233 relations: Abd ar-Rahman III, Abu al-Abbas al-Azafi, Abu al-Abbas as-Sabti, Abyla, Aci Catena, AD Ceuta, Afonso VI of Portugal, Africa, Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, Al-Andalus, Alcalde-Presidente, Algeciras, Almohad Caliphate, Almoravid dynasty, Ancient Greek, Andalusia, António, Prior of Crato, Antonio Escobar Huertas, Apostolic Administrator, Arab Baths (Ceuta), Arabic, Arabs, Army of Africa (Spain), Asilah, Atlantic Ocean, Autonomous communities of Spain, África de las Heras, Álvaro of Braganza, Álvaro Vaz de Almada, 1st Count of Avranches, Banu Isam, Baroque architecture, Barstow, California, Battle of Alcácer Quibir, Battle of Tangier (1437), Battle of Tétouan, BBC, Benzú, Berber languages, Berbers, Buenos Aires, Byzantine Empire, Caballas Coalition, Caliphate of Córdoba, Canary Islands, Carthage, Casino, Catarina, Duchess of Braganza, Catholic Church, Cádiz, Central European Summer Time, ..., Central European Time, Ceuta and Melilla, Ceuta border fence, Ceuta Cathedral, Ceuta Heliport, Charles II of Spain, Christian, Coat of arms, Concordat of 1851, Congress of Deputies, Conquest of Ceuta, Cortes Generales, Crown of Aragon, Decathlon Group, Diurnal temperature variation, Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union, Edward, King of Portugal, Eid al-Adha, El Corte Inglés, El País, Emirate of Granada, Eugenio Martín, Euro, European Union, Eva Isanta, Ferdinand the Holy Prince, Fernando de Leyba, FET y de las JONS, First Carlist War, Flag of Ceuta, Flag of Lisbon, Francisco Antonio García Carrasco, Francisco Franco, Francisco Lesmes, Francisco Llano de la Encomienda, Free economic zone, French language, Ghomaras, Gibraltar, Guadalajara, Hadith, Hafsid dynasty, Henry, King of Portugal, Hindu, Hispano-Moroccan War (1859–60), History of Portugal (1415–1578), Holy See, Hotel Tryp Ceuta, Iberian Peninsula, Iberian Union, Ibn Hud, Idrisid dynasty, Ignacio Velázquez Rivera, Illinois Country, Illustrious Generation, Indigenous peoples, Isabella II of Spain, Isidro de Alaix Fábregas, Islamic holidays, Ismail Ibn Sharif, ISO 3166-2:ES, Jacob Hassan, Jebel Musa (Morocco), John I of Portugal, John, Constable of Portugal, José Ramón López, Joseph ben Judah of Ceuta, Juan Carlos I of Spain, Juan Jesús Vivas, Julian, Count of Ceuta, KGB, Khawarij, Kingdom of Fez, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Portugal, Ksar es-Seghir, Lidl, List of sovereign states, Lorena Miranda, Luís de Camões, M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture, Maghreb, Maimonides, Malacca, Malacca City, Malaysia, Manuel Chaves González, Manuel I of Portugal, Marinid dynasty, Marrakesh, Maseru, Maysara al-Matghari, Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean Sea, Melilla, Migueli, Mohamed Taieb Ahmed, Mohammed ibn Rushayd, Monaco, Monarchy of Spain, Monte Carlo, Monte Hacho, Montevideo, Monumento del Llano Amarillo, Moors, Moroccan Arabic, Moroccan dirham, Morocco, Muhammad al-Idrisi, Muslim, National University of Distance Education, Nayim, Nazi Germany, Neoclassical architecture, Official language, Os Lusíadas, Patriarchate of Lisbon, Pedro Avilés, Pedro de Meneses, 1st Count of Vila Real, Peninsula of Almina, People's Party (Spain), Philip II of Spain, Philology, Pillars of Hercules, Pirri, Plazas de soberanía, Pomponius Mela, Porteadoras, Portuguese Empire, Portuguese Restoration War, Portuguese succession crisis of 1580, Prince Henry the Navigator, Province of Cádiz, Province of Málaga, Punics, Qadi Ayyad, Rafael Lesmes, Ramón Castellano de Torres, Reconquista, Religious festival, ResearchGate, Roderic, Roger II of Sicily, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Seville, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tanger, Roman Catholic Diocese of Cádiz y Ceuta, Roman Catholic Diocese of Ceuta, Royal