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Channel Tunnel

Index Channel Tunnel

The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche; also nicknamed the Chunnel) is a rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France, beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover. [1]

217 relations: A16 autoroute, Adit, Afghanistan, Agence France-Presse, Aimé Thomé de Gamond, Alcatel-Lucent, American Society of Civil Engineers, Amsterdam, Anticline, Armand Fallières, Ashford International railway station, Asylum seeker, Battle of France, Birmingham Post, Bouygues Telecom, British anti-invasion preparations of the Second World War, British Isles fixed sea link connections, British Rail, British Rail Class 373, British Transport Commission, Brussels-South railway station, Build–operate–transfer, Building Research Establishment, Calais, Cambridge University Press, Cap Gris-Nez, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Channel Tunnel Act 1987, Channel Tunnel Safety Authority, Chapman & Hall, Cheriton, Kent, Chocolate, Chris Froome, Christopher Garnett, Closed-circuit television, Cologne, Common Travel Area, Coquelles, Cost overrun, Daily Mail, David Lloyd George, DB Cargo UK, Department of Miscellaneous Weapons Development, Deutsche Bahn, Diesel locomotive, Dollands Moor Freight Yard, Duct (flow), Ebbsfleet International railway station, Edward VII, Edward Watkin, ..., EE Limited, Electrical grid, Elizabeth II, English Channel, Eritrea, Etchinghill, Kent, Ethiopia, European Commission, European Economic Community, European Union, Europorte Channel, Eurostar, Eurotunnel Class 0001, Eurotunnel Class 0031, Eurotunnel Shuttle, Fold (geology), Folkestone, Folkestone Downs, Ford Escort (Europe), Foster Yeoman, François Mitterrand, Frankfurt, French franc, French Red Cross, Gare de Calais-Fréthun, Gare de Lille Europe, Gare du Nord, Gault, Gaumont-British, George Ward Hunt, Georges Méliès, Getlink, Ginetta G50, Glensanda, Gotthard Base Tunnel, Great North Eastern Railway, Groundwater, GSM, Haloalkane, Hauts-de-France, High Speed 1, High-voltage direct current, Home Office, House of Commons Library, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Illegal immigration, Immersed tube, Intercity-Express, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Iran, Iraq, Isle of Grain, Japan–Korea Undersea Tunnel, John Hawkshaw, John Surtees, Juxtaposed controls, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Kent, Kosovo Train for Life, Land reclamation, Large goods vehicle, Letter of credit, LGV Nord, Loading gauge, Loch Linnhe, LTE (telecommunication), M20 motorway, Margaret Thatcher, Markham & Co., Marl, Marmaray, Megaproject, Megaprojects and Risk, Member of the European Parliament, Migrants around Calais, Mount Baker Tunnel, MyFerryLink, Napoleon III, National Grid (Great Britain), National Railway Company of Belgium, New Austrian tunnelling method, Nightstar (train), Nirj Deva, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Operation Stack, Orange S.A., Overhead line, Oxford University Press, Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Pas-de-Calais, Passport, Permeability (earth sciences), Popular Mechanics, Prima (locomotive), Pristina, Rail (magazine), Rail freight transport, Railway Gazette International, Réseau Ferré de France, Regional Eurostar, Richard Rowlands, Royal assent, Royal Navy, Samphire Hoe Country Park, Sangatte, Schengen Agreement, Schengen Area, Seattle, Seikan Tunnel, SFR, Shakespeare Cliff Halt railway station, Siemens, Siemens Velaro, Single-track railway, Sky News, Slavery, SNCF, South Eastern Railway, UK, St Pancras railway station, Standard-gauge railway, Stowaway, Strait of Dover, Strait of Gibraltar crossing, Stratum, Strike and dip, Sudan, Suez Canal, Sump, Sunday Dispatch, Suspension bridge, Team Sky, TGV, The Daily Telegraph, The Economist, The Independent, The Mercury (Hobart), The New York Times, Third rail, Three UK, Tony Blair, Train protection system, TransManche Link, Transmission Voie-Machine, Treaty of Canterbury, Trunk (botany), Tunnel boring machine, Tunnelling the English Channel, Ultraviolet, UMTS, Van, Varne Bank, Ventilation (architecture), Vodafone UK, Warehouse, Waterloo International railway station, Watt, William Ewart Gladstone, Winston Churchill, Winter of 2009–10 in Europe, Wonders of the World, World War II, 2008 Channel Tunnel fire, 2014 Tour de France, 25 kV AC railway electrification, 2G, 3G, 4G. Expand index (167 more) »

