316 relations: Abbey, Academy, Acre, Affair, Agarwood, Agriculture in China, Air conditioning, Alchemy, Alcohol intoxication, Alcoholic drink, Ale, Altair, Amnesty, An Lushan, An Lushan Rebellion, Ancient Chinese urban planning, Annual leave, Apricot, Aquila (constellation), Archive, Arena, Aromaticity, Assassination, Astronomy, Axis mundi, Baghdad, Balhae, Banpo, Barracks, Bay (architecture), Bazaar, Beer, Beijing, Bell tower, Big Dipper, Bodhisattva, Brewery, Brocade, Brothel, Buddhism, Burial, Calligraphy, Canal, Capital city, Cardinal direction, Carnival, Carriage, Cattle, Cemetery, Central Asia, ..., Cereal, Chancellor of the Tang dynasty, Changing room, Charcoal, Chengdu, Cherry, Chinese New Year, Chinese pagoda, Chrysanthemum, Chu (state), Church (building), City, City block, Classical Chinese, Cloister, Cockfight, Cold Food Festival, Commerce, Concubinage, Constantinople, Constellation, Contour line, Copper, Counties of the People's Republic of China, Coup d'état, Courtesan, Courtyard, Crossbow, Crown prince, Cuju, Currency, Daming Palace, Deep frying, Deposit insurance, Dong Zhuo, Donkey, Dragon boat, Dragon Boat Festival, Drink, Drum, Dwarfism, Dynasties in Chinese history, Easter, Elephant, Elixir, Emperor Gaozong of Tang, Emperor Gaozu of Han, Emperor Gaozu of Tang, Emperor Hui of Han, Emperor Ruizong of Tang, Emperor Wen of Sui, Emperor Wu of Han, Emperor Wu of Liu Song, Emperor Xuanzong of Tang, Emperor Yang of Sui, Emperor Zhaozong of Tang, Emperor Zhongzong of Tang, Encyclopedia of China, Epidemic, Exorcist, Factory, Fan (machine), Fermentation in food processing, Floruit, Folklore, Football, Former Qin, Former Zhao, Fruit tree, Fu (country subdivision), Full moon, Funeral, Gansu, Gao Lishi, Gautama Buddha, Gauze, Geisha, George Modelski, Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Gold, Grave, Gyeongju, Hami, Han dynasty, Han Jian (Zhenguo warlord), Handmaiden, Hare, Harvest, Haunted house, Hay, Hearse, Heaven, Heian-kyō, Heijō-kyō, Heir apparent, Henan, Herb, Historical capitals of China, History of China, History of Xi'an, Homosexuality, Homosexuality in China, Honey, Horse, Horse-drawn vehicle, Huang Chao, Hubei, Ice, Illusion, Imperial examination, Inflation, Ingredient, Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Iran, Ironmongery, Istanbul, Jade, Jiedushi, Jin dynasty (265–420), Jingzhao, Kunming Lake, Kyoto, Lantern Festival, Lanzhou, Laozi, Later Qin, Law, List of cities in China, Liu Song dynasty, Locust, Looting, Lulin, Luoyang, Lustration, Lyra, Magic (illusion), Mansion, Manufacturing, Marketplace, Mathematics, Mayor, Meal, Medicine, Metropolitan area, Mid-Autumn Festival, Military education and training, Ming dynasty, Mint (facility), Monastery, Monk, Mortar and pestle, Mosque, Mulian Rescues His Mother, Music, Music Bureau, Music of China, Musical instrument, Nara, Nara, Neolithic, Nestorianism, New Book of Tang, New Year's levee, Northern Wei, Northern Zhou, Oar, Orchard, Orchis, Outhouse, Ox, Parade, Pastry, Pavilion, Pear Garden, Peony, Persian people, Physiognomy, Picnic, Pilgrim, Pint, Plaza, Polo, Polychrome, Post office, Postgraduate education, Prince, Princess, Princess Taiping, Prison, Prison warden, Prostitution, Public bathing, Purgatory, Qin dynasty, Qin Shi Huang, Qingming Festival, Qu Yuan, Quarantine, Refrigeration, Rhinoceros, Ridge, Riot, Security guard, Shangjing Longquanfu, Shanxi, Shi Siming, Sichuan, Silk, Silk Road, Silk Road transmission of Buddhism, Silla, Silver, Slavery, Small Wild Goose Pagoda, Stable, Street or road name, Sui dynasty, Suicide, Supreme court, Swing (seat), Synagogue, Tang dynasty, Taoism, Tavern, Tea, Terracotta Army, Theft, Tibetan Empire, Tiger, Trade, Traditional Chinese holidays, Treason, Treasury, Tug of war, Turkic peoples, University of Washington, Uyghur Khaganate, Uyghurs, Vega, Vendor, Veneration of the dead, Vineyard, Wang Mang, Ward (electoral subdivision), Warehouse, Water well, Wei River, Weiyang Palace, Western Wei, Western world, Wine, Wrestling, Wu Zetian, Xi'an, Xianyang, Xiao He, Ximing Temple, Xin dynasty, Xiongnu, Xuchang, Yang Guozhong, Yangshao culture, Yarkant County, Yining, Zhang Qian, Zhu Wen, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (266 more) » « Shrink index
