334 relations: A Screaming Man, Abéché, Abouna, Acacia, Africa Day, African archaeology, African buffalo, Agriculture in Chad, Ahmadiyya, Ahmat Taboye, Alestes, All Saints' Day, Amnesty International, Antelope, Antoine Bangui, Anwarul Karim Chowdhury, Arab League, Arab slave trade, Arabic, Arabs, Association football, Baba Moustapha, Bahá'í Faith, Balafon, Bangladesh, Bank of Central African States, Basketball, Battle of N'Djamena (2006), Battle of N'Djamena (2008), BBC News, Bharti Airtel, Bilala people, Biltine (prefecture), Boko Haram, Boko Haram insurgency, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti (region), Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Bye Bye Africa, Calabash, Cameroon, Cattle, Celtel, Censorship, Central Africa, Central African CFA franc, Central African Republic, Central Intelligence Agency, Chad Basin, Chad Cultural Centre, Chad national football team, ..., Chad National Museum, Chad–Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Project, Chadian Arabic, Chadian Civil War (2005–2010), Chadian constitutional referendum, 1996, Chadian constitutional referendum, 2005, Chadian intervention in northern Mali, Chadian presidential election, 1996, Chadian presidential election, 2001, Chadian presidential election, 2006, Chadian Progressive Party, Chadian–Libyan conflict, Chari Jazz, Chari River, Cheetah, Chevron Corporation, Child labour, China Civil Engineering Construction Corporation, Christian, Christianity in Africa, Christianity in Chad, Christmas, Constitution of Chad, Constitutional Council of Chad, Corruption Perceptions Index, Cotontchad, Cotton, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, Coup d'état, Cronyism, Daratt, Daresalam, Darfur, De facto, De jure, Departments of Chad, Desert, Dictatorship, Doba, Chad, Docudrama, Dominant-party system, Donald Trump, Douala, DP75: Tartina City, East Sudanian Savanna, Easter Monday, Economic Community of Central African States, Education in Chad, Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Fitr, Elections in Chad, Elephant, Elephant hunting in Chad, Emi Koussi, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Energy Information Administration, Ennedi Plateau, Executive Order 13780, ExxonMobil, Failed state, Feature film, Female genital mutilation, Food and Agriculture Organization, François Tombalbaye, France, Freedom and Democracy Day, Freedom House, Freedom of religion in Chad, Freestyle wrestling, French Chad, French Equatorial Africa, French language, FROLINAT, Fund for Peace, Gateway Communications, General History of Africa, Genocide, Giraffe, Gold, Government of Chad, Gross domestic product, GSM, Guéra (region), Gum arabic, Gunship, Hadjarai peoples, Haroun Kabadi, Hippopotamus, Hissène Habré, History of Chad, Human Development Index, Humanitarian crisis, Hydrocynus, Hyena, Idriss Déby, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, Index of Chad-related articles, Internally displaced person, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Crisis Group, International Futures, Intertropical Convergence Zone, Irreligion, Islam in Africa, Islam in Chad, Issa Serge Coelo, Ivory, Janjaweed, Jehovah's Witnesses, John Holmes (British diplomat), Joseph Brahim Seid, Jury Prize (Cannes Film Festival), Kakaki, Kanem–Bornu Empire, Kanembu people, Kanuri language, Kanuri people, Kenneth M. Pollack, Khartoum, Koulsy Lamko, La Tchadienne, Labour Day, Lake Chad, Landlocked country, Languages of Chad, Law of France, Leopard, Level of analysis, LGBT rights in Chad, Library of Congress, Libya, Lingua franca, Lion, List of cities in Chad, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, List of ethnic groups in Chad, List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, List of heads of state of Chad, List of national independence days, List of political parties in Chad, List of Presidents of the National Assembly of Chad, List of Prime Ministers of Chad, List of universities in Chad, Logone Occidental (region), Logone River, Mahamat Saleh Haroun, Maurizio Giuliano, Mawlid, Member states of the Arab League, Middle East Monitor, Military of Chad, Millet, Millet beer, Millicom, Mining industry of Chad, Moundou, Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad, Movie theater, Multinational Joint Task Force, Music of Chad, Muslim, N'Djamena, N'Djamena International Airport, National Assembly (Chad), National Assembly (France), New Year's Day, Niger, Nigeria, Non-denominational Muslim, Oasis, OECD, OHADA, One-party state, Optical fiber, Outline of Chad, Overseas France, Pakistan, Patriotic Salvation Movement, Peru, Petroleum, Petronas, Pew Research Center, PLOS