A16 autoroute

The A16 autoroute – also known as L'Européenne and forming between Abbeville and Dunkirk a part of the larger Autoroute des estuaires – is a motorway in northern France.

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An adit (from Latin aditus, entrance) is an entrance to an underground mine which is horizontal or nearly horizontal, by which the mine can be entered, drained of water, ventilated, and minerals extracted at the lowest convenient level.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Agence France-Presse

Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.

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Aimé Thomé de Gamond

Aimé Thomé de Gamond (November 1807 – 1876) was a visionary French engineer and entrepreneur who believed in the feasibility of constructing a Channel Tunnel under the Straits of Dover.

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Alcatel-Lucent S.A. was a French global telecommunications equipment company, headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, France.

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American Society of Civil Engineers

The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) is a tax-exempt professional body founded in 1852 to represent members of the civil engineering profession worldwide.

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Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.

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In structural geology, an anticline is a type of fold that is an arch-like shape and has its oldest beds at its core.

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Armand Fallières

Clément Armand Fallières (6 November 1841 – 22 June 1931) was a French statesman, President of France from 1906 to 1913.

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Ashford International railway station

Ashford International railway station is a National Rail international and regional station on the High Speed 1, South Eastern Main Line and Marshlink Line in England, United Kingdom, serving the town of Ashford, Kent.

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Asylum seeker

An asylum seeker (also rarely called an asylee) is a person who flees his or her home country, 'spontaneously' enters another country and applies for asylum, i.e. the right to international protection, in this other country.

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Battle of France

The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.

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Birmingham Post

The Birmingham Post is a weekly printed newspaper based in Birmingham, England, with a circulation of 6,667 and distribution throughout the West Midlands. First published under the name the Birmingham Daily Post in 1857, it has had a succession of distinguished editors and has played an influential role in the life and politics of the city.

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Bouygues Telecom

Bouygues Telecom is a French mobile phone, Internet service provider and IPTV company, part of the Bouygues group.

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British anti-invasion preparations of the Second World War

British anti-invasion preparations of the Second World War entailed a large-scale division of military and civilian mobilisation in response to the threat of invasion by German armed forces in 1940 and 1941.

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British Isles fixed sea link connections

Proposals for fixed sea links to improve transportation between areas of the British Isles include undersea tunnel, bridge, causeway, or combination of these elements.

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British Rail

British Railways (BR), which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the state-owned company that operated most of the rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997.

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British Rail Class 373

The British Rail Class 373 or TGV TMST train is a French designed and built electric multiple unit that operate Eurostar high speed rail services from London to France and Belgium via the Channel Tunnel, part of the TGV family, it has a smaller cross-section to fit the smaller loading gauge in Britain, was originally able to operate on the UK third rail network and it has extensive fireproofing in case of fire in the tunnel.

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British Transport Commission

The British Transport Commission (BTC) was created by Clement Attlee's post-war Labour government as a part of its nationalisation programme, to oversee railways, canals and road freight transport in Great Britain (Northern Ireland had the separate Ulster Transport Authority).

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Brussels-South railway station

Brussels-South (Bruxelles-Midi, Brussel-Zuid, IATA code: ZYR) is one of the three major railway stations in Brussels (the other two are Brussels Central and Brussels North) and the busiest station in Belgium.

