121 relations: Aceh, Aceh Sultanate, Acehnese language, Acehnese people, Agarwood, Aloe, Angkor, Aquilaria crassna, Arabs, Art of Champa, Attapeu Province, Austronesian languages, Avalokiteśvara, Đại Việt, Đà Rằng River, Bali Kingdom, Bali–Sasak–Sumbawa languages, Balinese people, Banu (Arabic), Bình Định Province, Bình Thuận Province, Bhadravarman I, Borneo, Brahma, Buddhism, Cambodia, Central Highlands, Vietnam, Cham language, Cham–Annamese War, Chamic languages, Champa, Chams, Chàm Islands, Da Nang, East Java, Folk religion, Funan, Greater India, Guimet Museum, Han dynasty, Hanoi, Hội An, Hindu, Hinduism, Historiography, History of Vietnam, India, Indian people, Indonesia, Indra, ..., Indrapura (Champa), Islam, Java, Jia Dan, Kampong Cham Province, Khánh Hòa Province, Khmer Empire, Khmer language, Kiến Giang River, Kingdom of Champasak, Kunlun Mountains, Lady Po Nagar, Laos, Lâm Ấp, Lý Sơn District, Lingam, List of islands of Indonesia, Mahayana, Mainland Southeast Asia, Majapahit, Malay Archipelago, Malayic languages, Malayo-Polynesian languages, Marco Polo, Mỹ Sơn, Medang Kingdom, Middle Chinese, Minh Mạng, Mukhalinga, Museum of Cham Sculpture, Nguyễn dynasty, Nha Trang, Ninh Thuận Province, Persian Gulf, Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm, Phú Yên Province, Po Klong Garai Temple, Po Nagar, Quảng Bình Province, Quảng Nam Province, Quảng Ngãi Province, Quảng Trị Province, Qui Nhơn, Revetment, Sa Huỳnh culture, Sanskrit, Saraswati, Shaivism, Shiva, Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary, South China, South China Sea, Spice trade, Srivijaya, Stele, Sumatra, Sunni Islam, Thalassocracy, Thị Nại Port, Thừa Thiên-Huế Province, Thu Bồn River, Trà Kiệu, Trimurti, Trowulan, University of California Press, Vietnam, Vietnamese language, Vijaya (Champa), Vishnu, World Heritage site, Zabag kingdom. Expand index (71 more) » « Shrink index
Aceh; (Acehnese: Acèh; Jawoë:; Dutch: Atjeh or Aceh) is a province of Indonesia.
The Sultanate of Aceh, officially the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam (Keurajeuën Acèh Darussalam; Jawoë: كاورجاون اچيه دارالسلام), was a Sultanate centered in the modern-day Indonesian province of Aceh.
Acehnese language (Achinese) is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by Acehnese people natively in Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia.
The Acehnese (also written as Atjehnese and Achinese) are an ethnic group from Aceh, Indonesia on the northernmost tip of the island of Sumatra.
Agarwood, aloeswood or gharuwood is a fragrant dark resinous wood used in incense, perfume, and small carvings.
Aloe, also written Aloë, is a genus containing over 500 species of flowering succulent plants.
Angkor (អង្គរ, "Capital City")Headly, Robert K.; Chhor, Kylin; Lim, Lam Kheng; Kheang, Lim Hak; Chun, Chen.
Aquilaria crassna is a species of plant in the Thymelaeaceae family.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Champa was an Indic civilization that flourished along the coasts of what is now central and southern Vietnam for roughly a one thousand-year period between 500 and 1500 AD.
Attapeu is a province of Laos, located in the south-east of the country.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
Avalokiteśvara (अवलोकितेश्वर) is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas.
Đại Việt (literally Great Viet) is the name of Vietnam for the periods from 1054 to 1400 and 1428 to 1804.
Đà Rằng (Sông Đà Rằng, upper parts of the river known as Ba River, Ea Pa, Ia Pa) is a river in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam.
The Kingdom of Bali was a series of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms that once ruled some parts of the volcanic island of Bali, in Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia.
The Bali–Sasak–Sumbawa languages are a group of closely related languages spoken in the western Lesser Sunda Islands (Bali and West Nusa Tenggara).
The Balinese (Indonesian: Suku Bali) are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Bali.
Bani (بنو) is Arabic for "the children of" or "descendants of" and appears before the name of a tribal progenitor.
Bình Định is a province of Vietnam.
Bình Thuận is a province of Vietnam.
Bhadravarman or Phạm Hồ Đạt (Sanskrit Bhadravarman, literally "Blessed armour" but also meaning the Jasminum sambac flower) was the king of Champa from 380 to 413.
Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.
Brahma (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मा, IAST: Brahmā) is a creator god in Hinduism.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Tây Nguyên, translated as Western Highlands and sometimes also called Central Highlands, is one of the regions of Vietnam.
