147 relations: American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Amylase, Anus, Aretaeus of Cappadocia, Artificial insemination, Aurel Babeș, Bicornuate uterus, Billings ovulation method, Birth control, Bishop score, Broad ligament of the uterus, Caesarean section, Cardinal ligament, Cephalic presentation, Cervarix, Cervical agenesis, Cervical canal, Cervical cancer, Cervical cap, Cervical conization, Cervical dilation, Cervical ectropion, Cervical effacement, Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, Cervical lymph nodes, Cervical mucus plug, Cervical polyp, Cervical screening, Cervical vertebrae, Cervical weakness, Cervicitis, Cervix, Childbirth, Chlamydia infection, Churchill Livingstone, Clear-cell adenocarcinoma, Clitoris, Cockscomb cervix, Collagen, Colposcopy, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Commensalism, Creighton Model FertilityCare System, Cytopathology, Diaphragm (birth control), Diethylstilbestrol, Domestic pig, Dysplasia, Egg cell, Elastin, ..., English language, Epithelium, Estrogen, Eutheria, External iliac lymph nodes, Fallopian tube, Female reproductive system, Fern test, Fertilisation, Fertility awareness, Fetus, Gardasil, Genitourinary system, Georgios Papanikolaou, Glires, Gonorrhea, Gravidity and parity, Gray's Anatomy, Herpes simplex, Hippocrates, HPV vaccines, Human embryogenesis, Human papillomavirus infection, Internal iliac lymph nodes, Labor induction, Lagomorpha, Liquid-based cytology, Loop electrical excision procedure, Lumen (anatomy), Lymph node, Lymphatic system, Marsupial, Menstrual cycle, Menstruation, Metaplasia, Mucin, Mucus, Myrmecophagidae, Nabothian cyst, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Neck, Obstetrical forceps, Oral contraceptive pill, Orgasm, Ovary, Ovulation, Pap test, Paraaortic lymph nodes, Paramesonephric duct, Parametrium, Pathogen, Pelvic splanchnic nerves, Peritoneum, Persian language, Platinum, Preadolescence, Pregnancy, Presentation (obstetrics), Preterm birth, Progestogen-only pill, Prostaglandin, Proto-Indo-European language, Pubic symphysis, Recto-uterine pouch, Rectum, Reproductive system, Sacral spinal nerve 2, Sacral spinal nerve 3, Sacrum, Serous membrane, Sexually transmitted infection, Sigmoid colon, Smooth muscle tissue, Speculum (medical), Sperm, Spermicide, Spinnbarkeit, Stenosis of uterine cervix, Stratified squamous epithelium, Supravaginal portion of cervix, Urethra, Urinary bladder, Urogenital sinus, Uterine artery, Uterine cavity, Uterine contraction, Uterine veins, Uterosacral ligament, Uterus, Uterus didelphys, Vagina, Vaginal adenosis, Vaginal artery, Vaginal epithelium, Vaginal fornix, Word sense, World Health Organization. Expand index (97 more) » « Shrink index
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists is a professional association of physicians specializing in obstetrics and gynecology in the United States.
An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.
The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.
Aretaeus (Ἀρεταῖος) is one of the most celebrated of the ancient Greek physicians, of whose life, however, few particulars are known.
Artificial insemination (AI) is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female's uterus or cervix for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse.
Aurel (A.) Babeș was a Romanian scientist and one of the discoverers of the vaginal smear as screening test for cervical cancer.
A bicornuate uterus or bicornate uterus (from the Latin cornū, meaning "horn"), commonly referred to as a "heart-shaped" uterus, is a uterus composed of two "horns" separated by a septum.
The Billings ovulation method is a method in which women use their vaginal mucous to determine their fertility.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Bishop score, also Bishop's score, also known as cervix score is a pre-labor scoring system to assist in predicting whether induction of labor will be required.
The broad ligament of the uterus is the wide fold of peritoneum that connects the sides of the uterus to the walls and floor of the pelvis.
Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.
The cardinal ligament (or Mackenrodt's ligament, lateral cervical ligament, or transverse cervical ligament) is a major ligament of the uterus.
A cephalic presentation or head presentation or head-first presentation is a situation at childbirth where the fetus is in a longitudinal lie and the head enters the pelvis first; the most common form of cephalic presentation is the vertex presentation where the occiput is the leading part (the part that first enters the birth canal).
Cervarix is a vaccine against certain types of cancer-causing human papillomavirus (HPV).
Cervical agenesis is a congenital disorder of the female genital system that manifests itself in the absence of a cervix, the connecting structure between the uterus and vagina.
The cervical canal is the spindle-shaped, flattened canal of the cervix, the neck of the uterus.
Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.
The cervical cap is a form of barrier contraception.
Cervical conization (CPT codes 57520 (Cold Knife) and 57522 (Loop Excision)) refers to an excision of a cone-shaped sample of tissue from the mucous membrane of the cervix.
Cervical dilation (or cervical dilatation) is the opening of the cervix, the entrance to the uterus, during childbirth, miscarriage, induced abortion, or gynecological surgery.
Cervical ectropion (or cervical eversion) is a condition in which the cells from the 'inside' of the cervical canal, known as glandular cells (or columnar epithelium), are present on the 'outside' of the vaginal portion of the cervix.
Cervical effacement (also called cervical ripening) refers to a thinning of the cervix.
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), also known as cervical dysplasia, is the abnormal growth of cells on the surface of the cervix that could potentially lead to cervical cancer.
Cervical lymph nodes are lymph nodes found in the neck.
A cervical mucus plug (operculum) is a plug that fills and seals the cervical canal during pregnancy.
A cervical polyp is a common benign polyp or tumour on the surface of the cervical canal.
Cervical screening is the process of detecting and removing abnormal tissue or cells in the cervix before cervical cancer develops.
In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are the vertebrae of the neck, immediately below the skull.
Cervical weakness, also called cervical incompetence or cervical insufficiency, is a medical condition of pregnancy in which the cervix begins to dilate (widen) and efface (thin) before the pregnancy has reached term.
Cervices is inflammation of the uterine cervix.
The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
Chlamydia infection, often simply known as chlamydia, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
Churchill Livingstone is an academic publisher.
Clear-cell adenocarcinoma is a type of adenocarcinoma that shows clear cells.
The clitoris is a female sex organ present in mammals, ostriches and a limited number of other animals.
Cockscomb cervix is the condition wherein, as the name suggests, the cervix of the uterus is shaped like a cockscomb.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Colposcopy (hollow, womb, vagina + skopos "look at") is a medical diagnostic procedure to examine an illuminated, magnified view of the cervix and the tissues of the vagina and vulva.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
The Creighton Model FertilityCare System (Creighton Model, FertilityCare, CrMS) is a form of natural family planning which involves identifying the fertile period during a woman's menstrual cycle.
Cytopathology (from Greek κύτος, kytos, "a hollow"; πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level.
The diaphragm is a barrier method of birth control.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES), also known as stilbestrol or stilboestrol, is an estrogen medication which is mostly no longer used.
The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus or only Sus domesticus), often called swine, hog, or simply pig when there is no need to distinguish it from other pigs, is a large, even-toed ungulate.
Dysplasia (from Ancient Greek δυσ- dys-, "bad" or "difficult" and πλάσις plasis, "formation") is a term used in pathology to refer to an abnormality of development or an epithelial anomaly of growth and differentiation (epithelial dysplasia).
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Eutheria (from Greek εὐ-, eu- "good" or "right" and θηρίον, thēríon "beast" hence "true beasts") is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or perhaps the Late Jurassic.
The external iliac lymph nodes are lymph nodes, from eight to ten in number, that lie along the external iliac vessels.
