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Index Chalk

Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. [1]

90 relations: Abrasive, Acid, Agriculture, Antacid, Ashlar, Base (chemistry), Bed (geology), Bell pit, Blackboard, Brick, Building Research Establishment, Calcite, Calcium carbonate, Calcium hydroxide, Calcium oxide, Calcium sulfate, Cap Blanc-Nez, Carbonate rock, Chalk carving, Chalk Group, Chalk line, Chalk mining, Champagne (wine region), Chert, Cissbury Ring, Clay, Clay minerals, Cliff, Clunch, Coccolith, Coccolithophore, Cretaceous, Denehole, Denmark, Developing country, Diagenesis, Downland, Driveway, Escarpment, Europe, Fingerprint powder, Flint, Fossil, Germany, Grime's Graves, Groundwater, Gypsum, Hill, Hill figure, Industrial Revolution, ..., Isle of Wight, Jasmund National Park, Kent, Limestone, Linseed oil, List of types of limestone, Magnesium carbonate, Møns Klint, Mineral, Nodule (geology), Norfolk, Pastel, Petrifaction, PH, Putty, Quenching, Sanguine, Sea urchin, Sedimentary rock, Sidewalk, Sidewalk chalk, Silicon dioxide, Silt, Southern England Chalk Formation, Sponge spicule, Stone tool, Storage of wine, Strait of Dover, Tailor, Talc, The Needles, Thermal decomposition, Titanium dioxide, Tug of war, Underground mining (hard rock), Victorian architecture, Wattle and daub, Weathering, White Cliffs of Dover, Woodworking joints. Expand index (40 more) »


An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away by friction.

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An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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An antacid is a substance which neutralizes stomach acidity and is used to relieve heartburn, indigestion or an upset stomach.

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Ashlar is finely dressed (cut, worked) stone, either an individual stone that has been worked until squared or the structure built of it.

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Base (chemistry)

In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.

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Bed (geology)

Salto del Fraile Formation, Peru. Beds are the layers of sedimentary rocks that are distinctly different from overlying and underlying subsequent beds of different sedimentary rocks.

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Bell pit

A bell pit is a primitive method of mining coal, iron ore or other minerals where the coal or ore lies near the surface.

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A blackboard (also known as a chalkboard) is a reusable writing surface on which text or drawings are made with sticks of calcium sulfate or calcium carbonate, known, when used for this purpose, as chalk.

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A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction.

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Building Research Establishment

Building Research Establishment (BRE) is a centre of building science in the United Kingdom, owned by charitable organisation the BRE Trust.

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Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Calcium hydroxide

Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.

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Calcium oxide

Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.

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Calcium sulfate

Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates.

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Cap Blanc-Nez

Cap Blanc-Nez (literally "Cape White Nose" in English; from Dutch Blankenesse, white headland) is a cape on the Côte d'Opale, in the Pas-de-Calais département, in northern France.

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Carbonate rock

Carbonate rocks are a class of sedimentary rocks composed primarily of carbonate minerals.

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Chalk carving

Chalk carving is essentially carving in chalk.

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Chalk Group

The Chalk Group (often just called the Chalk) is the lithostratigraphic unit (a certain number of rock strata) which contains the late Cretaceous limestone succession in southern and eastern England.

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Chalk line

A chalk line or chalk box is a tool for marking long, straight lines on relatively flat surfaces, much farther than is practical by hand or with a straightedge.

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Chalk mining

Chalk mining is the extraction of chalk from underground and above ground deposits by mining.

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Champagne (wine region)

The Champagne wine region (archaic Champany) is a wine region within the historical province of Champagne in the northeast of France.

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Chert is a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed of microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline silica, the mineral form of silicon dioxide (SiO2).

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Cissbury Ring

Cissbury Ring is a hill fort on the South Downs, in the borough of Worthing, England, and about from its town centre, in the county of West Sussex.

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Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.

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Clay minerals

Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces.

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In geography and geology, a cliff is a vertical, or nearly vertical, rock exposure.

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Clunch is a traditional building material of chalky limestone rock used mainly in eastern England and Normandy.

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Coccoliths are individual plates of calcium carbonate formed by coccolithophores (single-celled algae such as Emiliania huxleyi) which are arranged around them in a coccosphere.

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A coccolithophore (or coccolithophorid, from the adjective) is a unicellular, eukaryotic phytoplankton (alga).

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The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

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A denehole (alternatively dene hole or dene-hole) is an underground structure consisting of a number of small chalk caves entered by a vertical shaft.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Diagenesis is the change of sediments or existing sedimentary rocks into a different sedimentary rock during and after rock formation (lithification), at temperatures and pressures less than that required for the formation of metamorphic rocks.

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A downland is an area of open chalk hills.

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A driveway (also called drive in UK English) is a type of private road for local access to one or a small group of structures, and is owned and maintained by an individual or group.

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An escarpment is a steep slope or long cliff that forms as an effect of faulting or erosion and separates two relatively leveled areas having differing elevations.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Fingerprint powder

Fingerprint powders are fine powders used in dusting for fingerprints by crime scene investigators and others in law enforcement.