Cham is the language of the Cham people of Southeast Asia, and formerly the language of the kingdom of Champa in central Vietnam.
The Cham-Đại Việt War of 1471 began when Emperor Lê Thánh Tông of Đại Việt launched a military expedition that is widely regarded as an event that marked the downfall of Champa. The Đại Việt forces attacked and sacked the kingdom's capital Vijaya, and decimated the Cham army. As a result of the conflict, Champa was forced to cede territory to Annam and ceased to pose a threat to Annamese territory since then.
The Chamic languages, also known as Aceh–Chamic and Achinese–Chamic, are a group of ten languages spoken in Aceh (Sumatra, Indonesia) and in parts of Cambodia, Vietnam and Hainan, China.
Champa (Chăm Pa) was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832.
The Chams, or Cham people (Cham: Urang Campa, người Chăm or người Chàm, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia.
The Cham Islands (Cù lao Chàm) constitute a group of 8 small islands of Quảng Nam, which form a part of the Cu Lao Cham Marine Park, a world Biosphere Reserve recognized by UNESCO, in the South East Asia Sea in Vietnam.
Da Nang (Đà Nẵng) is the fourth largest city in Vietnam after Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Hanoi and Haiphong in terms of urbanization and economy.
East Java (Jawa Timur, abbreviated as Jatim, Jåwå Wétan) is a province of Indonesia.
In religious studies and folkloristics, folk religion, popular religion, or vernacular religion comprises various forms and expressions of religion that are distinct from the official doctrines and practices of organized religion.
Funan, (ហ្វូណន - Fonon), (Phù Nam) or Nokor Phnom (នគរភ្នំ) was the name given by Chinese cartographers, geographers and writers to an ancient Indianised state—or, rather a loose network of states (Mandala)—located in mainland Southeast Asia centered on the Mekong Delta that existed from the first to sixth century CE.
The term Greater India is most commonly used to encompass the historical and geographic extent of all political entities of the Indian subcontinent, and the regions which are culturally linked to India or received significant Indian cultural influence.
The Guimet Museum (Musée national des arts asiatiques or Musée Guimet) is an art museum located at 6, place d'Iéna in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, France.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
Hội An, formerly known as Fai-Fo or Faifoo, is a city with a population of approximately 120,000 in Vietnam's Quảng Nam Province and noted since 1999 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
Vietnam's recorded history stretches back to the mid-to-late 3rd century BCE, when Âu Lạc and Nanyue (Nam Việt in Vietnamese) were established (Nanyue conquered Âu Lạc in 179 BCE).
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
(Sanskrit: इन्द्र), also known as Devendra, is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.
Indrapura was the capital city of the ancient kingdom of Champa from 875 CE, for several decades,Maspero, G., 2002, The Champa Kingdom, Bangkok: White Lotus Co., Ltd., under the reign of Indravarman II and some of his followers belonging to the 6th dynasty in Dong Duong.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Jia Dan (730 – October 27, 805Hsu (1988), 96.http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype.
Kampong Cham (ខេត្តកំពង់ចាម,, "Port of the Chams") is a province (khaet) of Cambodia located on the central lowlands of the Mekong River.
Khánh Hòa is a province of Vietnam located in the South Central Coast.
The Khmer Empire (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ: Anachak Khmer), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia ("Kampuchea" or "Srok Khmer" to the Khmer people), was a powerful Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
The Kiến Giang River (Sông Kiến Giang) is a river in Lệ Thủy District, Quảng Bình Province, North Central Coast, Vietnam.
The Kingdom of Champasak (Lao: ຈຳປາສັກ) or Bassac, (1713–1946) was a Lao kingdom under Nokasad, a grandson of King Sourigna Vongsa, the last king of Lan Xang; and son-in-law of the Cambodian King Chey Chettha IV.
The Kunlun Mountains (Хөндлөн Уулс, Khöndlön Uuls) are one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than.
Lady Po Nagar/Yan Po Nagar, or Leiou Ye, was the founder of the Cham people according to legends.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Lâm Ấp (Vietnamese pronunciation of Chinese characters 林邑, Linyi) was a kingdom from c. 200 to 750 AD in what is today central Vietnam.
Lý Sơn, previously known as Cù Lao Ré, is a district in Quảng Ngãi Province, off the South Central Coast of Vietnam.
Lingam (Sanskrit: लिंगम्,, lit. "sign, symbol or mark"; also linga, Shiva linga), is an abstract or aniconic representation of the Hindu deity Shiva, used for worship in temples, smaller shrines, or as self-manifested natural objects.
The islands of Indonesia, also known as the Indonesian archipelago and formerly known as the Indian archipelago, may refer either to the islands comprising the nation-state of Indonesia or to the geographical groups which include its islands.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Mainland Southeast Asia, also known as the Indochinese Peninsula and previously as Indochina, is the continental portion of Southeast Asia east of India and south of China that is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east.