One, Political violence, Polygamy, Prefectures of Chad, Presidential system, Press release, Proso millet, Public holidays in Chad, Purchasing power parity, Refugees of Sudan, Regions of Chad, Religion in Chad, Republic Day, Rhinoceros, Sahara, Sahel, Salafi movement, Sam Nolutshungu, Sao civilisation, Sara people, Sarh, Saudi Arabia, Save the Children, Senegal, Shia Islam, Snake, Sodium carbonate, Sorghum, SotelTchad, Sport in Chad, State of emergency, State-owned enterprise, Sub-prefectures of Chad, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sudan, Sudan (region), Sudanese refugees in Chad, Sudanian Savanna, Sufism, Sultanate of Bagirmi, Sunni Islam, Supreme Court of Chad, Syncretism, Tariqa, Telecommunications in Chad, Telephone numbers in Chad, The Washington Post, The World Factbook, Tibesti Mountains, Tijaniyyah, Totalitarianism, Toubou people, Toyota War, Traditional African religions, Trans-Saharan trade, Transitional Government of National Unity, Transparency International, Transport in Chad, Tribalism, Tropic of Cancer, UNESCO, Union of Resistance Forces, Unitary state, United Front for Democratic Change, United Nations, United Nations Commission on Human Rights, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations University Press, United States Agency for International Development, United States Department of Commerce, United States Department of Labor, United States Department of State, United States dollar, United States Government Publishing Office, University of California Press, University of N'Djamena, University of Nebraska Press, Variety (magazine), Wadai Empire, War in Darfur, West Africa Time, West African crocodile, Wet season, Wetland, World Bank, World War II, Zaghawa people, Zain Group, Zakouma National Park, Zed Books, .td, 13th meridian east, 1975 Chadian coup d'état, 2010 Cannes Film Festival, 2010 Sahel famine, 24th meridian east, 24th parallel north, 63rd Venice International Film Festival, 7th parallel north. 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A Screaming Man (Un homme qui crie) is a 2010 French-Chadian drama film by Mahamat Saleh Haroun, starring Youssouf Djaoro and Diouc Koma.
Abéché (Arabic: أبشي, ʾAbishī) is the 4th largest city in Chad, the capital of Ouaddaï Region.
Abouna (أبون, English: "Our Father") is a 2002 film by Chadian director Mahamat Saleh Haroun.
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
Africa Day (formerly African Freedom Day and African Liberation Day) is the annual commemoration of the foundation of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) (now known as the African Union) on 25 May 1963.
Africa has the longest record of human habitation in the world.
The African buffalo or Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large African bovine.
In 2006 approximately 80% of Chad's labor force was employed in the agricultural sector.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Ahmat Taboye is a literary critic from Chad.
Alestes is a genus in the family Alestidae, known as the "African Characidae" as they are found exclusively on that continent.
All Saints' Day, also known as All Hallows' Day, Hallowmas, Feast of All Saints, or Solemnity of All Saints, is a Christian festival celebrated in honour of all the saints, known and unknown.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia.
Antoine Bangui-Rombaye (born 1933) is a Chadian political figure and author.
Anwarul Karim Chowdhury (born 5 February 1943) is a Bangladeshi diplomat most noted for his work on development in the poorest nations, global peace and championing the rights of women and children.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southeast Africa and Europe.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Mahamat "Baba" Moustapha (1952-1982) was a Chadian playwright writing in French.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
The balafon is a kind of wooden xylophone or percussion idiophone which plays melodic tunes, and usually has between 16 and 27 keys.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bank of Central African States (Banque des États de l'Afrique Centrale, BEAC) is a central bank that serves six central African countries which form the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
The Battle of N'Djamena was a battle between the forces of the revolutionary United Front for Democratic Change (UFCD) and the military of Chad that occurred on 13 April 2006 when rebel forces launched an assault on the capital of Chad in the pre-dawn hours, attempting to overthrow the government of President Idriss Déby Itno from their bases an estimated thousand miles east.