Governor of Chile, Royal Walls of Ceuta, Sania Ramel Airport, Santarém, Portugal, Sebastian of Portugal, Sebastián Kindelán y O'Regan, Senate of Spain, Sephardi Jews, Siege of Ceuta (1419), Sieges of Ceuta (1694–1727), Sindhis, Sister city, Spain, Spanish Army, Spanish Civil War, Spanish language, Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, Staging area, Statute of Autonomy, Strait of Gibraltar, Suffragan bishop, Tabula Rogeriana, Tangier, Tarifa, Tariq ibn Ziyad, Trans-Saharan trade, Treaty of Alcáçovas, Treaty of Lisbon (1668), Treaty of Tordesillas, Umayyad Caliphate, University of Seville, Vandals, Visigoths, Water polo at the 2012 Summer Olympics, Wiley-Blackwell. Expand index (183 more) » « Shrink index
Abd ar-Rahman III (′Abd ar-Rahmān ibn Muhammad ibn ′Abd Allāh ibn Muhammad ibn ′abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Hakam ar-Rabdi ibn Hisham ibn ′abd ar-Rahman ad-Dakhil; عبد الرحمن الثالث; 11 January 889/9115 October 961) was the Emir and Caliph of Córdoba (912–961) of the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus.
Abu al-Abbas al-Azafi or in full Abu al-Abbas Ahmad abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Lakhmi al-Sabti (1162–1236) was a religious and legal scholar and member of the Banu al-Azafi who ruled Ceuta in the 13th century.
Sidi Bel Abbas or Sidi Ahmed abu al-Abbas al-Khazraji as-Sabti (Ceuta 1129 - Marrakesh 1204) is the patron saint of Marrakesh, in the Islamic tradition.
Abyla (called also Ad Septem Fratres or simply "Septem") was a Roman colony in Mauretania Tingitana.
Aci Catena (Sicilian: Jaci Catina) is a town and comune in Metropolitan City of Catania, Sicily, southern Italy.
Asociación Deportiva Ceuta was a Spanish football team based in the autonomous city of Ceuta.
Afonso VI (English: Alphonzo or Alphonse, Old Portuguese: Affonso; 21 August 164312 September 1683), known as "the Victorious" (o Vitorioso), was the second King of Portugal and the Algarves of the House of Braganza from 1656 until his death.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, AEMET (translated from Spanish as the State Meteorological Agency) is Spain's meteorological agency operating under the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
An Alcalde-Presidente is an Alcalde (Spanish for municipal Mayor) who also functions as President(e) of a higher administrative level.
Algeciras (translit) is a port city in the south of Spain, and is the largest city on the Bay of Gibraltar (in Spanish, the Bahía de Algeciras).
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
The Almoravid dynasty (Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; المرابطون, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
António, Prior of Crato (153126 August 1595; sometimes called The Determined, The Fighter or The Independentist), was a grandson of King Manuel I of Portugal and claimant of the Portuguese throne during the 1580 dynastic crisis.
Antonio Escobar Huerta (14 November 1879, Ceuta – 8 February 1940) was a Spanish military officer.
An apostolic administrator in the Catholic Church is a prelate appointed by the Pope to serve as the ordinary for an apostolic administration.
The Arab Baths in Ceuta are medium size medieval public baths on the northern edges of the Medina quarter.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Army of Africa (Ejército de África, الجيش الإسباني في أفريقيا, Al-Jaysh al-Isbānī fī Afriqā) or "Moroccan Army Corps" (Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí') was a field army of the Spanish Army that garrisoned the Spanish protectorate in Morocco from the late 19th century until Morocco's independence in 1956. At the start of the 20th century, the Spanish Empire's colonial possessions in Africa comprised Morocco, Spanish Sahara, Ifni, Cape Juby and Spanish Guinea.