An abbey is a complex of buildings used by members of a religious order under the governance of an abbot or abbess.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
The acre is a unit of land area used in the imperial and US customary systems.
An affair is a sexual relationship, romantic friendship, or passionate attachment between two people without the attached person's significant other knowing.
Agarwood, aloeswood or gharuwood is a fragrant dark resinous wood used in incense, perfume, and small carvings.
Agriculture is a vital industry in China, employing over 300 million farmers.
Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Ale is a type of beer brewed using a warm fermentation method, resulting in a sweet, full-bodied and fruity taste.
Altair, also designated Alpha Aquilae (α Aquilae, abbreviated Alpha Aql, α Aql), is the brightest star in the constellation of Aquila and the twelfth brightest star in the night sky.
Amnesty (from the Greek ἀμνηστία amnestia, "forgetfulness, passing over") is defined as: "A pardon extended by the government to a group or class of people, usually for a political offense; the act of a sovereign power officially forgiving certain classes of people who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted." It includes more than pardon, inasmuch as it obliterates all legal remembrance of the offense.
An Lushan (703 – 29 January 757) was a general in the Tang dynasty and is primarily known for instigating the An Lushan Rebellion.
The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China.
Ancient Chinese encompasses the diverse set of cultural beliefs, social and economic structures, and technological capacities that historically influenced urban design in the early period of Chinese civilization.
Annual leave is paid time off work granted by employers to employees to be used for whatever the employee wishes.
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
Aquila is a constellation on the celestial equator.
An archive is an accumulation of historical records or the physical place they are located.
An arena, is a covered or not covered enclosed area, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theater, musical performances, or sporting events.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Assassination is the killing of a prominent person, either for political or religious reasons or for payment.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
The axis mundi (also cosmic axis, world axis, world pillar, center of the world, world tree), in certain beliefs and philosophies, is the world center, or the connection between Heaven and Earth.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Balhae (698–926), also known as Parhae or Bohai was a multi-ethnic kingdom in Manchuria and the Korean peninsula.
Banpo (Bànpō) is an archaeological site discovered in 1953 and located in the Yellow River Valley just east of Xi'an, China.
A barrack or barracks is a building or group of buildings built to house soldiers.
In architecture, a bay is the space between architectural elements, or a recess or compartment.
A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none.
The Big Dipper (US) or the Plough (UK) is an asterism consisting of seven bright stars of the constellation Ursa Major; six of them are of second magnitude and one, Megrez (δ), of third magnitude.
In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.
A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer.
Brocade is a class of richly decorative shuttle-woven fabrics, often made in colored silks and with or without gold and silver threads.
A brothel or bordello is a place where people engage in sexual activity with prostitutes, who are sometimes referred to as sex workers.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Burial or interment is the ritual act of placing a dead person or animal, sometimes with objects, into the ground.
Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the clockwise direction of rotation from north and west being directly opposite east.
Carnival (see other spellings and names) is a Western Christian and Greek Orthodox festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent.
