosis.

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The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Gardasil (Merck & Co.), also known as Gardisil or Silgard or recombinant human papillomavirus vaccine, is a vaccine for use in the prevention of certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), specifically HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18.

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Genital warts (or condylomata acuminata, venereal warts, anal warts and anogenital warts) are symptoms of a highly contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by some types of human papillomavirus (HPV).

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Georgetown University is a private research university in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1789, it is the oldest Catholic and Jesuit institution of higher education in the United States.

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Georgios Nikolaou Papanikolaou (or George Papanicolaou; Γεώργιος Ν. Παπανικολάου; 13 May 1883 – 19 February 1962) was a Greek pioneer in cytopathology and early cancer detection, and inventor of the "Pap smear".

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Glassy cell carcinoma of the cervix, also glassy cell carcinoma, is a rare aggressive malignant tumour of the uterine cervix.

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Harald zur Hausen (born 11 March 1936) is a German virologist and professor emeritus.

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A HeLa cell, also Hela or hela cell, is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research.

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Henrietta Lacks (August 1, 1920 – October 4, 1951) Note: Some sources report her birthday as August 2, 1920, vs.

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Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2), are two members of the herpesvirus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.

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Hippocrates of Kos (Ἱπποκράτης; Hippokrátēs; 460 – 370 BC) was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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Histology (compound of the Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", and -λογία ''-logia'' "science") is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals.

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Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines may prevent infections by certain types of human papillomavirus associated with the development of cervical cancer, genital warts, and other cancers.

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The lungs are the primary organs of respiration in humans and many other animals.

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Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus from the papillomavirus family that is capable of infecting humans.

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Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus.

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Hysteroscopy is the inspection of the uterine cavity by endoscopy with access through the cervix.

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Ian Hector Frazer AC (born 6 January 1953) is a Scottish-born Australian scientist and founding CEO and Director of Research of the Translational Research Institute (Australia).

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Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease is compromised or entirely absent.

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The following is a list of instruments that are used in modern obstetrics and gynecology.

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The International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, usually just FIGO ("fee'go") as the acronym of its French name Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique, is a worldwide NGO organisation representing obstetricians and gynaecologists in over one hundred territories.

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An intravenous pyelogram or IVP for short is a radiological procedure used to visualize abnormalities of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.

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Janette Howard (née Parker; born 11 August 1944) is the wife of John Howard, who was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia from 11 March 1996 to 3 December 2007 and the second longest serving Australian Prime Minister.

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John Winston Howard,, (born 26 July 1939) was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia, from 11 March 1996 to 3 December 2007.

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The loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) is one of the most commonly used approaches to treat high grade cervical dysplasia (CIN II/III, HGSIL) discovered on colposcopic examination.

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A lymph node is an oval-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, distributed widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach and linked by lymphatic vessels.

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Lymphoma is any of a group of blood cell tumors that develop from lymphatic cells.

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Marek's disease is a highly contagious viral neoplastic disease in chickens.

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Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention.

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The Medical Research Council (MRC) is a publicly funded government agency responsible for co-ordinating and funding medical research in the United Kingdom.

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Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.

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Merck & Co., Inc., d.b.a. Merck Sharp & Dohme (MSD) outside the United States and Canada, is an American pharmaceutical company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world.

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Metastasis, or metastatic disease, is the spread of a cancer or other disease from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it.

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The is a cabinet level ministry of the Japanese government.

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Nasopharynx cancer or nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common cancer originating in the nasopharynx, the uppermost region of the pharynx ("throat"), behind the nose where the nasal passages and auditory tubes join the remainder of the upper respiratory tract.

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The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is a biomedical research facility primarily located in Bethesda, Maryland.

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Neoplasm (from Ancient Greek νέος- neo "new" and πλάσμα plasma "formation, creation") is an abnormal growth of tissue, and when also forming a mass is commonly referred to as a tumor or tumour.

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Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous systems.

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Neutropenia or neutropaenia, from Latin prefix neutro- ("neither", for neutral staining) and Greek suffix -πενία (-penía, "deficiency"), is a granulocyte disorder characterized by an abnormally low number of neutrophils.

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The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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The Nordic countries are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic.

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A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically one living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.

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Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with tumors.