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Build–operate–transfer (BOT) or build–own–operate–transfer (BOOT) is a form of project financing, wherein a private entity receives a concession from the private or public sector to finance, design, construct, own, and operate a facility stated in the concession contract.

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Building Research Establishment

Building Research Establishment (BRE) is a centre of building science in the United Kingdom, owned by charitable organisation the BRE Trust.

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Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cap Gris-Nez

Cap Gris-Nez (literally "cape grey nose") is a cape on the Côte d'Opale in the Pas-de-Calais département in northern France.

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Chancellor of the Exchequer

The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.

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Channel Tunnel Act 1987

The Channel Tunnel Act 1987 c.53 is an Act of Parliament which authorised the construction of the Channel Tunnel between the United Kingdom and France in accordance with a treaty signed in 1986.

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Channel Tunnel Safety Authority

The Channel Tunnel Safety Authority is an international regulatory body responsible for safety in the Channel Tunnel.

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Chapman & Hall

Chapman & Hall was a British publishing house in London, founded in the first half of the 19th century by Edward Chapman and William Hall.

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Cheriton, Kent

Cheriton is a northern suburb of Folkestone in Kent.

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Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.

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Chris Froome

Christopher Clive Froome, (born 20 May 1985) is a British road racing cyclist for UCI ProTeam.

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Christopher Garnett

Christopher Garnett OBE is a member of the Board of the Olympic Delivery Authority, and was the Chief Executive Officer of Great North Eastern Railway and simultaneously Senior Vice President and Chief Executive of the Rail Division of Sea Containers, GNER's parent company.

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Closed-circuit television

Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.

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Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).

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Common Travel Area

The Common Travel Area (CTA; Comhlimistéar Taistil) is an open borders area comprising the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands.

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Coquelles is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department near Calais in northern France.

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Cost overrun

A cost overrun, also known as a cost increase, underrated or budget overrun, involves unexpected costs incurred in excess of budgeted amounts due to an underestimation of the actual cost during budgeting.

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Daily Mail

The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.

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David Lloyd George

David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.

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DB Cargo UK

DB Cargo UK, formerly DB Schenker Rail UK and English, Welsh & Scottish Railway (EWS), is a British rail freight company headquartered in Doncaster, England.

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Department of Miscellaneous Weapons Development

The Department of Miscellaneous Weapons Development (DMWD), also known as the Directorate of Miscellaneous Weapon Development and colloquially known as the Wheezers and Dodgers, was a department of the Admiralty responsible for the development of various unconventional weapons during World War II.

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Deutsche Bahn

Deutsche Bahn AG (abbreviated as DB, DB AG or DBAG) is a German railway company.

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Diesel locomotive

A diesel locomotive is a type of railway locomotive in which the prime mover is a diesel engine.

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Dollands Moor Freight Yard

Dollands Moor Freight Yard is a railway freight yard near Folkestone in Kent, and was purpose built in 1988 for the Channel Tunnel.

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Duct (flow)

Ducts are conduits or passages used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) to deliver and remove air.

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Ebbsfleet International railway station

Ebbsfleet International railway station is a railway station in Ebbsfleet Valley, in the Borough of Dartford, Kent, outside the eastern boundary of Greater London, England.

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Edward VII

Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.

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Edward Watkin

Sir Edward William Watkin, 1st Baronet (26 September 1819 – 13 April 1901) was a British Member of Parliament and railway entrepreneur.

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EE Limited

EE (formerly Everything Everywhere) is a British mobile network operator, internet service provider and a division of BT Group.

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Electrical grid

An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers.

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Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

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English Channel

The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

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Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.

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Etchinghill, Kent

Etchinghill is a village in Kent, England, about 5 km north of Hythe, and 1 km north of the Channel Tunnel terminal at Cheriton, near Folkestone.

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Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Europorte Channel

Europorte Channel (formerly Europorte 2) is a rail freight train operator which operates rail freight services between France and the United Kingdom through the Channel Tunnel.