The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or salpinges (singular salpinx), are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia, leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus, via the uterotubal junction.
The female reproductive system is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring.
Fern test refers to detection of a characteristic 'fern like' pattern of cervical mucus when a specimen of cervical mucus is allowed to dry on a glass slide and is viewed under a low-power microscope.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
Fertility awareness (FA) refers to a set of practices used to determine the fertile and infertile phases of a woman's menstrual cycle.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Gardasil, also known as Gardisil or Silgard or recombinant human papillomavirus vaccine, is a vaccine for use in the prevention of certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), specifically HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18.
The genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system.
Georgios Nikolaou Papanikolaou (or George Papanicolaou; Γεώργιος Ν. Παπανικολάου; 13 May 1883 – 19 February 1962) was a Greek pioneer in cytopathology and early cancer detection, and inventor of the "Pap smear".
Glires (Latin glīrēs, dormice) is a clade (sometimes ranked as a grandorder) consisting of rodents and lagomorphs (rabbits, hares, and pikas).
Gonorrhea, also spelled gonorrhoea, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
In biology and human medicine, gravidity and parity are the number of times a female is or has been pregnant (gravidity) and carried the pregnancies to a viable gestational age (parity).
Gray's Anatomy is an English-language textbook of human anatomy originally written by Henry Gray and illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter.
Herpes simplex is a viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection by certain types of human papillomavirus.
Human embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early stages of development.
Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).
The internal iliac lymph nodes (or hypogastric) surround the internal iliac artery and its branches (the hypogastric vessels), and receive the lymphatics corresponding to the distribution of the branches of it, i. e., they receive lymphatics from all the pelvic viscera, from the deeper parts of the perineum, including the membranous and cavernous portions of the urethra, and from the buttock and back of the thigh.
Labor induction is the process or treatment that stimulates childbirth and delivery.
The lagomorphs are the members of the taxonomic order Lagomorpha, of which there are two living families: the Leporidae (hares and rabbits) and the Ochotonidae (pikas).
Liquid-based cytology is a method of preparing samples for examination in cytopathology.
The loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) is one of the most commonly used approaches to treat high grade cervical dysplasia (CIN II/III, HGSIL) discovered on colposcopic examination.
In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
Metaplasia ("change in form") is the reversible transformation of one differentiated cell type to another differentiated cell type.
Mucins are a family of high molecular weight, heavily glycosylated proteins (glycoconjugates) produced by epithelial tissues in most animals.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
The Myrmecophagidae are a family of anteaters, the name being derived from the Ancient Greek words for 'ant' and 'eat' (myrmeco- and phagos).
A nabothian cyst (or nabothian follicle) is a mucus-filled cyst on the surface of the cervix.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso.
Obstetrical Forceps is an instrument that can be used to assist the delivery of a baby as an alternative to the ventouse (vacuum extraction) method.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.
Orgasm (from Greek ὀργασμός orgasmos "excitement, swelling"; also sexual climax) is the sudden discharge of accumulated sexual excitement during the sexual response cycle, resulting in rhythmic muscular contractions in the pelvic region characterized by sexual pleasure.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
The Papanicolaou test (abbreviated as Pap test, also known as Pap smear, cervical smear, or smear test) is a method of cervical screening used to detect potentially pre-cancerous and cancerous processes in the cervix (opening of the uterus or womb).
The paraaortic lymph nodes (also known as periaortic, and lumbar) are a group of lymph nodes that lie in front of the lumbar vertebrae near the aorta.
Paramesonephric ducts (or Müllerian ducts) are paired ducts of the embryo that run down the lateral sides of the urogenital ridge and terminate at the sinus tubercle in the primitive urogenital sinus.
The parametrium is the fibrous tissue that separates the supravaginal portion of the cervix from the bladder.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Pelvic splanchnic nerves or nervi erigentes are splanchnic nerves that arise from sacral spinal nerves S2, S3, S4 to provide parasympathetic innervation to the hindgut.