Asilah (أزيلا or أصيلا; Aẓila, ⴰⵥⵉⵍⴰ) is a fortified town on the northwest tip of the Atlantic coast of Morocco, about south of Tangier.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
In Spain, an autonomous community (comunidad autónoma, autonomia erkidegoa, comunitat autònoma, comunidade autónoma, comunautat autonòma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.
África de las Heras Gavilán (Ceuta, 26 April 1909 – Moscow, 8 March 1988) was a Spanish Communist, naturalized Soviet citizen, and KGB Spy who went by the code name "Patria", but also used the names "María Luisa de las Heras de Darbat","María de la Sierra","Patricia", "Ivonne", "María de las Heras", "Znoi" and "María Pavlovna".
Álvaro of Braganza (1440 – 1504, Toledo) was the 4th son of Ferdinand I, 2nd Duke of Braganza and his wife, Dona Joana de Castro.
Álvaro Vaz de Almada, 1st Count of Avranches sometimes referred to with the wrong name Albro Vasques d' Almadea Earl of Averence KG (c. 1390 – 20 May 1449, Alverca do Ribatejo) was an illustrious Portuguese knight and nobleman, with a long and illustrious career abroad in England.
The Banu Isam were a Berber Muslim dynasty that ruled Ceuta, present-day Spain, for four generations.
Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.
Barstow is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States.
The Battle of Alcácer Quibir (also known as "Battle of Three Kings" (معركة الملوك الثلاثة) or "Battle of Oued al-Makhazin" (معركة وادي المخازن) in Morocco) was fought in northern Morocco, near the town of Ksar-el-Kebir (variant spellings: Ksar El Kebir, Alcácer-Quivir, Alcazarquivir, Alcassar, etc.) and Larache, on 4 August 1578.
The 1437 Battle of Tangier, sometimes referred to as the Siege of Tangiers, refers to the attempt by a Portuguese expeditionary force to seize the Moroccan citadel of Tangier, and their subsequent defeat by the armies of the Marinid sultanate of Morocco.
The Battle of Tétouan (Spanish Tetuán) was fought in 1860, near Tétouan, Morocco, between a Spanish army sent to North Africa and the tribal levies which at the time made up the Moroccan Army.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Benzú is a small settlement within the Spanish autonomous city of Ceuta.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Caballas Coalition (Coalición Caballas) is a left-wing regionalist party in the Spanish autonomous city of Ceuta in north Africa.
The Caliphate of Córdoba (خلافة قرطبة; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
A casino is a facility which houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities.
Infanta Catherine of Guimarães, Duchess of Braganza by marriage (Portuguese: Catarina;, 18 January 1540 – 15 November 1614) was a Portuguese infanta (princess) claimant to the throne following the death of King Henry of Portugal in 1580.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
Ceuta and Melilla may refer to.
The Ceuta border fence forms part of the Morocco–Spain border at Ceuta, a city on the North African coast.
The Cathedral of St Mary of the Assumption (Catedral de Santa María de la Asunción) is a Roman Catholic church located in the Spanish city of Ceuta, in a small exclave on the northwest coast of Africa.
Ceuta Heliport (Helipuerto de Ceuta) is the heliport, and only air transport facility, serving the Spanish autonomous city of Ceuta, in North Africa.
Charles II of Spain (Carlos II; 6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700), also known as El Hechizado or the Bewitched, was the last Habsburg ruler of the Spanish Empire.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
The Concordat of 1851 was an concordat between the Spanish government of Queen Isabella II and the Vatican.
The Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados; Diputatuen Kongresua; Congrés dels Diputats; Congreso dos Deputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch.
The conquest of Ceuta by the Portuguese on 21 August 1415 marks an important step in the beginning of the Portuguese Empire in Africa.