The Battle of N'Djamena began on February 2, 2008 when Chadian rebel forces opposed to Chadian President Idriss Déby entered N'Djamena, the capital of Chad, after a three-day advance through the country.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bharti Airtel Limited (commonly shortened to Airtel and stylised airtel) is an Indian global telecommunications services company based in New Delhi, India.
The Bilala or Bulala are a Muslim people that live around Lake Fitri, in the Batha Prefecture, in central Chad.
Biltine Prefecture was one of the 14 prefectures of Chad.
The Islamic State in West Africa (abbreviated as ISWA or ISWAP), formerly known as Jamā'at Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Da'wah wa'l-Jihād (جماعة أهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد, "Group of the People of Sunnah for Preaching and Jihad") and commonly known as Boko Haram until March 2015, is a jihadist militant organization based in northeastern Nigeria, also active in Chad, Niger and northern Cameroon.
The Boko Haram insurgency began in 2009, when the jihadist rebel group Boko Haram started an armed rebellion against the government of Nigeria.
The Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti (BET) was until 2008 one of the then 18 regions of Chad, its capital being Faya-Largeau.
The Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Affairs (DRL) is a bureau within the United States Department of State.
Bye Bye Africa is a 1999 award-winning Chadian film.
A calabash, bottle gourd, or white-flowered gourd, Lagenaria siceraria, also known by many other names, including long melon, New Guinea bean and Tasmania bean, is a vine grown for its fruit, which can be either harvested young to be consumed as a vegetable, or harvested mature to be dried and used as a utensil.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Celtel was a telecommunications company that operated in several African countries.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
The Central African CFA franc (French: franc CFA or simply franc, ISO 4217 code: XAF) is the currency of six independent states in central Africa: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Chad Basin is the largest endorheic basin in Africa, centered on Lake Chad.
The Chad Cultural Centre is an institution located in Moa, Chad.
The Chad national football team, nicknamed Sao, represents Chad in international football.
The Chad National Museum (Musée National N'Djamena) is the national museum of Chad.
The Chad–Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Project is a controversial project to develop the production capacity of oilfields near Doba in southern Chad, and to create a pipeline to transport the oil to a floating storage and offloading vessel (FSO), anchored off the coast of Cameroon, near the city of Kribi.
Chadian Arabic (also known as Shuwa/Shua/Suwa Arabic; لهجة تشادية, Baggara Arabic, and, most recently, within a small scholarly milieu, Western Sudanic Arabic) is one of the regional colloquial varieties of Arabic.
The most recent Chadian Civil War began in December 2005.
A constitutional referendum was held in Chad on 31 March 1996 to approve or reject the new constitutional draft meant to definitively replace the Transitional Charter established by the Sovereign National Conference in 1993.
A constitutional referendum was held in Chad on 6 June 2005.
On 18 January 2013, the Republic of Chad announced its intent to deploy 2,000 troops: one infantry regiment with 1,200 soldiers and two support battalions with 800 soldiers, into Mali as part of the international campaign against Islamist insurgents.
Presidential elections were held in Chad on 2 June 1996, with a second round on 3 July.
Presidential elections were held in Chad on 20 May 2001.
Presidential elections were held in Chad on 3 May 2006.
The Chadian Progressive Party (Parti Progressiste Tchadien, PPT), known as the National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution (Mouvement National pour la Révolution Culturelle et Sociale, MNRCS) for the last two years of its existence, was the first African political party in Chad.
The Chadian–Libyan conflict was a series of sporadic clashes in Chad between 1978 and 1987 between Libyan and Chadian forces.
Founded in 1964, Chari Jazz was the first modern Chad musical group.
The Chari River, or Shari River, is a long stream, flowing in Central Africa.