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Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Grime's Graves

Grime's Graves is a large Neolithic flint mining complex in Norfolk, England.

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Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

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Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.

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A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain.

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Hill figure

A hill figure is a large visual representation created by cutting into a steep hillside and revealing the underlying geology.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Isle of Wight

The Isle of Wight (also referred to informally as The Island or abbreviated to IOW) is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England.

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Jasmund National Park

The Jasmund National Park (German: Nationalpark Jasmund) is a nature reserve on the Jasmund peninsula, in the northeast of Rügen island in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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Linseed oil

Linseed oil, also known as flaxseed oil or flax oil, is a colourless to yellowish oil obtained from the dried, ripened seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum).

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List of types of limestone

This is a list of types of limestone arranged according to location.

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Magnesium carbonate

Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3 (archaic name magnesia alba), is an inorganic salt that is a white solid.

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Møns Klint

Møns Klint are a 6 km stretch of chalk cliffs along the eastern coast of the Danish island of Møn in the Baltic Sea.

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A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.

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Nodule (geology)

In sedimentology and geology, a nodule is small, irregularly rounded knot, mass, or lump of a mineral or mineral aggregate that typically has a contrasting composition, such as a pyrite nodule in coal, a chert nodule in limestone, or a phosphorite nodule in marine shale, from the enclosing sediment or sedimentary rock.

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Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England.

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A pastel is an art medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder.

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In geology, petrifaction or petrification is the process by which organic material becomes a fossil through the replacement of the original material and the filling of the original pore spaces with minerals.

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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Putty is a material with high plasticity, similar in texture to clay or dough, typically used in domestic construction and repair as a sealant or filler.

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In materials science, quenching is the rapid cooling of a workpiece in water, oil or air to obtain certain material properties.

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Sanguine or red chalk is chalk of a reddish-brown colour, so called because it resembles the colour of dried blood.

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Sea urchin

Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.

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Sedimentary rock

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.

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A sidewalk (American English) or pavement (British English), also known as a footpath or footway, is a path along the side of a road.

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Sidewalk chalk

Sidewalk chalk is typically large colored (and sometimes white or cream) sticks of chalk (calcium sulfate rather than rock chalk, calcium carbonate) mostly used for drawing on pavement or concrete sidewalks.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.

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Southern England Chalk Formation

The Chalk Formation of Southern England is a system of chalk downland in the south of England.

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Sponge spicule

Spicules are structural elements found in most sponges.

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Stone tool

A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.

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Storage of wine

Storage of wine is an important consideration for wine that is being kept for long-term aging.

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Strait of Dover

The Strait of Dover or Dover Strait, historically known as the Dover Narrows (pas de Calais - Strait of Calais); Nauw van Kales or Straat van Dover), is the strait at the narrowest part of the English Channel, marking the boundary between the Channel and North Sea, separating Great Britain from continental Europe. The shortest distance across the strait,, is from the South Foreland, northeast of Dover in the English county of Kent, to Cap Gris Nez, a cape near to Calais in the French département of Pas-de-Calais. Between these points lies the most popular route for cross-channel swimmers. The entire strait is within the territorial waters of France and the United Kingdom, but a right of transit passage under the UNCLOS exists allowing unrestricted shipping. On a clear day, it is possible to see the opposite coastline of England from France and vice versa with the naked eye, with the most famous and obvious sight being the white cliffs of Dover from the French coastline and shoreline buildings on both coastlines, as well as lights on either coastline at night, as in Matthew Arnold's poem "Dover Beach".

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A tailor is a person who makes, repairs, or alters clothing professionally, especially suits and men's clothing.

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Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.

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The Needles

The Needles is a row of three distinctive stacks of chalk that rise about 30m out of the sea off the western extremity of the Isle of Wight, United Kingdom, close to Alum Bay, and part of Totland, the westernmost Civil Parish of the Isle of Wight.

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Thermal decomposition

Thermal decomposition, or thermolysis, is a chemical decomposition caused by heat.

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Titanium dioxide

Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.

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Tug of war

Tug of war (also known as war of tug, tug o' war, tug war, rope war, rope pulling, tugging war or toutrek) is a sport that directly puts two teams against each other in a test of strength: teams pull on opposite ends of a rope, with the goal being to bring the rope a certain distance in one direction against the force of the opposing team's pull.

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Underground mining (hard rock)

Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals, usually those containing metals such as ore containing gold, silver, iron, copper, zinc, nickel, tin and lead, but also involves using the same techniques for excavating ores of gems such as diamonds.

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Victorian architecture

Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century.

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Wattle and daub

Wattle and daub is a composite building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw.

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Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.

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White Cliffs of Dover

The White Cliffs of Dover, part of the North Downs formation, is the name given to the region of English coastline facing the Strait of Dover and France.

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Woodworking joints

Joinery is a part of woodworking that involves joining together pieces of timber or lumber, to produce more complex items.

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Black chalk, Chalk (rock), Chalk pit, Chalk rock, Tailor's chalk.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chalk

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