The Cortes Generales (General Courts) are the bicameral legislature of the Kingdom of Spain, consisting of two chambers: the Congress of Deputies (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house).
The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
Decathlon S.A. is a French sporting goods retailer.
In meteorology, diurnal temperature variation is the variation between a high temperature and a low temperature that occurs during the same day.
The Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is an umbrella term for the group of policies aimed at converging the economies of member states of the European Union at three stages.
Duarte (31 October 1391 – 9 September 1438), known in English as Edward and called the Philosopher (o Rei-Filósofo) or the Eloquent (o Eloquente), was King of Portugal and the Algarve and Lord of Ceuta from 1433 until his death.
Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.
El Corte Inglés S.A., headquartered in Madrid, is the biggest department store group in Europe and ranks fourth worldwide.
El País (literally The Country) is the most read newspaper (231,140 printed copies) in Spain and the most circulated daily newspaper (180,765 circulation average), according to data certified by the Office of Justification of Dissemination (OJD) and referring to the period of January 2017 to December 2017.
The Emirate of Granada (إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ, trans. Imarat Gharnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (Reino Nazarí de Granada), was an emirate established in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar.
Eugenio Martín is a Spanish film director and screenwriter.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eva María Isanta Foncuberta (born 19 June 1971) is a Spanish actress, known mostly for her roles as Bea in Aquí no hay quien viva and Maite in La que se avecina.
Ferdinand the Holy Prince (Fernando o Infante Santo; 29 September 1402 – 5 June 1443), sometimes called the "Saint Prince" or the "Constant Prince", was an infante of the Kingdom of Portugal.
Don Fernando de Leyba (1734-1780) was a Spanish officer who served as the third governor of Upper Louisiana from 1778 until his death.
The Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS) (English: Traditionalist Spanish Phalanx and of the Councils of the National-Syndicalist Offensive) was the sole legal party of the Francoist State in Spain.
The First Carlist War was a civil war in Spain from 1833 to 1840, fought between factions over the succession to the throne and the nature of the Spanish monarchy.
The flag of Ceuta is a black and white gyronny with a central escutcheon displaying the municipal coat of arms.
The flag of Lisbon is a gyronny of four parts of black and four of white with the coat of arms in the center.
Francisco Antonio García Carrasco Díaz (December 15, 1742 – August 10, 1813) was a Spanish soldier and Royal Governor of Chile.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Francisco Lesmes Bobed (4 March 1924 – 11 August 2005) was a Spanish footballer who played as a defender.
Francisco Llano de la Encomienda (1879–1963) was a Spanish soldier who served in Africa and was promoted to General in 1931.
Free economic zones (FEZ), free economic territories (FETs) or free zones (FZ) are a class of special economic zone (SEZ) designated by the trade and commerce administrations of various countries.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The Ghomara are an ethnic group of northern Morocco, living between the rivers Oued Laou and Ouringa, east of Chefchaouen and south of Tetouan, in the Western Rif.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Hafsids (الحفصيون al-Ḥafṣiyūn) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Berber descent who ruled Ifriqiya (western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria) from 1229 to 1574.
Cardinal Henry (Henrique; 31 January 1512 – 31 January 1580) was King of Portugal and the Algarves and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The Hispano-Moroccan War, also known as the Spanish–Moroccan War, the First Moroccan War, the Tetuán War, or, in Spain, as the African War (La Guerra de África), was fought from Spain's declaration of war on Morocco on 22 October 1859 until the Treaty of Wad-Ras on 26 April 1860.
The Kingdom of Portugal in the 15th century was the first European power to begin building a colonial empire.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Hotel Tryp Ceuta, known as Hotel Tryp, is a hotel in Ceuta, a Spanish city bordering northern Morocco.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Crown of Portugal and the Spanish Crown between 1580 and 1640, bringing the entire Iberian Peninsula, as well as Spanish and Portuguese overseas possessions, under the Spanish Habsburg kings Philip II, Philip III and Philip IV of Spain.
Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Hud al-Judhami (died 1238), commonly known as Ibn Hud, was a taifa emir of Andalusia from 1228 to 1237.