A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people, usually horse-drawn; litters (palanquins) and sedan chairs are excluded, since they are wheelless vehicles.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
A cemetery or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are buried or otherwise interred.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
The chancellor was a semi-formally designated office position for a number of high-level officials at one time during the Tang dynasty (this list includes chancellors of the reign of Wu Zetian, which she referred to as the "Zhou dynasty" (周), rather than "Tang" (唐)).
A changing room, locker room, dressing room (usually in a sports, theater or staff context) or changeroom (regional use) is a room or area designated for changing one's clothes.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).
Chinese New Year, usually known as the Spring Festival in modern China, is an important Chinese festival celebrated at the turn of the traditional lunisolar Chinese calendar.
Chinese pagodas are a traditional part of Chinese architecture.
Chrysanthemums, sometimes called mums or chrysanths, are flowering plants of the genus Chrysanthemum in the family Asteraceae.
Chu (Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state.
A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.
A city is a large human settlement.
A city block, urban block or simply block is a central element of urban planning and urban design.
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.
A cloister (from Latin claustrum, "enclosure") is a covered walk, open gallery, or open arcade running along the walls of buildings and forming a quadrangle or garth.
A cockfight is a blood sport between two cocks, or gamecocks, held in a ring called a cockpit.
The Cold Food or Hanshi Festival is a traditional Chinese holiday which developed from the local commemoration of the death of the Jin nobleman Jie Zhitui in the 7thcentury under the Zhou into an East Asian occasion for the commemoration and veneration of ancestors by the 7th-century Tang.
Commerce relates to "the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.” Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally.
Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.
A contour line (also isocline, isopleth, isarithm, or equipotential curve) of a function of two variables is a curve along which the function has a constant value, so that the curve joins points of equal value.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Counties, formally county-level divisions, are found in the third level of the administrative hierarchy in Provinces and Autonomous regions, and the second level in municipalities and Hainan, a level that is known as "county level" and also contains autonomous counties, county-level cities, banners, autonomous banner, and City districts.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
A courtesan was originally a courtier, which means a person who attends the court of a monarch or other powerful person.
A courtyard or court is a circumscribed area, often surrounded by a building or complex, that is open to the sky.
A crossbow is a type of ranged weapon based on the bow and consisting of a horizontal bow-like assembly mounted on a frame which is handheld in a similar fashion to the stock of a gun.
A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy.
Cuju, or Ts'u Chu is an ancient Chinese football game, also played in Korea, Japan and Vietnam.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
The Daming Palace was the imperial palace complex of the Tang dynasty, located in its capital Chang'an.
Deep frying (also referred to as deep fat frying) is a cooking method in which food is submerged in hot fat, most commonly oil, rather than the shallow oil used in conventional frying, done in a frying pan.
Explicit deposit insurance is a measure implemented in many countries to protect bank depositors, in full or in part, from losses caused by a bank's inability to pay its debts when due.
Dong Zhuo (died 22 May 192), courtesy name Zhongying, was a military general and warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.
The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.
A dragon boat is a human-powered watercraft.
The Duanwu Festival, also often known as the Dragon Boat Festival, is a traditional holiday originating in China, occurring near the summer solstice.
A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption.
The drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments.
Dwarfism, also known as short stature, occurs when an organism is extremely small.
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
An elixir (from Arabic: إكسير Iksīr; from Greek ξήριον xērion "powder for drying wounds" from ξηρός xēros "dry") is a clear, sweet-flavored liquid used for medicinal purposes, to be taken orally and intended to cure one's illness.
Emperor Gaozong of Tang (21 July 628 – 27 December 683), personal name Li Zhi, was the third emperor of the Tang dynasty in China, ruling from 649 to 683 (although after January 665 much of the governance was in the hands of his second wife Empress Wu, later known as Wu Zetian).
Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 BC – 1 June 195 BC), born Liu Bang (刘邦), was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning from 202 – 195 BC.
Emperor Gaozu of Tang (8 April 566 – 25 June 635), born Li Yuan, courtesy name Shude, was the founder of the Tang Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 618 to 626.
Emperor Hui of Han (210 BC – 26 September 188 BC) was the second emperor of the Han Dynasty in China.