The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Preadolescence, also known as pre-teen or tween, is a stage of human development following early childhood and preceding adolescence.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
In obstetrics, the presentation of a fetus about to be born refers to which anatomical part of the fetus is leading, that is, is closest to the pelvic inlet of the birth canal.
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.
Progestogen-only pills or progestin-only pills (POP) are contraceptive pills that contain only synthetic progestogens (progestins) and do not contain estrogen.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
The pubic symphysis (or symphysis pubis) a cartilaginous joint that sits between and joins left and right the superior rami of the pubic bones.
The recto-uterine pouch, also known by various other names (e.g., Douglas' pouch), is the extension of the peritoneal cavity between the rectum and the posterior wall of the uterus in the female human body.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
The sacral spinal nerve 2 (S2) is a spinal nerve of the sacral segment.
The sacral spinal nerve 3 (S3) is a spinal nerve of the sacral segment.
The sacrum (or; plural: sacra or sacrums) in human anatomy is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine, that forms by the fusing of sacral vertebrae S1S5 between 18 and 30years of age.
In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth tissue membrane consisting of two layers of mesothelium, which secrete serous fluid.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
The sigmoid colon (pelvic colon) is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
A speculum (Latin for "mirror"; plural specula or speculums) is a medical tool for investigating body orifices, with a form dependent on the orifice for which it is designed.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
Spermicide is a contraceptive substance that destroys sperm, inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy.
Spinnbarkeit (English:spinnability), also known as fibrosity, is a biomedical rheology term which refers to the stringy or stretchy property found to varying degrees in mucus, saliva, albumen and similar viscoelastic fluids.
Cervical stenosis means that the opening in the cervix (the endocervical canal) is more narrow than is typical.
A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane.
The supravaginal portion of the cervix (also known as the uterine portion of the cervix) is separated in front from the bladder by fibrous tissue (parametrium), which extends also on to its sides and lateralward between the layers of the broad ligaments.
In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
The urogenital sinus is a part of the human body only present in the development of the urinary and reproductive organs.
The uterine artery is an artery that supplies blood to the uterus in females.
The uterine cavity is the inside of the uterus.
A uterine contraction is a muscle contraction of the uterine smooth muscle.
The uterine veins are tributaries of the internal iliac veins.
The uterosacral ligaments (or recto-uterine ligaments) belong to the major ligaments of uterus.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
Uterus didelphys (sometimes also uterus didelphis) represents a uterine malformation where the uterus is present as a paired organ when the embryogenetic fusion of the Müllerian ducts fails to occur.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
Vaginal adenosis is a benign abnormality in the vagina, commonly thought to be caused by intrauterine and neonatal exposure of diethylstilbestrol and other progestagens and nonsteroidal estrogens, however it has also been observed in otherwise healthy women and has been considered at times idiopathic or congenital.
The vaginal artery is an artery in females that supplies blood to the vagina and the base of the bladder.
The vaginal epithelium is the aglandular inner lining of the vagina consisting of multiple layers of (squamous) cells.
The fornices of the vagina (sing. fornix of the vagina or fornix vaginae) are the superior portions of the vagina, extending into the recesses created by the vaginal portion of cervix.
In linguistics, a word sense is one of the meanings of a word (some words have multiple meanings, some words have only one meaning).
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Cervical mucous, Cervical mucus, Cervical secretions, Cervices, Cervis of uterus, Cervix mucus, Cervix of uterus, Cervix uteri, Collum uteri, EWCM, Ectocervix, Egg-white cervical mucus, Intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervix, Mucosa of cervical canal, Portio, Portio vaginalis cervicis, Snap test, Stretch test, Transformation Zone, Transformation zone, Upsuck, Upsuck theory, Uterine Cervix, Uterine cervical diseases, Uterine cervix, Vaginal portion, Vaginal portion of cervix, Vaginal portion of the cervix.