The Idrisids (الأدارسة) were an Arab-Berber Zaydi-Shia dynasty of Morocco, ruling from 788 to 974.
Ignacio Velázquez Rivera (born 1953) is a Spanish politician who served as mayor of Melilla from 1991 and became the first Mayor-President on 14 March 1995 when the enclave on the north coast of Africa became an autonomous community.
The Illinois Country (Pays des Illinois, lit. "land of the Illinois (plural)", i.e. the Illinois people) — sometimes referred to as Upper Louisiana (la Haute-Louisiane; Alta Luisiana) — was a vast region of New France in what is now the Midwestern United States.
The Ínclita Geração (often translated in English as "Illustrious Generation" or "Marvelous Generation") is a term commonly used by Portuguese historians to refer to a group of 15th-century infantes (princes) of the House of Aviz, specifically the sons of King John I of Portugal and his wife Philippa of Lancaster (daughter of John of Gaunt): the future king Edward of Portugal; the future regent Peter of Coimbra; Prince Henry the Navigator; the constable John of Reguengos; and the martyr Ferdinand the Holy Prince.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Isabella II (Isabel; 10 October 1830 – 9 April 1904) was Queen of Spain from 1833 until 1868.
Isidro de Alaix Fábregas, Count of Vergara and Viscount of Villarrobledo, (1790 Ceuta – October 15, 1853 Madrid) was a Spanish general of the First Carlist War, supporting the cause of the Liberals, who backed Isabella II of Spain and her regent mother Maria Christina.
There are two official holidays in Islam: Eid Al-Fitr and Eid Al-Adha.
Moulay Ismail ibn Sharif (مولاي إسماعيل بن الشريف ابن النصر) (1634– 22 March 1727), reigned 1672–1727, was the second ruler of the Moroccan Alaouite dynasty. He is also known in his native country as the "Warrior King".
ISO 3166-2:ES is the entry for Spain in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
Jacob Hassan, PhD (11 June 1936 – 13 August 2006) was a Spanish-Jewish philologist born 1936 in Ceuta.
Jebel Musa (in Berber Adrar n Moussa; meaning Mount Moses) is a mountain in the northernmost part of Morocco, on the African side of the Strait of Gibraltar.
John I (João, ʒuˈɐ̃w̃; 11 April 1357 – 14 August 1433) was King of Portugal and the Algarve in 1385–1433.
Infante John, Constable of Portugal (João,; 13 January 1400 – 18 October 1442) was a Portuguese infante (prince) of the House of Aviz, Constable of Portugal and master of the Portuguese Order of St. James (Santiago).
José Ramón López (born November 22, 1950) is a Spanish sprint canoer who competed in the mid to late 1970s.
Joseph ben Judah (יוסף בן יהודה Yosef ben Yehuda) of Ceuta (1160–1226) was a Jewish physician and poet, and disciple of Moses Maimonides.
Juan Carlos I (Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias, born 5 January 1938) reigned as King of Spain from 1975 until his abdication in 2014.
Juan Jesús Vivas Lara (Ceuta, 27 February 1953) is a Spanish politician who is the current Mayor-President of the autonomous city of Ceuta in Spain, since 8 February 2001.
Julian, Count of Ceuta (Don Julián, Conde de Ceuta,, يليان, was, according to some sources a renegade governor, possibly a former comes in Byzantine service in Ceuta and Tangiers who subsequently submitted to the king of Visigothic Spain before joining the Muslims. According to Arab chroniclers, Julian had an important role in the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, a key event in the history of Islam, in which al-Andalus was to play an important part, and in the subsequent history of what were to become Spain and Portugal.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.
The Kingdom of Fez was the name given to the northern part of Morocco, from the founding of the country by the Idrisid dynasty in the 8th century until the establishment of the French and the Spanish protectorate.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
Ksar es-Seghir or Ksar Sghir or al-Qasr al-Seghir (l-qṣər ṣ-ṣġir.), is a small town on the Mediterranean coast in the Jebala region of northwest Morocco, between Tangier and Ceuta, on the right bank of the river of the same name.