List |F. jubata Erxleben, 1777 |F. jubatus Schreber, 1775 |Felis guttata Hermann, 1804 |F. venatica Griffith, 1821 |Acinonyx venator Brookes, 1828 |F. fearonii Smith, 1834 |F. megaballa Heuglin, 1868 |C. jubatus Blanford, 1888 |Cynælurus jubata Mivart, 1900 |C. guttatus Hollister, 1911 --> The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae that occurs in Southern, North and East Africa, and a few localities in Iran. The species is IUCN Red Listed as vulnerable, as it suffered a substantial decline in its historic range in the 20th century due to habitat loss, poaching, illegal pet trade, and conflict with humans. By 2016, the global cheetah population has been estimated at approximately 7,100 individuals in the wild. Several African countries have taken steps to improve cheetah conservation measures. It is the fastest land animal. The only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, the cheetah was formally described by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775. The cheetah is characterised by a slender body, deep chest, spotted coat, small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and long spotted tail. Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats, making it more similar to the cougar. The cheetah reaches nearly at the shoulder, and weighs. Though taller than the leopard, it is notably smaller than the lion. Typically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots. Cheetahs are active mainly during the day, with hunting their major activity. Adult males are sociable despite their territoriality, forming groups called coalitions. Females are not territorial; they may be solitary or live with their offspring in home ranges. Carnivores, cheetah mainly prey upon antelopes and gazelles. They will stalk their prey to within, charge towards it and kill it by tripping it during the chase and biting its throat to suffocate it to death. Cheetahs can reach speeds of in short bursts, but this is disputed by more recent measurements. The average speed of cheetahs is about. Cheetahs are induced ovulators, breeding throughout the year. Gestation is nearly three months long, resulting in a litter of typically three to five cubs (the number can vary from one to eight). Weaning occurs at six months; siblings tend to stay together for some time. Cheetah cubs face higher mortality than most other mammals, especially in the Serengeti region. Cheetahs inhabit a variety of habitatsdry forests, scrub forests and savannahs. Because of its prowess at hunting, the cheetah was tamed and used to kill game at hunts in the past. The animal has been widely depicted in art, literature, advertising and animation.
Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation.
Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.
China Civil Engineering Construction Corporation Ltd. (abbreviation CCECC) was established in June 1979 under the approval of the State Council of the People's Republic of China.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Christianity in Africa began in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century.
Christianity arrived in Chad much more recently with the arrival of Europeans.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Constitution of the Republic of Chad (Constitution de la République du Tchad) is the supreme law of Chad.
The Constitutional Council of Chad judges the constitutionality of legislation and treaties in Chad.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
The Société cotonnière du Tchad, also called Cotontchad, is a parastatal Chadian company operating in a monopoly regime that buys and exports all the cotton produced in Chad.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Country Reports on Human Rights Practices are publications on the annual human rights conditions in countries and regions outside the United States, submitted annually by the United States Department of State to the United States Congress.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Cronyism is the practice of partiality in awarding jobs and other advantages to friends, family relatives or trusted colleagues, especially in politics and between politicians and supportive organizations.
Daratt (English: "Dry Season", French: "Saison sèche") is a 2006 film by Chadian director Mahamat Saleh Haroun.
Daresalam (English: "Let There Be Peace"F. Pfaff, Focus on African Films, 3) is a 2000 dramatic film by Chadian director Issa Serge Coelo.
Darfur (دار فور, Fur) is a region in western Sudan.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
The regions of Chad are divided into 61 departments.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
A dictatorship is an authoritarian form of government, characterized by a single leader or group of leaders with either no party or a weak party, little mass mobilization, and limited political pluralism.
Doba (دوبا) is a city in Chad, the capital of the region of Logone Oriental.
A docudrama (or documentary drama) is a genre of radio and television programming, feature film, and staged theatre, which features dramatized re-enactments of actual events.
A dominant-party system, or one-party dominant system, is a system where there is "a category of parties/political organisations that have successively won election victories and whose future defeat cannot be envisaged or is unlikely for the foreseeable future."Suttner, R. (2006), "Party dominance 'theory': Of what value?", Politikon 33 (3), pp.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
Douala (Duala) is the largest city in Cameroon and its economic capital.
DP75: Tartina City is a 2007 dramatic film by Chadian director Issa Serge Coelo, now at his second feature film.
The East Sudanian Savanna is a hot, dry, tropical savanna ecoregion of Central and East Africa.
Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is a holiday in some countries.
The Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS; Communauté Économique des États de l'Afrique Centrale, CEEAC; Comunidad Económica de los Estados de África Central, CEEAC; Comunidade Económica dos Estados da África Central, CEEAC) is an Economic Community of the African Union for promotion of regional economic co-operation in Central Africa.
Education in Chad is challenging due to the nation's dispersed population and a certain degree of reluctance on the part of parents to send their children to school.
Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
Elections in Chad includes information on election and election results in Chad.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
Elephant hunting or elephant poaching and exploitation of the ivory trade are illegal in Chad and pose a major threat to elephant populations.