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Eurostar is a high-speed railway service connecting London with Amsterdam, Avignon, Brussels, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Paris and Rotterdam.

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Eurotunnel Class 0001

The Eurotunnel Class 0001 Bo-Bo diesel-electric locomotives were built by Maschinenbau Kiel (manufacturers designation DE 1004) between 1991 and 1992.

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Eurotunnel Class 0031

The Eurotunnel Class 0031 0-4-0 diesel locomotives were built by the Hunslet Engine Company between 1989 and 1990 for Channel Tunnel construction work and now used for maintenance duties.

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Eurotunnel Shuttle

Eurotunnel Le Shuttle (sometimes shortened to Le Shuttle or The Shuttle) is a railway shuttle service between Coquelles (near Calais) in Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France and Cheriton (near Folkestone) in Kent, United Kingdom.

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Fold (geology)

A geological fold occurs when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a result of permanent deformation.

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Folkestone is a port town on the English Channel, in Kent, south-east England.

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Folkestone Downs

The Folkestone Downs are an area of chalk downland above Folkestone, where the eastern end of the North Downs escarpment meets the English Channel.

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Ford Escort (Europe)

The Ford Escort is a small family car which was manufactured by Ford Europe from 1968 to 2004.

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Foster Yeoman

Foster Yeoman Limited, based in the United Kingdom, was one of Europe's largest independent quarrying and asphalt companies, but is now part of Aggregate Industries, owned by the Swiss construction materials conglomerate Holcim.

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François Mitterrand

François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.

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Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.

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French franc

The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.

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French Red Cross

The French Red Cross (Croix-Rouge française), or the CRF, is the national Red Cross Society in France founded in 1864 and originally known as the Société française de secours aux blessés militaires (SSBM).

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Gare de Calais-Fréthun

Gare de Calais-Fréthun is a SNCF international railway station in the suburbs of Calais, France.

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Gare de Lille Europe

Lille Europe is a SNCF railway station in Lille, France, on the LGV Nord High Speed railway.

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Gare du Nord

The Gare du Nord (North Station), officially Paris-Nord, is one of the six large terminus stations of the SNCF mainline network for Paris, France.

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Gault is a rock formation of stiff blue clay deposited in a calm, fairly deep-water marine environment during the Lower Cretaceous Period (Upper and Middle Albian).

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The Gaumont-British Picture Corporation was a company that produced and distributed films and operated a cinema chain in the United Kingdom.

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George Ward Hunt

George Ward Hunt (30 July 1825 – 29 July 1877) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who was Chancellor of the Exchequer and First Lord of the Admiralty in the first and second ministries of Benjamin Disraeli.

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Georges Méliès

Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès, known as Georges Méliès (8 December 1861 – 21 January 1938), was a French illusionist and film director who led many technical and narrative developments in the earliest days of cinema.

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Getlink, formerly Groupe Eurotunnel, is a public company which manages and operates the Channel Tunnel between England and France, including the Eurotunnel Shuttle vehicle services, and earns revenue on other trains through the tunnel (DB Schenker freight and Eurostar passenger).

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Ginetta G50

The Ginetta G50 is a specialist GT4 class-developed racing car, designed by Ginetta Cars. A road version of the car was planned, but did not enter wide-scale production; instead, the smaller Ginetta G40 was launched.

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Glensanda (Old Norse, the glen of the sandy river) was a Viking settlement at the mouth of Glen Sanda on the Morvern peninsula within south west Lochaber, overlooking the Isle of Lismore and Loch Linnhe in the western Highlands of Scotland.

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Gotthard Base Tunnel

The Gotthard Base Tunnel (GBT; Gotthard-Basistunnel, Galleria di base del San Gottardo, Tunnel da basa dal Son Gottard) is a railway tunnel through the Alps in Switzerland.

