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Chaff (countermeasure)

Index Chaff (countermeasure)

Chaff, originally called Window by the British and Düppel by the Second World War era German Luftwaffe (from the Berlin suburb where it was first developed), is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallized glass fibre or plastic, which either appears as a cluster of primary targets on radar screens or swamps the screen with multiple returns. [1]

73 relations: Air brake (aeronautics), Air raid on Bari, Airborne leaflet propaganda, Albert Rowe (physicist), Aluminium, Aluminium foil, Anti-Aircraft Command, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-ballistic missile, Battle of Iwo Jima, Bombing of Hamburg in World War II, British Aerospace Sea Harrier, Countermeasure, Düppel (Berlin), Electric charge, Electronic countermeasure, Empire of Japan, Essen, Falklands War, Flare (countermeasure), Fred Lawrence Whipple, Frederick Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell, Germany, H2S (radar), Hajo Herrmann, Hamburg, Harvard University, Infrared countermeasure, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Jagdgeschwader 300, Joan Curran, Kamikaze, Kammhuber Line, Lichtenstein radar, List of World War II electronic warfare equipment, London, Luftwaffe, Mark 36 SRBOC, Metallised film, Missile, Navy Distinguished Civilian Service Award, Naxos radar detector, Nazi Germany, Night fighter, No. 76 Squadron RAF, Operation Biting, Operation Steinbock, Pacific War, Penetration aid, Radar, ..., Radio jamming, RAF Bomber Command, RAF Fighter Command, Reginald Victor Jones, Robert Watson-Watt, Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, Searchlight, Sir Arthur Harris, 1st Baronet, Solomon Islands (archipelago), Split pin, Telecommunications Research Establishment, The Blitz, Thousand-bomber raids, Tizard Mission, United Kingdom, United States, United States Army Air Forces, W. Heath Robinson, Würzburg radar, Welding, Wilde Sau, World War II. Expand index (23 more) »

Air brake (aeronautics)

In aeronautics, air brakes or speed brakes are a type of flight control surfaces used on an aircraft to increase drag or increase the angle of approach during landing.

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Air raid on Bari

The air raid on Bari was an air attack by German bombers on Allied forces and shipping in Bari, Italy on 2 December 1943 during World War II.

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Airborne leaflet propaganda

Airborne leaflet propaganda is a form of psychological warfare in which leaflets (flyers) are scattered in the air.

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Albert Rowe (physicist)

Albert Percival Rowe, CBE (23 March 1898 – 25 May 1976), often known as Jimmy Rowe or A. P. Rowe, was a radar pioneer and university vice-chancellor.

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Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Aluminium foil

Aluminium foil (or aluminum foil), often referred to with the misnomer tin foil, is aluminium prepared in thin metal leaves with a thickness less than; thinner gauges down to are also commonly used.

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Anti-Aircraft Command

Anti-Aircraft Command (AA Command, or "Ack-Ack Command") was a British Army command of the Second World War that controlled the Territorial Army anti-aircraft artillery and searchlight formations and units defending the United Kingdom.

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Anti-aircraft warfare

Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).

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Anti-ballistic missile

An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a surface-to-air missile designed to counter ballistic missiles (see missile defense).

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Battle of Iwo Jima

The Battle of Iwo Jima (19 February – 26 March 1945) was a major battle in which the United States Marine Corps landed on and eventually captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) during World War II.

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Bombing of Hamburg in World War II

The allied bombing of Hamburg during World War II included numerous attacks on civilians.

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British Aerospace Sea Harrier

The British Aerospace Sea Harrier is a naval short take-off and vertical landing/vertical take-off and landing jet fighter, reconnaissance and attack aircraft; the second member of the Harrier Jump Jet family developed.

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A countermeasure is a measure or action taken to counter or offset another one.

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Düppel (Berlin)

Düppel (after Dybbøl, South Jutland, Denmark) is the name of a neighbourhood as well as of an adjacent forest in the borough of Steglitz-Zehlendorf in southwestern Berlin, Germany.

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Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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Electronic countermeasure

An electronic countermeasure (ECM) is an electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like infrared (IR) or lasers.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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Essen (Latin: Assindia) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Falklands War

The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South Atlantic Conflict, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, and its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

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Flare (countermeasure)

A flare or decoy flare is an aerial infrared countermeasure used by a plane or helicopter to counter an infrared homing ("heat-seeking") surface-to-air missile or air-to-air missile.

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Fred Lawrence Whipple

Fred Lawrence Whipple (November 5, 1906 – August 30, 2004) was an American astronomer, who worked at the Harvard College Observatory for over 70 years.

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Frederick Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell

Frederick Alexander Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell, (5 April 18863 July 1957) was a British physicist and an influential scientific adviser to the British government from the early 1940s to the early 1950s, particularly to Winston Churchill.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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H2S (radar)

H2S was the first airborne, ground scanning radar system.

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Hajo Herrmann

Hans-Joachim "Hajo" Herrmann (1 August 1913 – 5 November 2010) was a German lawyer whose high-profile cases included the defense of neo-Nazis and genocide deniers.

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Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Infrared countermeasure

An infrared countermeasure (IRCM) is a device designed to protect aircraft from infrared homing ("heat seeking") missiles by confusing the missiles' infrared guidance system so that they miss their target (electronic countermeasure).

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Intercontinental ballistic missile

An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).

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Jagdgeschwader 300

Jagdgeschwader 300 (JG 300) was a Luftwaffe fighter-wing of World War II.