Emi Koussi (also known as Emi Koussou) is a high pyroclastic shield volcano that lies at the southeast end of the Tibesti Mountains in the central Sahara of the northern Borkou Region of northern Chad.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
The Ennedi Plateau, located in the northeast of Chad, in the regions of Ennedi-Ouest and Ennedi-Est, is a sandstone bulwark in the middle of the Sahara.
Executive Order 13780, titled Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States, is an executive order signed by United States President Donald Trump on March 6, 2017, that places limits on travel to the U.S. from certain countries, and by all refugees who do not possess either a visa or valid travel documents.
Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas.
A failed state is a political body that has disintegrated to a point where basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government no longer function properly (see also fragile state and state collapse).
A feature film is a film (also called a motion picture or movie) with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole film to fill a program.
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
François Tombalbaye (فرنسوا تومبالباي; June 15, 1918 – April 13, 1975), also called N'Garta Tombalbaye from 1973 until his death, was a teacher and a trade union activist who served as the first president of Chad.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Freedom and Democracy Day is a national holiday in Chad, falling on 1 December.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
The Constitution of Chad provides for freedom of religion; however, at times, the Government limited this right for certain groups.
Freestyle wrestling is a style of amateur wrestling that is practiced throughout the world.
Chad was a part of the French colonial empire from 1900 to 1960.
French Equatorial Africa (Afrique équatoriale française), or the AEF, was the federation of French colonial possessions in Equatorial Africa, extending northwards from the Congo River into the Sahel, and comprising what are today the countries of Chad, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
FROLINAT (Front de Libération Nationale du Tchad; National Liberation Front of Chad) was an insurgent rebel group that was active in Chad between 1966 and 1993.
The Fund for Peace is a US non-profit, non-governmental research and educational institution.
In August 2012 the assets of Gateway Communications Africa (the carrier services business which sells wholesale voice and data services to global service providers) were split from the enterprise business and sold by Vodacom Group to PCCW Global, an operating division of Hong Kong Telecom (HKT), Hong Kong's largest telecoms provider.
The is a two-phase project undertaken by UNESCO from 1964 to the present.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
The giraffe (Giraffa) is a genus of African even-toed ungulate mammals, the tallest living terrestrial animals and the largest ruminants.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The Government of Chad has been ruled and controlled by Idriss Déby and his Patriotic Salvation Movement since December 2, 1990, and officially since February 28, 1991.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets, first deployed in Finland in December 1991.
Guéra (قيرا) is one of the 23 regions of Chad, created in 2002 from the former Guéra prefecture.
Gum arabic, also known as acacia gum, arabic gum, gum acacia, acacia, Senegal gum and Indian gum, and by other names, is a natural gum consisting of the hardened sap of various species of the acacia tree.
A gunship is a military aircraft armed with heavy guns, primarily intended for attacking ground targets.
The Hadjarai are a group of peoples comprising 6.7% of the population of Chad, or more than 150,000 people.
Haroun Kabadi (born 29 April 1949) is a Chadian politician.
The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).
Hissène Habré (Arabic: حسين حبري Ḥusaīn Ḥabrī, Chadian Arabic:;; born 13 September 1942), also spelled Hissen Habré, is a Chadian politician who served as the President of Chad from 1982 until he was deposed in 1990.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in West Africa.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
A humanitarian crisis (or "humanitarian disaster") is defined as a singular event or a series of events that are threatening in terms of health, safety or well being of a community or large group of people.
Hydrocynus is a genus of large characin fish in the family Alestidae commonly called "tigerfish," endemic to the African continent.
Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae.
General Idriss Déby Itno (إدريس ديبي; born June 18, 1952) is a Chadian politician who has been the President of Chad since 1990.
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for matters dealing with immigration to Canada, refugees, and Canadian citizenship.
An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders.
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is an international financial institution that offers loans to middle-income developing countries.
The International Crisis Group (ICG; also simply known as the Crisis Group) is a transnational non-profit, non-governmental organization founded in 1995 that carries out field research on violent conflict and advances policies to prevent, mitigate or resolve conflict.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), known by sailors as the doldrums, is the area encircling Earth near the Equator, where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Africa was the first continent into which Islam spread from Southwest Asia, during the early 7th century CE.
The earliest presence of Islam in Chad can be traced back to the legendary Uqba ibn Nafi, whose descendants can be found settled in the Lake Chad region to this day.