Emperor Ruizong of Tang (22 June 662 – 13 July 716), personal name Li Dan, also known at times during his life as Li Xulun, Li Lun, Wu Lun, and Wu Dan, was the fifth and ninth emperor of Tang Dynasty.
Emperor Wen of Sui (隋文帝; 21 July 541 – 13 August 604), personal name Yang Jian (楊堅), Xianbei name Puliuru Jian (普六茹堅), nickname Nryana, was the founder and first emperor of China's Sui Dynasty (581–618 AD).
Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.
Emperor Wu of (Liu) Song ((劉)宋武帝; 363–422), personal name Liu Yu (劉裕), courtesy name Dexing (德興), nickname Jinu (寄奴), was the founding emperor of the Chinese dynasty Liu Song.
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (8 September 685 – 3 May 762), also commonly known as Emperor Ming of Tang or Illustrious August, personal name Li Longji, also known as Wu Longji from 690 to 705, was the seventh emperor of the Tang dynasty in China, reigning from 713 to 756 C.E. His reign of 43 years was the longest during the Tang dynasty.
Emperor Yang of Sui (隋煬帝, 569 – 11 April 618), personal name Yang Guang (楊廣), alternative name Ying (英), nickname Amo (阿摩), Sui Yang Di or Yang Di (隋炀帝) known as Emperor Ming (明帝) during the brief reign of his grandson Yang Tong), was the second son of Emperor Wen of Sui, and the second emperor of China's Sui dynasty. Emperor Yang's original name was Yang Ying, but was renamed by his father, after consulting with oracles, to Yang Guang. Yang Guang was made the Prince of Jin after Emperor Wen established Sui Dynasty in 581. In 588, he was granted command of the five armies that invaded the southern Chen dynasty and was widely praised for the success of this campaign. These military achievements, as well as his machinations against his older brother Yang Yong, led to him becoming crown prince in 600. After the death of his father in 604, generally considered, though unproven, by most traditional historians to be a murder ordered by Yang Guang, he ascended the throne as Emperor Yang. Emperor Yang, ruling from 604 to 618, committed to several large construction projects, most notably the completion of the Grand Canal. He commanded the reconstruction of the Great Wall, a project which took the lives of nearly six million workers. He also ordered several military expeditions that brought Sui to its greatest territorial extent, one of which, the conquest of Champa in what is now central and southern Vietnam, resulted in the death of thousands of Sui soldiers from malaria. These expeditions, along with a series of disastrous campaigns against Goguryeo (one of the three kingdoms of Korea), left the empire bankrupt and a populace in revolt. With northern China in turmoil, Emperor Yang spent his last days in Jiangdu (江都, in modern Yangzhou, Jiangsu), where he was eventually strangled in a coup led by his general Yuwen Huaji. Despite his accomplishments, Emperor Yang was generally considered by traditional historians to be one of the worst tyrants in Chinese history and the reason for the Sui Dynasty's relatively short rule. His failed campaigns against Goguryeo, and the conscriptions levied to man them, coupled with increased taxation to finance these wars and civil unrest as a result of this taxation ultimately led to the downfall of the dynasty.
Emperor Zhaozong of Tang (March 31, 867 – September 22, 904), né Li Jie, name later changed to Li Min and again to Li Ye, was the penultimate emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China.
Emperor Zhongzong of Tang (26 November 656 – 3 July 710), personal name Li Xian, and at other times Li Zhe or Wu Xian, was the fourth Emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, ruling briefly in 684 and again from 705 to 710.
The Encyclopedia of China is the first large-entry modern encyclopedia in the Chinese language.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
In some religions, an exorcist is a person who is believed to be able to cast out the devil or other demons.
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.
A mechanical fan is a powered machine used to create flow within a fluid, typically a gas such as air.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
Floruit, abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball with a foot to score a goal.
The Former Qin (351-394) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in eastern Asia, mainly China.
The Han Zhao (304–329), or Former Zhao, or Northern Han (北漢), was a Southern Xiongnu state during Sixteen Kingdoms period coeval with the Chinese Jin Dynasty (265-420).
A fruit tree is a tree which bears fruit that is consumed or used by humans and some animals — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds.