Lidl Stiftung & Co.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
Lorena Miranda Dorado (1991) is a Spanish female water polo player.
Luís Vaz de Camões (sometimes rendered in English as Camoens or Camoëns (e.g. by Byron in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers),; c. 1524 or 1525 – 10 June 1580), is considered Portugal's and the Portuguese language's greatest poet.
M'diq-Fnideq is a prefecture in Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima, Morocco.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.
Malacca City (Malay: Bandaraya Melaka, Jawi:,, Tamil: மலாக்கா மாநகரம்), is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Malacca.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Manuel Chaves González (born 7 July 1945 in Ceuta) is a Spanish politician of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).
Dom Manuel I (31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521), the Fortunate (Port. o Afortunado), King of Portugal and the Algarves, was the son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, by his wife, the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal.
The Marinid dynasty (Berber: Imrinen, المرينيون Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.
Marrakesh (or; مراكش Murrākuš; ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec), also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Maseru is the capital and largest city of Lesotho.
Maysara al-Matghari (Berber: Maysara Amteghri or Maysara Amdeghri, sometimes rendered Maisara or Meicera; in older Arab sources, bitterly called: al-Ḥaqir ('the ignoble'); died in September/October 740) was a Berber rebel leader and original architect of the Great Berber Revolt that erupted in 739-743 against the Umayyad Muslim empire.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Melilla (مليلية, Maliliyyah; ⵎⵔⵉⵜⵙ, Mřič) is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco, with an area of.
Miguel Bernardo Bianquetti (born 19 December 1951), known as Migueli, is a Spanish retired footballer who played as a central defender.
Mohamed Taieb Ahmed (Born in 1975 in Ceuta, Spain) is a Spanish-Moroccan drug lord responsible for trafficking hashish across the Strait of Gibraltar and into Spain.
Mohammed Ibn Rushayd or Muhibb al-Din Abu Abdallah Mohammed ibn Umar ibn Rushayd al-Fihri al-Sabti (1259–1321) (Ar:ابن رشيد الفهري، أبو عبد الله محمد بن عمر) was a judge, writer and scholar of Hadith, born in Sabta, Spain.
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
Monte Carlo (Monte-Carlo, or colloquially Monte-Carl; Monégasque: Monte-Carlu) officially refers to an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco, specifically the ward of Monte Carlo/Spélugues, where the Monte Carlo Casino is located.
Monte Hacho is a low mountain that overlooks the Spanish city of Ceuta, on the north coast of Africa.
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay.
Monumento del Llano Amarillo is a monument in the Spanish territory of Ceuta, in the North of Africa, at the bottom of Mount Hacho.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
Moroccan Arabic or Moroccan Darija (الدارجة, in Morocco) is a member of the Maghrebi Arabic language continuum spoken in Morocco.
The dirham (درهم); plural: (دراهم, ⴰⴷⵔⵀⵎ, Dirham, Dírha, pronounced darahim) is the currency of Morocco.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi (أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The National University of Distance Education, known in Spanish as Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), is a distance learning and research university founded in 1972 and is the only university run by the central government of Spain.
Mohammed Alí Amar (born 5 November 1966), known as Nayim, is a Spanish retired footballer who played as a central midfielder.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Os Lusíadas, usually translated as The Lusiads, is a Portuguese epic poem written by Luís Vaz de Camões (– 1580) and first published in 1572.
The Latin Patriarchate of Lisbon (Patriarchatus Ulixbonensis) is a Metropolitan Archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church based in Lisbon, national capital of Portugal.
Pedro Avilés Gutiérrez (Ceuta, 23 January 1956) is a Spanish novelist from Madrid.
Dom Pedro de Menezes Portocarrero, (1370 – Ceuta, September 22, 1437) was a 15th-century Portuguese nobleman and military figure.
The Península de Almina is a peninsula making up much of the eastern part of the Spanish city of Ceuta in Africa.