Issa Serge Coelo (born 1967) is a Chadian film director.
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
The Janjaweed (Arabic: جنجويد janjawīd; also transliterated Janjawid) (English: a man with a gun on a horse.") are a militia that operate in western Sudan and eastern Chad.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Sir John Holmes (born 29 April 1951) is a British former diplomat who is the current Chair of the Electoral Commission.
Joseph Brahim Seid (1927 in N'Djamena – 1980) was a Chadian writer and politician.
The Jury Prize (Prix du Jury) is an award presented at the Cannes Film Festival, chosen by the Jury from the "official section" of movies at the festival.
The kakaki is a three to four metre long metal trumpet used in Hausa traditional ceremonial music.
The Kanem–Bornu Empire was an empire that existed in modern Chad and Nigeria.
The Kanembu are an ethnic group of Chad, generally considered the modern descendants of the Kanem-Borno Empire.
Kanuri is a dialect continuum spoken by some four million people, as of 1987, in Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon, as well as small minorities in southern Libya and by a diaspora in Sudan.
The Kanuri people (Kanouri, Kanowri, also Yerwa, Bare Bari and several subgroup names) are an African ethnic group living largely in the lands of the former Kanem and Bornu Empires in Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon.
Kenneth Michael Pollack (born 1966), is a noted former CIA intelligence analyst and expert on Middle East politics and military affairs.
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.
Koulsy Lamko (born 1959) is a Chadian-born playwright, poet, novelist and university lecturer.
La Tchadienne is the national anthem of Chad.
Labour Day (Labor Day in the United States) is an annual holiday to celebrate the achievements of workers.
Lake Chad (French: Lac Tchad) is a historically large, shallow, endorheic lake in Africa, which has varied in size over the centuries.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
Chad has two official languages, French and Modern Standard Arabic, and over 120 indigenous languages.
In academic terms, French law can be divided into two main categories: private law ("droit privé") and public law ("droit public").
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
The term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Chad may face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
This is a list of cities and towns in Chad.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.
This is a list of ethnic groups in Chad.
The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor is an annual publication issued by the United States Government’s Bureau of International Labor Affairs at the U.S. Department of Labor.
This is a list of heads of state of Chad since the country gained independence from France in 1960 to the present day.
An Independence Day is an annual event commemorating the anniversary of a nation's independence or statehood, usually after ceasing to be a group or part of another nation or state; more rarely after the end of a military occupation; and in the unique case of Singapore, expulsion from Malaysia.
This article lists political parties in Chad.
Category:Politics of Chad Chad, National Assembly.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Chad since the formation of the post of Prime Minister of Chad in 1978 to 2018.
This is a list of universities in Chad.
Logone Occidental is one of the 23 regions of Chad and its capital is Moundou.
The Logon or Logone River is a major tributary of the Chari River.
Mahamat-Saleh Haroun (محمد الصالح هارون) (born 1961 in Abéché) is a film director from Chad who has lived in France since 1982.
Maurizio Giuliano (born 24 February 1975) is a British-Italian traveller, author and journalist.
Mawlid or Mawlid al-Nabi al-Sharif (مَولِد النَّبِي mawlidu n-nabiyyi, "Birth of the Prophet", sometimes simply called in colloquial Arabic مولد mawlid, mevlid, mevlit, mulud among other vernacular pronunciations; sometimes ميلاد mīlād) is the observance of the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad which is commemorated in Rabi' al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar.
The Arab League has 22 member states.
The Middle East Monitor (MEMO) is a not-for-profit press monitoring organisation, founded on 1 July 2009.
The military of Chad consists of the National Army (includes Ground Forces, Air Force, and Gendarmerie), Republican Guard, Rapid Intervention Force, Police, and National and Nomadic Guard (GNNT).
Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.
Millet beer, also known as Bantu beer, malwa, kaffir beer, pombe "Tchouk" or opaque beer, is an alcoholic beverage made from malted millet that is common throughout Africa.
Millicom International Cellular SA is an international telecommunications and media company, founded by Shelby Bryan, Jan Stenbeck, Telma Sosa, and Olvin Galdamez.
The only mineral exploited in Chad was sodium carbonate, or natron.
Moundou is the second largest city in Chad and is the capital of the region of Logone Occidental.
Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad (Mouvement pour la democratie et la justice au Tchad, abbreviated as MDJT) is a Chadian rebel group that tried to oust the government of the current Chadian president Idriss Déby from October 1998-2003.