Fu is a traditional administrative division of Chinese origin used in the East Asian cultural sphere, translated variously as commandery, prefecture, urban prefecture, or city.
The full moon is the lunar phase when the Moon appears fully illuminated from Earth's perspective.
A funeral is a ceremony connected with the burial, cremation, or interment of a corpse, or the burial (or equivalent) with the attendant observances.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Gao Lishi (684–762), formally the Duke of Qi (齊公), was a eunuch official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, becoming particularly powerful during Emperor Xuanzong of Tang's reign.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Gauze is a thin, translucent fabric with a loose open weave.
(),, or are Japanese women who study the ancient tradition of art, dance and singing, and are distinctively characterized by traditional costumes and makeup.
George Modelski (born January 9, 1926 Poznań, as Jerzy Modelski; - February 21, 2014) was Professor of Political science Emeritus in the University of Washington.
Giant Wild Goose Pagoda or Big Wild Goose Pagoda, is a Buddhist pagoda located in southern Xi'an, Shaanxi province, China.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
A grave is a location where a dead body (typically that of a human, although sometimes that of an animal) is buried.
Gyeongju (경주), historically known as Seorabeol (서라벌), is a coastal city in the far southeastern corner of North Gyeongsang Province in South Korea.
Hami, also known as Kumul, is a prefecture-level city in eastern Xinjiang, China.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Han Jian (韓建) (855History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 15.-August 15, 912.Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 268.), courtesy name Zuoshi (佐時), was a warlord late in the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, who eventually became a subject of the succeeding Later Liang.
A handmaiden, handmaid or maidservant is a personal maid or female servant.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields.
A haunted house or ghosthouse is a house or other building often perceived as being inhabited by disembodied spirits of the deceased who may have been former residents or were familiar with the property.
Hay is grass, legumes, or other herbaceous plants that have been cut, dried, and stored for use as animal fodder, particularly for grazing animals such as cattle, horses, goats, and sheep.
A hearse is a vehicle used to carry the dead in a coffin/casket.
Heaven, or the heavens, is a common religious, cosmological, or transcendent place where beings such as gods, angels, spirits, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live.
Heian-kyō was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto.
, was the capital city of Japan during most of the Nara period, from 710–40 and again from 745–84.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.
There are traditionally four historical capitals of China, collectively referred to as the "Four Great Ancient Capitals of China".
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
Xi'an was among the most important cities of China before AD 1000.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
Homosexuality in China has been documented in China since ancient times.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
A horse-drawn vehicle is a mechanized piece of equipment pulled by one horse or by a team of horses.
Huang Chao (835 – July 13, 884) was a Chinese smuggler, soldier, and rebel, and is most well known for being the leader of a major rebellion that severely weakened the Tang dynasty.
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
An illusion is a distortion of the senses, which can reveal how the human brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation.
The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
An ingredient is a substance that forms part of a mixture (in a general sense).
The Institute of Archaeology (IA) is a constituent institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), based in Beijing, China.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Ironmongery originally referred, first, to the manufacture of iron goods and, second, to the place of sale of such items for domestic rather than industrial use.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Jade is an ornamental mineral, mostly known for its green varieties, which is featured prominently in ancient Asian art.
The jiedushi were regional military governors in China during the Tang dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.
Jingzhao (京兆) was a superior prefecture created in 713 during the Tang dynasty by converting Yongzhou (雍州).
Kunming Lake (Chinese: 昆明湖, p Kūnmíng Hú) is the central lake on the grounds of the Summer Palace in Beijing, China.
, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.
The Lantern Festival or the Spring Lantern Festival is a Chinese festival celebrated on the fifteenth day of the first month in the lunisolar Chinese calendar.
Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China.
Laozi (. Collins English Dictionary.; also Lao-Tzu,. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016. or Lao-Tze;, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.
The Later Qin (384-417), also known as Yao Qin (姚秦), was a state of Qiang ethnicity of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin dynasty (265-420) in China.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
According to the administrative divisions of China including Hong Kong and Macau, there are three levels of cities, namely provincial-level (consists of municipalities and SARs), prefectural-level cities, and county-level cities.