The People's Party (Partido Popular; known mostly by its acronym, PP) is a conservative and Christian democratic political party in Spain.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
The Pillars of Hercules (Latin: Columnae Herculis, Greek: Ἡράκλειαι Στῆλαι, Arabic: أعمدة هرقل / Aʿmidat Hiraql, Spanish: Columnas de Hércules) was the phrase that was applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar.
José Martínez Sánchez (born 11 March 1945), nicknamed Pirri, is a retired Spanish footballer.
The plazas de soberanía (literally "places of sovereignty") are the Spanish sovereign territories in North Africa.
Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer.
Porteadoras is a name that refers to bale workers in the autonomous Spanish city enclaves of Melilla and Ceuta, located on the north coast of Africa.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
The Portuguese Restoration War (Guerra da Restauração; Guerra de Restauración portuguesa) was the name given by nineteenth-century Romantic historians to the war between Portugal and Spain that began with the Portuguese revolution of 1640 and ended with the Treaty of Lisbon in 1668.
The Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 (Crise de sucessão de 1580) came about as a result of the death of young King Sebastian I of Portugal in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir in 1578.
Infante D. Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (4 March 1394 – 13 November 1460), better known as Prince Henry the Navigator (Infante Dom Henrique, o Navegador), was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion.
Cádiz is a province of southern Spain, in the southwestern part of the autonomous community of Andalusia.
The Province of Málaga (Provincia de Málaga) is located on the southern mediterranean coast of Spain, in Andalusia.
The Punics (from Latin punicus, pl. punici), also known as Carthaginians, were a people from Ancient Carthage (now in Tunisia, North Africa) who traced their origins to the Phoenicians.
Qadi Iyad ibn Musa (1083–1149) (القاضي عياض بن موسى, in French transliteration Qadi Iyad) or Abu al-Fadl `Iyad ibn Amr ibn Musa ibn `Iyad ibn Muhammad ibn Abdillah ibn Musa ibn `Iyad al-Yahsubi al-Sabti (أبو الفضل عياض بن موسى بن عياض بن عمرو بن موسى بن عياض بن محمد بن عبد الله بن موسى بن عياض اليحصبي السبتي) born in Ceuta, then belonging to the Almoravid Empire, was the great imam of that city and, later, a high judge (qadi) in Granada.
Rafael Lesmes Bobed (9 November 1926 – 8 October 2012) was a Spanish footballer who played as a defender.
Ramón Castellano de Torres (born August 31, 1947, Ceuta, Spain) is a Spanish artist.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
A religious festival is a time of special importance marked by adherents to that religion.
ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators.
Ruderic (also spelled Roderic, Roderik, Roderich, or Roderick; Spanish and Rodrigo, لذريق; died 711 or 712) was the Visigothic King of Hispania for a brief period between 710 and 712.
Roger II (22 December 1095Houben, p. 30. – 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his brother Simon.
The Archdiocese of Seville is part of the Catholic Church in Seville, Spain.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tanger (Dioecesis Tingitanus) is a Roman Catholic archdiocese in Morocco.
The Roman Catholic diocese of Cádiz y Ceuta is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Spain.
The Catholic diocese of Ceuta, first Portuguese and afterwards Spanish, existed from 1417 to 1879.
The Royal Governor of Chile ruled over the Spanish colonial administrative district called the Captaincy General of Chile, and as a result the Royal Governor also held the title of a Captain General.
The Royal Walls of Ceuta (Murallas Reales de Ceuta) are a line of fortification in Ceuta, an autonomous Spanish city in north Africa.
Sania Ramel Airport (مطار تطوان سانية الرمل, Aéroport Tétouan – Sania R'mel) is an airport serving Tétouan, a city in the Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima region in Morocco.
Santarém is a city and municipality located in the district of Santarém in Portugal.
Dom Sebastian I (Portuguese: Sebastião I; 20 January 1554 – 4 August 1578) was King of Portugal and the Algarves from 11 June 1557 to 4 August 1578 and the penultimate Portuguese monarch of the House of Aviz.