A movie theater/theatre (American English), cinema (British English) or cinema hall (Indian English) is a building that contains an auditorium for viewing films (also called movies) for entertainment.
The Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) is a combined multinational formation, comprising units, mostly military, from Benin, Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria.
Chad is an ethnically diverse Central African country in Africa.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
N’Djamena (N'Djaména; انجمينا Injamīnā) is the capital and largest city of Chad.
N'Djamena International Airport (مطار انجمينا الدولي) is an international airport serving N'Djamena, the capital city of Chad.
The National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) is the parliament of Chad.
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.
In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
OHADA is a system of corporate law and implementing institutions adopted by seventeen West and Central African nations in 1993 in Port Louis, Mauritius.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
The location of Chad An enlargeable map of the Republic of Chad The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Chad: Chad – landlocked country in Central Africa.
Overseas France (France d'outre-mer) consists of all the French-administerd territories outside the European continent.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Patriotic Salvation Movement (الحركة الوطنية للإنقاذ, Mouvement Patriotique du Salut, MPS) is the ruling political party in Chad.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
PETRONAS, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad (National Petroleum, Limited), is a Malaysian oil and gas company that was founded on 17 August 1974.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Political violence is a broad term used to describe violence perpetrated by either persons or governments to achieve political goals.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
Chad was divided into 14 prefectures from 1960, the year of independence, to 1999, when the country was divided in 28 departments: A further reorganisation in 2002 divided the country into the current 18 regions.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
A press release, news release, media release, press statement or video release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something ostensibly newsworthy.
Panicum miliaceum, with many common names including proso millet, broomcorn millet, common millet, broomtail millet, hog millet, Kashfi millet red millet, and white millet, is a grass species used as a crop.
December 1, "Freedom and Democracy Day", remembers December 1, 1990 and celebrates the ascent of President Idriss Déby to power.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Sudanese refugees are persons originating from the country of Sudan, but seeking refuge outside the borders of their native country.
The country of Chad is divided into 23 regions (مناطق manāṭiq, régions).
The majority of Chadians are Muslims, with Christians making up a substantial minority of 40-45%.
A Republic Day is a holiday to commemorate the day when a country became a republic.
A rhinoceros, commonly abbreviated to rhino, is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
Samuel Clement Nolutshungu (15 April 1945 – 12 August 1997) was one of the foremost South African scholars, and an internationally acclaimed expert on South African politics.
The Sao civilisation flourished in Middle Africa from ca.
The Sara people are an ethnic group predominantly residing in southern Chad, the northwestern areas of the Central African Republic, and the southern border of North Sudan.
Sarh (Arabic: ساره), formerly French colonial Fort Archambault, is the capital of the Moyen-Chari Region and of the Department of Barh Köh in Chad.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Save the Children Fund, commonly known as Save the Children, is an international non-governmental organisation that promotes children's rights, provides relief and helps support children in developing countries.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
Societe des Telecommunications Internationales du Tchad (SotelTchad) is a Chadian telecommunications parastatal providing landline domestic and international telephone service, as well as Internet service.
The principal sports in Chad are football, basketball, athletics, boxing, martial arts and fishing, which is mostly known in Lake Chad.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
The departments of Chad are divided into 348 sub-prefectures (sous-préfectures).
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
The Sudan is the geographic region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western to eastern Central Africa.
By January 2011 the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimated that there are 262,900 Sudanese refugees in Chad.
The Sudanian Savanna is a broad belt of tropical savanna that runs east and west across the African continent, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the western lowlands in the east.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
The Sultanate or Kingdom of Bagirmi or Baghermi (Royaume du Baguirmi) was a kingdom and Islamic sultanate southeast of Lake Chad in central Africa between 1522 and 1897.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Supreme Court (French Cour Suprême) is the highest jurisdiction of Chad in judiciary, administrative and tributary fields.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
A tariqa (or tariqah; طريقة) is a school or order of Sufism, or specifically a concept for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices of such an order with the aim of seeking Haqiqa, which translates as "ultimate truth".
Telecommunications in Chad include radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet.
To call in Chad, the following format is used.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The Tibesti Mountains are a mountain range in the central Sahara, primarily located in the extreme north of Chad, with a small extension into southern Libya.