The Song dynasty, better known as the Liu Song dynasty (420–479 CE;; Wade-Giles: Liu Sung), also known as Former Song (前宋) or Southern Song (南宋), was the first of the four Southern Dynasties in China, succeeding the Eastern Jin and followed by the Southern Qi.
Locusts are certain species of short-horned grasshoppers in the family Acrididae that have a swarming phase.
Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.
Lulin ("green forest") refers, as an umbrella term, to one of the two major agrarian rebellion movements against Wang Mang's short-lived Xin dynasty in the modern southern Henan and northern Hubei region who banded together to pool their strengths, and whose collective strength eventually led to the downfall of the Xin and a temporary reinstatement of the Han Dynasty with Liu Xuan (Gengshi Emperor) as the emperor.
Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.
In politics, lustration refers to the purge of government officials once characteristic of the Communist system in Central and Eastern Europe.
Lyra (Latin for lyre, from Greek λύρα) is a small constellation.
Magic, along with its subgenres of, and sometimes referred to as illusion, stage magic or street magic is a performing art in which audiences are entertained by staged tricks or illusions of seemingly impossible feats using natural means.
A mansion is a large dwelling house.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
A meal is an eating occasion that takes place at a certain time and includes prepared food.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
The Mid-Autumn Festival is a harvest festival celebrated notably by ethnic Chinese and Vietnamese peoples.
Military education and training is a process which intends to establish and improve the capabilities of military personnel in their respective roles.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
A mortar and pestle is a kitchen implement used since ancient times to prepare ingredients or substances by crushing and grinding them into a fine paste or powder.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mulian Rescues His Mother or Mulian Saves His Mother From Hell is a popular Chinese Buddhist tale originating in the third century CE, inspired by tales from India of Maudgalyayana, who is named Mulian in Chinese stories.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
The Music Bureau (Traditional Chinese: 樂府; Simplified Chinese: 乐府; Hanyu Pinyin: yuèfǔ, and sometimes known as the "Imperial Music Bureau") served in the capacity of an organ of various imperial government bureaucracies of China: discontinuously and in various incarnations, the Music Bureau was charged directly, by the emperor (or other monarchical ruler), or indirectly, through the royal (or imperial) government to perform various tasks related to music, poetry, entertainment, or religious worship.
Music of China refers to the music of the Chinese people, which may be the music of the Han Chinese as well as other ethnic minorities within mainland China.
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
is the capital city of Nara Prefecture located in the Kansai region of Japan.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.
The New Book of Tang (Xīn Tángshū), generally translated as "New History of the Tang", or "New Tang History", is a work of official history covering the Tang dynasty in ten volumes and 225 chapters.
A New Year's levée is a social event on New Year's Day hosted by the Governor General of Canada, the lieutenant governors, military establishments, municipalities, and other institutions.
The Northern Wei or the Northern Wei Empire, also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.
The Northern Zhou followed the Western Wei, and ruled northern China from 557 to 581 AD.
An oar is an implement used for water-borne propulsion.
An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production.
Orchis is a genus in the orchid family (Orchidaceae), occurring mainly in Europe and Northwest Africa, and ranging as far as Tibet, Mongolia, and Xinjiang.
An outhouse, also known by many other names, is a small structure, separate from a main building, which covers one or more toilets.
An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal.
A parade (also called march or marchpast) is a procession of people, usually organized along a street, often in costume, and often accompanied by marching bands, floats or sometimes large balloons.
Pastry is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be savoury or sweetened.
In architecture, a pavilion (from French pavillon, from Latin papilio) has several meanings.
The Pear Garden or Líyuán was the first known royal acting and musical academy in China founded during the Tang dynasty by Emperor Xuanzong (712–755).
The peony or paeony is a flowering plant in the genus Paeonia, the only genus in the family Paeoniaceae.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Physiognomy (from the Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature" and gnomon meaning "judge" or "interpreter") is the assessment of character or personality from a person's outer appearance, especially the face often linked to racial and sexual stereotyping.
A picnic is a meal taken outdoors (''al fresco'') as part of an excursion – ideally in scenic surroundings, such as a park, lakeside, or other place affording an interesting view, or else in conjunction with a public event such as preceding an open-air theatre performance, and usually in summer.