The Majapahit Empire (Javanese: ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ Karaton Majapahit, Kerajaan Majapahit) was a thalassocracy in Southeast Asia, based on the island of Java (part of modern-day Indonesia), that existed from 1293 to circa 1500.
The Malay Archipelago (Malaysian & Indonesian: Kepulauan Melayu/Nusantara, Tagalog: Kapuluang Malay, Visayan: Kapupud-ang Malay) is the archipelago between mainland Indochina and Australia.
The Malayic languages are a branch of the Austronesian family.
The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
Mỹ Sơn is a cluster of abandoned and partially ruined Hindu temples constructed between the 4th and the 14th century AD by the kings of Champa (Chiêm Thành in Vietnamese).
The Medang Empire or Mataram Kingdom was a Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries.
Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.
Minh Mạng (25 May 1791 – 20 January 1841; born Nguyễn Phúc Đảm (chữ Hán: 阮福膽), also known as Nguyễn Phúc Kiểu) was the second emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam, reigning from 14 February 1820 until his death, on 20 January 1841.
In Hindu iconography, Mukhalinga or Mukhalingam (literally "linga with a face") is a linga with one or more human faces.
The Museum of Cham Sculpture is a museum located in Hải Châu District, Đà Nẵng, central Vietnam, near the Han River.
The Nguyễn dynasty or House of Nguyễn (Nhà Nguyễn; Hán-Nôm:, Nguyễn triều) was the last ruling family of Vietnam.
Nha Trang is a coastal city and capital of Khánh Hòa Province, on the South Central Coast of Vietnam.
Ninh Thuận is a province in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam (sometimes seen as part of the Southeast region).
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm, also called Panduranga (a Sanskrit word of Hindu origin), is a new city in Vietnam and the capital of Ninh Thuận Province.
Phú Yên is a coastal province in the South Central Coast of Vietnam.
Po Klong Garai Temple is a Cham religious complex located in the Cham principality of Panduranga, in what is now Phan Rang in southern Vietnam.
Po Nagar is a Cham temple tower founded sometime before 781 C.E. and located in the medieval principality of Kauthara, near modern Nha Trang in Vietnam.
Quảng Bình, formerly Tiên Bình under the reign of Lê Trung Hưng of the Lê Dynasty (this province was renamed Quảng Bình in 1604), is a province along Vietnam's north-central coast.
Quảng Nam is a province in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam.
Quảng Ngãi is a province in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam, on the coast of East Sea.
Quảng Trị is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam, north of the former imperial capital of Huế.
Quy Nhơn is a coastal city in Bình Định Province in central Vietnam.
In stream restoration, river engineering or coastal engineering, revetments are sloping structures placed on banks or cliffs in such a way as to absorb the energy of incoming water.
The Sa Huỳnh culture or Sa Huyun was a culture in modern-day central and southern Vietnam that flourished between 1000 BC and 200 AD.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Saraswati (सरस्वती) is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, art, wisdom and learning worshipped throughout Nepal and India.
Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary (Từ Hán Việt, Chữ Nôm:, literally "Sino-Vietnamese words") are words and morphemes of the Vietnamese language borrowed from Chinese.
South China or Southern China is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China.
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around.
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese:, ศรีวิชัย, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i t) was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
A thalassocracy (from Classical Greek θάλασσα (thalassa), meaning "sea", and κρατεῖν (kratein), meaning "power", giving Koine Greek θαλασσοκρατία (thalassokratia), "sea power") is a state with primarily maritime realms, an empire at sea (such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities) or a seaborne empire.
Thị Nại Port (Cảng Thị Nại) is the second largest port in Bình Định Province, Vietnam.
Thừa Thiên-Huế is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam, approximately in the centre of the country.
The Thu Bồn River (Sông Thu Bồn) is a river in central Vietnam, located near Quảng Nam Province.
Trà Kiệu is a village in Duy Xuyên, Quảng Nam Province, Vietnam.
The Trimūrti (Sanskrit: त्रिमूर्ति, "three forms") is the trinity of supreme divinity in Hinduism in which the cosmic functions of creation, maintenance, and destruction are personified as a triad of deities, typically Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Shiva the destroyer, though individual denominations may vary from that particular line-up.
Trowulan is an archaeological site in Trowulan Subdistrict, Mojokerto Regency, in the Indonesian province of East Java.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
Vijaya was a city-state in the ancient kingdom of Champa in what is now the South Central Coast region of Vietnam.
Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Zabag (Chinese: Sanfotsi; Sanskrit: Javaka; Arabic: Zabaj) is thought to have been an ancient kingdom located south of China somewhere in Southeast Asia, between the Chenla Kingdom (now Cambodia) and Java.