The Tijāniyyah (The Tijānī Path) is a sufi tariqa (order, path) within Sunni Islam, originating in North Africa but now more widespread in West Africa, particularly in Senegal, The Gambia, Mauritania, Mali, Guinea, Niger, Chad, Ghana, Northern and South-western Nigeria and some part of Sudan.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
The Toubou, or Tubu (from Old Tebu, meaning "rock people"), are an ethnic group inhabiting northern Chad, southern Libya, northeastern Niger and northwestern Sudan.
The Toyota War (Ḥarb Tūyūtā) is the name commonly given to the last phase of the Chadian–Libyan conflict, which took place in 1987 in Northern Chad and on the Libyan–Chadian border.
The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions.
Trans-Saharan trade requires travel across the Sahara (north and south) to reach sub-Saharan Africa from the North African coast, Europe, to the Levant.
The Transitional Government of National Unity (Gouvernement d'Union Nationale de Transition or GUNT) was the coalition government of armed groups that nominally ruled Chad from 1979 to 1982, during the most chaotic phase of the long-running civil war that began in 1965.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
Transport infrastructure within Chad is generally poor, especially in the north and east of the country.
Tribalism is the state of being organized by, or advocating for, tribes or tribal lifestyles.
The Tropic of Cancer, also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Union of Resistance Forces (URF) was one of the rebel groups fighting in the War in Chad (2005–2010).
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Front for Democratic Change (Front uni pour le changement; FUC) was a Chadian rebel alliance, made up of eight individual rebel groups, all with the goals of overthrowing the government of Chadian president Idriss Déby.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is a United Nations (UN) body formed in December 1991 by General Assembly Resolution 46/182.
The United Nations University Press was the publishing division of the United Nations University in Tokyo.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.
The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth.
The United States Department of Labor (DOL) is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, reemployment services, and some economic statistics; many U.S. states also have such departments.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of N'Djamena (جامعة انجامينا, Université de N'Djamena, UNDT) is the leading institution of higher education in Chad.
The University of Nebraska Press, also known as UNP, was founded in 1941 and is an academic publisher of scholarly and general-interest books.
Variety is a weekly American entertainment trade magazine and website owned by Penske Media Corporation.
The Wadai Empire or Sultanate (سلطنة وداي, royaume du Ouaddaï; 1635–1912) was a kingdom located to the east of Lake Chad in present-day Chad and in the Central African Republic.
The War in Darfur is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan, that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population.
West Africa Time, or WAT, is a time zone used in west-central Africa; with countries west of Benin instead using Greenwich Mean Time (GMT; equivalent to UTC with no offset).
The West African crocodile or desert crocodile (Crocodylus suchus) is a species of crocodile related to – and often confused with – the larger and more aggressive Nile crocodile (C. niloticus).
The monsoon season, is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Zaghawa people, also called Beri or Zakhawa, are a Central African Muslim ethnic group of eastern Chad and western Sudan, including Darfur.
Zain (زين) is a mobile telecommunications company founded in 1983 in Kuwait as MTC (Mobile Telecommunications Company), and later rebranded as Zain in 2007.
Zakouma National Park is a national park in southeastern Chad's Salamat Region.
Zed Books is an independent non-fiction publishing company based in London, UK.
.td is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Chad (Tchad) made available for use in 1997.
The meridian 13° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The Chadian coup of 1975 was in considerable part generated by the growing distrust of the President of Chad, François Tombalbaye, for the army.
The 63rd Cannes Film Festival was held from 12 to 23 May 2010, in Cannes, France.
A large-scale, drought-induced famine occurred in Africa's Sahel region and many parts of the neighboring Sénégal River Area from February to August 2010.
The meridian 24° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 24th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 24 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 63rd annual Venice International Film Festival, held in Venice, Italy, was opened on 30 August 2006 with Brian De Palma's The Black Dahlia and was closed on 9 September 2006.
The 7th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 7 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
Art of Chad, Chad (country), Chade, Chadian Republic, Corruption in Chad, Culture of Chad, Gumhuriyyat Tšad, ISO 3166-1:TD, Jumhūriyyat Tshād, Jumhūrīyat Tshād, Republic of Chad, Republique du Tchad, République du Tchad, Tchad, The Chad, Tschad, Tshād, Tšād, Ǧumhūriyyat Tšād, تشاد, جمهورية تشاد.