Sebastian Kindelán y O’Regan, also called Sebastián de Kindelán y Oregón, (30 December 1757 – 4 May 1826) was a colonel in the Spanish Army who served as governor of East Florida (11 June 1812 – 3 June 1815) and of Santo Domingo during the Second Spanish period (1818–1821), as well as provisional governor of Cuba (1822–1823).
The Senate (Senado) is the upper house of Spain's parliament, the Cortes Generales.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
The Siege of Ceuta of 1419 (sometimes reported as 1418) was fought between the besieging forces of the Marinid Sultanate of Morocco, led by Sultan Abu Said Uthman III, including allied forces from the Emirate of Granada, and the Portuguese garrison of Ceuta, led by Pedro de Menezes, 1st Count of Vila Real.
The Sieges of Ceuta (also known as the Thirty-year Siege) were a series of blockades by Moroccan forces of the Spanish-held city of Ceuta on the North African coast.
Sindhis (سنڌي (Perso-Arabic), सिन्धी (Devanagari), (Khudabadi)) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who speak the Sindhi language and are native to the Sindh province of Pakistan, which was previously a part of pre-partition British India.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra; "Army of the Land/Ground") is the terrestrial army of the Spanish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate.
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español; PSOE) is a social-democraticThe PSOE is described as a social-democratic party by numerous sources.
A staging area (otherwise staging point, staging base or staging post) is a location where organisms, people, vehicles, equipment or material are assembled before use.
Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy (Estatuto de Autonomía, Estatut d'Autonomia, Estatuto de Autonomía, Estatutu d' Autonomía, Autonomia Estatutua) is a law hierarchically located under the constitution of a country, and over any other form of legislation (including organic laws).
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
A suffragan bishop is a bishop subordinate to a metropolitan bishop or diocesan bishop.
The Nuzhat al-mushtāq fi'khtirāq al-āfāq (نزهة المشتاق في اختراق الآفاق, lit. "the book of pleasant journeys into faraway lands"), most often known as the Tabula Rogeriana (lit. "The Book of Roger" in Latin), is a description of the world and world map created by the Arab geographer, Muhammad al-Idrisi, in 1154.
Tangier (طَنجة Ṭanjah; Berber: ⵟⴰⵏⴵⴰ Ṭanja; old Berber name: ⵜⵉⵏⴳⵉ Tingi; adapted to Latin: Tingis; Tanger; Tánger; also called Tangiers in English) is a major city in northwestern Morocco.
Tarifa is a small town in the province of Cádiz, Andalusia, on the southernmost coast of mainland Spain.
āriq ibn Ziyād (طارق بن زياد) was a Muslim commander who led the Islamic Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711–718 A.D. Under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I he led a large army and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, consolidating his troops at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar.
Trans-Saharan trade requires travel across the Sahara (north and south) to reach sub-Saharan Africa from the North African coast, Europe, to the Levant.
The Treaty of Alcáçovas (also known as Treaty or Peace of Alcáçovas-Toledo) was signed on 4 September 1479 between the Catholic Monarchs of Castile and Aragon on one side and Afonso V and his son, Prince John of Portugal, on the other side.
The Treaty of Lisbon of 1668 was a peace treaty between Portugal and Spain, concluded at Lisbon on 13 February 1668, through the mediation of England, in which Spain recognized the sovereignty of Portugal's new ruling dynasty, the House of Braganza.
The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The University of Seville (Universidad de Sevilla) is a university in Seville, Spain.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
The water polo tournament at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom was held at the London 2012 Water Polo Arena in the Olympic Park from 29 July to 12 August.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Autonomous City of Ceuta, Ceuta Province, Ceutan, Ceutans, Ciudad Autonoma de Ceuta, Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta, Communications in Ceuta, Cueta, SP, Demographics of Ceuta, Foreign relations of Ceuta, Geography of Ceuta, History of Ceuta, List of cities in Ceuta, Rail transport in Ceuta, Sabta, Sabtah, Sebta, Telecommunications in Ceuta, The weather in Ceuta, Ἀβύλη.