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Joan Curran

Joan Elizabeth Curran (26 February 1916 – 10 February 1999) was a Welsh scientist who played important roles in the development of radar and the atomic bomb during the Second World War.

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, officially, were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviators who initiated suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more effectively than possible with conventional air attacks.

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Kammhuber Line

The Kammhuber Line was the Allied name given to the German night air defense system established in July 1940 by Colonel Josef Kammhuber.

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Lichtenstein radar

The Lichtenstein radar was among the earliest airborne radars available to the Luftwaffe in World War II and the first one used exclusively for air interception.

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List of World War II electronic warfare equipment

This is a List of World War II electronic warfare equipment and code words and tactics derived directly from the use of electronic equipment.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.

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Mark 36 SRBOC

The BAE Systems Mark 36 Super Rapid Bloom Offboard Countermeasures Chaff and Decoy Launching System (abbreviated as SRBOC or "Super-arboc") is a short-range mortar that launches chaff or infrared decoys from naval vessels to foil anti-ship missiles.

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Metallised film

Metallised films (or metalized films) are polymer films coated with a thin layer of metal, usually aluminium.

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In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).

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Navy Distinguished Civilian Service Award

The Navy Distinguished Civilian Service Award is the highest honorary award the Secretary of the Navy can confer on a Department of the Navy civilian employee.

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Naxos radar detector

The Naxos radar warning receiver was a World War II German countermeasure to X band microwave radar produced by a cavity magnetron.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Night fighter

A night fighter (also known as all-weather fighter or all-weather interceptor for a period of time post-World War II) is a fighter aircraft adapted for use at night or in other times of bad visibility.

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No. 76 Squadron RAF


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Operation Biting

Operation Biting, also known as the Bruneval Raid, was the code name given to a British Combined Operations raid on a German coastal radar installation at Bruneval in northern France, which took place on the night of 27–28 February 1942 during World War II.

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Operation Steinbock

Baby Blitz or Operation Steinbock (Unternehmen Steinbock) was a strategic bombing campaign by the German air force (the Luftwaffe) during the Second World War.

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Pacific War

The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.

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Penetration aid

A penetration aid (or "penaid") is a device or tactic used to increase an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) warhead's chances of penetrating a target's defenses.

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Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

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Radio jamming

Radio jamming is the deliberate jamming, blocking or interference with authorized wireless communications.

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RAF Bomber Command

RAF Bomber Command controlled the RAF's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968.

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RAF Fighter Command

RAF Fighter Command was one of the commands of the Royal Air Force.

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Reginald Victor Jones

Reginald Victor Jones, FRSE, LLD (29 September 1911 – 17 December 1997) was a British physicist and scientific military intelligence expert who played an important role in the defence of Britain in.

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Robert Watson-Watt

Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt, KCB, FRS, FRAeS (13 April 1892 – 5 December 1973) was a Scottish pioneer of radio direction finding and radar technology.

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Royal Air Force

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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A searchlight (or spotlight) is an apparatus that combines an extremely luminous source (traditionally a carbon arc lamp) with a mirrored parabolic reflector to project a powerful beam of light of approximately parallel rays in a particular direction, usually constructed so that it can be swiveled about.

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Sir Arthur Harris, 1st Baronet

Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur Travers Harris, 1st Baronet, (13 April 1892 – 5 April 1984), commonly known as "Bomber" Harris by the press and often within the RAF as "Butcher" Harris, was Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief (AOC-in-C) RAF Bomber Command during the height of the Anglo-American strategic bombing campaign against Nazi Germany in the Second World War.

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Solomon Islands (archipelago)

The Solomon Islands are an archipelago in the western South Pacific Ocean, located northeast of Australia.

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Split pin

A split pin, also known in the United States as a cotter pin or cotter key, is a metal fastener with two tines that are bent during installation, similar to a staple or rivet.

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Telecommunications Research Establishment

The Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE) was the main United Kingdom research and development organization for radio navigation, radar, infra-red detection for heat seeking missiles, and related work for the Royal Air Force (RAF) during World War II and the years that followed.

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The Blitz

The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.

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Thousand-bomber raids

The term "thousand-bomber raid" was used to describe three night bombing raids by the Royal Air Force against German cities in summer 1942 during World War II.

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Tizard Mission

The Tizard Mission, officially the British Technical and Scientific Mission, was a British delegation that visited the United States during the Second World War in order to obtain the industrial resources to exploit the military potential of the research and development (R&D) work completed by the UK up to the beginning of World War II, but that Britain itself could not exploit due to the immediate requirements of war-related production.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Army Air Forces

The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.

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W. Heath Robinson

William Heath Robinson (31 May 1872 – 13 September 1944) was an English cartoonist and illustrator best known for drawings of ridiculously complicated machines for achieving simple objectives.

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Würzburg radar

The low-UHF band Würzburg radar was the primary ground-based gun laying radar for the Luftwaffe and the Wehrmacht Heer (German Army) during World War II.

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Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.

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Wilde Sau

Wilde Sau (German for wild boar) was the term given by the Luftwaffe to the tactic used from 1943 to 1944 during World War II by which British night bombers were engaged by single-seat day-fighter aircraft flying in the Defence of the Reich.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Redirects here:

Chaff (radar countermeasure), Düppel (countermeasure), Radar chaff, Window (codename), Window (radar countermeasure).


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaff_(countermeasure)

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