A pilgrim (from the Latin peregrinus) is a traveler (literally one who has come from afar) who is on a journey to a holy place.
The pint (symbol pt, sometimes abbreviated as "p") is a unit of volume or capacity in both the imperial and United States customary measurement systems.
A plaza, pedestrian plaza, or Place is an open urban public space, such as a city square.
Polo is a team sport played on horseback.
Polychrome is the "'practice of decorating architectural elements, sculpture, etc., in a variety of colors." The term is used to refer to certain styles of architecture, pottery or sculpture in multiple colors.
A post office is a customer service facility forming part of a national postal system.
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.
A prince is a male ruler or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family ranked below a king and above a duke.
Princess is a regal rank and the feminine equivalent of prince (from Latin princeps, meaning principal citizen).
Princess Taiping (lit. "Princess of Peace", personal name unknown, possibly Li Lingyue (李令月)) (died 2 August 713) was a princess of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and her mother Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty.
A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.
The warden (US, Canada) or governor (UK, Australia), also known as a superintendent (US, South Asia) or director (UK, New Zealand), is the official who is in charge of a prison.
Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.
Public baths originated from a communal need for cleanliness at a time when most people did not have access to private bathing facilities.
In Roman Catholic theology, purgatory (via Anglo-Norman and Old French) is an intermediate state after physical death in which some of those ultimately destined for heaven must first "undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven," holding that "certain offenses can be forgiven in this age, but certain others in the age to come." And that entrance into Heaven requires the "remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven," for which indulgences may be given which remove "either part or all of the temporal punishment due to sin," such as an "unhealthy attachment" to sin.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.
The Qingming or Ching Ming festival, also known as Tomb-Sweeping Day in English (sometimes also called Chinese Memorial Day or Ancestors' Day), is a traditional Chinese festival.
Qu Yuan (–278 BC) was a Chinese poet and minister who lived during the Warring States period of ancient China.
A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people; it is a 'a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests', for a certain period of time.
Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir.
A rhinoceros, commonly abbreviated to rhino, is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species.
A ridge or mountain ridge are geological features consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance.The sides of the ridge slope away from narrow top on either side.The line along the crest formed by the highest points, with the terrain dropping down on either side, is called the ridgeline.
A riot is a form of civil disorder commonly characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people.
A security guard (also known as a security officer or protective agent) is a person employed by a public or private party to protect the employing party’s assets (property, people, equipment, money, etc.) from a variety of hazards (such as waste, damaged property, unsafe worker behavior, criminal activity such as theft, etc.) by enforcing preventative measures.
Shangjing Longquanfu or Sanggyeong Yongcheonbu, also known as Shangjing (上京) or Sanggyeong (상경, 上京), Huhan/Holhan Fortress (홀한성, 忽汗城), is an archaeological site in Ning'an, Heilongjiang, China.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
Shi Siming (史思明) (703 – 18 April 761), or Shi Sugan (史窣干),(Uyghur سۆيگۈن، سۆيگۈن سانغۇن) was a general of the Chinese Tang Dynasty who followed his childhood friend An Lushan in rebelling against Tang, and who later succeeded An Lushan's son An Qingxu as emperor of the Yan state that An Lushan established.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Buddhism entered Han China via the Silk Road, beginning in the 1st or 2nd century CE.
Silla (57 BC57 BC according to the Samguk Sagi; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced back to a time period that is anywhere near its legendary founding." – 935 AD) was a kingdom located in southern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
The Small Wild Goose Pagoda, sometimes Little Wild Goose Pagoda, is one of two significant pagodas in Xi'an, Shaanxi, China, the site of the old Han and Tang capital Chang'an.
A stable is a building in which livestock, especially horses, are kept.
A street or road name or odonym is an identifying name given to a street.
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions.
A swing is a hanging seat, often found at playgrounds for children, at a circus for acrobats, or on a porch for relaxing, although they may also be items of indoor furniture, such as Latin American hammock or the Indian oonjal.