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Ovarian cancer is a cancer that begins in an ovary.

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The Papanicolaou test (abbreviated as Pap test, known earlier as Pap smear, cervical smear, or smear test) is a method of cervical screening used to detect potentially pre-cancerous and cancerous processes in the cervix (opening of the uterus or womb).

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Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering", and -logia (-λογία), "an account of") is a significant component of the causal study of disease and a major field in modern medicine and diagnosis.

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Pelvic pain is pain in the area of the pelvis.

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In human anatomy, the perineum (Late Latin, from Greek περίνεος - perineos) is a region of the body including the perineal body and surrounding structures.

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A precancerous condition (or premalignant condition) is a generalized state associated with an increased risk of cancer.

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The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.

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Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world.

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Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells.

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Proctoscopy is a common medical procedure in which an instrument called a proctoscope (also known as a rectoscope, although the latter may be a bit longer) is used to examine the anal cavity, rectum, or sigmoid colon.

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In survival analysis, relative survival of a disease is calculated by dividing the overall survival after diagnosis by the survival as observed in a similar population that was not diagnosed with that disease.

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Safe sex is sexual activity engaged in by people who have taken precautions to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as HIV.

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Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used in a population to identify the possible presence of an as-yet-undiagnosed disease in individuals without signs or symptoms.

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Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.

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A sex worker is a person who works in the sex industry.

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Small-cell carcinoma (also known as "small-cell lung cancer", or "oat-cell carcinoma") is a type of highly malignant cancer that most commonly arises within the lung, although it can occasionally arise in other body sites, such as the cervix, prostate, and gastrointestinal tract.

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Smegma (Greek smēgma, "soap") is a combination of shed skin cells, skin oils, and moisture.

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Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.

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Squamous-cell carcinoma or squamous-cell cancer (SCC or SqCC) is a cancer of a kind of epithelial cell, the squamous cell.

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Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas (for example, a perforated ear drum).

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Thrombocytopenia and thrombopenia refer to a disorder in which there is a relative decrease of thrombocytes, commonly known as platelets, present in the blood.

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The TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM) is a cancer staging notation system that gives codes to describe the stage of a person's cancer, when this originates with a solid tumor.

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Topotecan (trade name Hycamtin) is a chemotherapeutic agent that is a topoisomerase inhibitor.

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Ultrasounds are sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.

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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services." The task force, a panel of primary care physicians and epidemiologists, is funded, staffed, and appointed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

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The University of Pennsylvania (commonly referred to as Penn or UPenn) is a private, Ivy League, research university located in Philadelphia.

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The University of Queensland (commonly referred to as UQ) is an Australian public research university primarily located in Brisbane.

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The University of Rochester (commonly referred to as U of R or UR) is a private, nonsectarian, research university in Rochester, New York, United States.

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The vagina is a sex organ that is part of the female genital tract.

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Vaginal bleeding is any bleeding through the vagina, including bleeding from the vaginal wall itself, as well as (and more commonly) bleeding from another location of the female reproductive system.

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Villoglandular adenocarcinoma of the cervix, also villoglandular papillary adenocarcinoma, papillary villoglandular adenocarcinoma and well-differentiated villoglandular adenocarcinoma, abbreviated VGA, is a rare type of cervical cancer that, in relation to other cervical cancers, is typically found in younger women and has a better prognosis.

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Vinegar is a liquid consisting mainly of acetic acid (CH3COOH) and water.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds, that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids, and beta-carotene.

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Vitamin B12, vitamin B12 or vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood.

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Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid, or simply ascorbate (the anion of ascorbic acid), is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species.

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Vitamin E refers to a group of compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols.

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WebMD is an American corporation that provides health news, advice, and expertise.

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The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health.

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X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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Years of potential life lost (YPLL) or potential years of life lost (PYLL), is an estimate of the average years a person would have lived if he or she had not died prematurely.

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Cancer of the cervix, Carcinoma of the cervix, Cervical Cancer, Cervical adenocarcinoma, Cervical cancer symptoms, Cervical carcinoma, Cervical neoplasm, Cervix Cancer, Cervix cancer, Cervix carcinoma, Together we can fight cervical cancer, Transformation Zone, Uterine cervical neoplasms.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervical_cancer

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