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
A tavern is a place of business where people gather to drink alcoholic beverages and be served food, and in most cases, where travelers receive lodging.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
The Terracotta Army is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China.
In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property or services without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it.
The Tibetan Empire ("Great Tibet") existed from the 7th to 9th centuries AD when Tibet was unified as a large and powerful empire, and ruled an area considerably larger than the Tibetan Plateau, stretching to parts of East Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
The traditional Chinese holidays are an essential part of harvests or prayer offerings.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
A treasury is either.
Tug of war (also known as war of tug, tug o' war, tug war, rope war, rope pulling, tugging war or toutrek) is a sport that directly puts two teams against each other in a test of strength: teams pull on opposite ends of a rope, with the goal being to bring the rope a certain distance in one direction against the force of the opposing team's pull.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.
The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate or Toquz Oghuz Country) (Modern Uyghur: ئورخۇن ئۇيغۇر خانلىقى), (Tang era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin: or) was a Turkic empire that existed for about a century between the mid 8th and 9th centuries.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
Vega, also designated Alpha Lyrae (α Lyrae, abbreviated Alpha Lyr or α Lyr), is the brightest star in the constellation of Lyra, the fifth-brightest star in the night sky, and the second-brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere, after Arcturus.
In a supply chain, a vendor, or a seller, is an enterprise that contributes goods or services.
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice.
Wang Mang (c. 45 – 6 October 23 AD), courtesy name Jujun, was a Han Dynasty official and consort kin who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded the Xin (or Hsin, meaning "renewed") Dynasty (新朝), ruling 9–23 AD.
A ward is a local authority area, typically used for electoral purposes.
A warehouse is a commercial building for storage of goods.
A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers.
The Wei River is a major river in west-central China's Gansu and Shaanxi provinces.
Weiyang Palace was the main imperial palace complex of Han Dynasty and many other dynasties, located in the city of Chang'an (modern-day Xi'an).
The Western Wei followed the disintegration of the Northern Wei, and ruled northern China from 535 to 557.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
Wu Zetian (624 December16, 705),Paludan, 100 alternatively named Wu Zhao, Wu Hou, and during the later Tang dynasty as Tian Hou, also referred to in English as Empress Consort Wu or by the deprecated term "Empress Wu", was a Chinese sovereign who ruled unofficially as empress consort and empress dowager and later, officially as empress regnant (皇帝) during the brief Zhou dynasty (周, 684–705), which interrupted the Tang dynasty (618–690 & 705–907).
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
Xianyang is a prefecture-level city in central Shaanxi province, situated on the Wei River a few kilometers upstream (west) from the provincial capital of Xi'an.
Xiao He (died 193 BC) was a Chinese statesman of the early Western Han dynasty.
Ximing Temple was a famous temple in Chang'an, the capital of the Tang dynasty in Chinese history.
The Xin dynasty was a Chinese dynasty (termed so despite having only one emperor) which lasted from 9 to 23 AD.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
Xuchang (postal: Hsuchang) is a prefecture-level city in central Henan province in Central China.
Yang Guozhong (died July 15, 756), né Yang Zhao (楊釗), was an official of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor late in the reign of Emperor Xuanzong.
The Yangshao culture was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the Yellow River in China.
Yarkant County or Yeken County (lit. Cliff cityP. Lurje, “”, Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition) is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, located on the southern rim of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim Basin.
Yining, also known as Ghulja or Qulja (قۇلجا, Құлжа), and formerly Ningyuan is a county-level city in northwestern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China, and the seat of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture.
Zhang Qian (d. 113) was a Chinese official and diplomat who served as an imperial envoy to the world outside of China in the 2nd century BC, during the time of the Han dynasty.
Emperor Taizu of Later Liang (後梁太祖), personal name Zhu Quanzhong (朱全忠) (852–912), né Zhu Wen (朱溫), name later changed to Zhu Huang (朱晃), nickname Zhu San (朱三, literally, "the third Zhu"), was a Jiedushi (military governor) at the end of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, who previously served as a general under the rival Emperor Huang Chao's Empire of Qi and overthrew Empire of Tang in 907, established the Later Liang as its emperor, and ushered in the era of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.