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Great North Eastern Railway

Great North Eastern Railway, often referred to as GNER, was a train operating company in the United Kingdom owned by Sea Containers that operated the InterCity East Coast franchise from April 1996 until December 2007, when Sea Containers was stripped of the franchise due to poor financial management.

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Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

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GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets, first deployed in Finland in December 1991.

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The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.

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Hauts-de-France (translates to "Upper France" in English; Heuts-d'Franche) is a region of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014, from a merger of Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Picardy.

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High Speed 1

High Speed 1 (HS1), legally the Channel Tunnel Rail Link (CTRL), is a high-speed railway between London and the United Kingdom end of the Channel Tunnel.

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High-voltage direct current

A high-voltage, direct current (HVDC) electric power transmission system (also called a power superhighway or an electrical superhighway) uses direct current for the bulk transmission of electrical power, in contrast with the more common alternating current (AC) systems.

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Home Office

The Home Office (HO) is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration, security and law and order.

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House of Commons Library

The House of Commons Library is the library and information resource of the lower house of the British Parliament.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Illegal immigration

Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.

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Immersed tube

An immersed tube is a kind of underwater tunnel composed of segments, constructed elsewhere and floated to the tunnel site to be sunk into place and then linked together.

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The Intercity-Express (written as InterCityExpress in Austria, Denmark, Switzerland and, formerly, in Germany) or ICE is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and its surrounding countries.

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International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Isle of Grain

St James, Isle of Grain (Old English Greon meaning gravel) is a village and the easternmost point of the Hoo Peninsula within the district of Medway in Kent.

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Japan–Korea Undersea Tunnel

The Japan–Korea Undersea Tunnel (also Korea–Japan Undersea Tunnel) is a proposed tunnel project to connect Japan with South Korea via an undersea tunnel crossing the Korea Strait using the strait islands of Iki and Tsushima, a straight-line distance of approximately at its shortest.

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John Hawkshaw

Sir John Hawkshaw FRS FRSE MICE (9 April 1811 – 2 June 1891), was an English civil engineer.

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John Surtees

John Surtees, (11 February 1934 – 10 March 2017) was an English Grand Prix motorcycle road racer and Formula One driver.

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Juxtaposed controls

Juxtaposed controls (in bureaux à contrôles nationaux juxtaposés, or "BCNJ"; in kantoren waar de nationale controles van beide landen naast elkaar geschieden) are an arrangement between Belgium, France, and the United Kingdom whereby immigration checks on certain cross-Channel routes take place before boarding the train or ferry, rather than upon arrival after disembarkation.

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Kawasaki Heavy Industries

is a Japanese public multinational corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of motorcycles, heavy equipment, aerospace and defense equipment, rolling stock and ships.

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Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.

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Kosovo Train for Life

The Kosovo Train for Life carried aid from the United Kingdom to Pristina, Kosovo, in September 1999 in connection with the United Nations Kosovo Force (KFOR) peacekeeping efforts after the Kosovo War.

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Land reclamation

Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a landfill), is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds.

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Large goods vehicle

A heavy goods vehicle (HGV), also large goods vehicle (LGV) or medium goods vehicle, is the European Union (EU) term for any truck with a gross combination mass (GCM) of over. Sub-category N2 is used for vehicles between and and N3 for all goods vehicles over as defined in Directive 2001/116/EC. The term medium goods vehicle is used within parts of the UK government to refer to goods vehicles of between 3.5 and 7.5 tonnes which according to the EU are also "large goods vehicles". Commercial carrier vehicles of up to are referred to as Light commercial vehicles and come into category N1. Confusingly though, parts of the UK government refer to these as "light goods vehicles" (also abbreviated "LGV"), with the term LGV" appearing on tax discs for these smaller vehicles. Tax discs use the term "HGV" for vehicles over 3.5 tonnes. HGVs must not exceed 40 tonnes laden weight or in length to cross boundaries in the EU, but longer and heavier vehicles (LHVs) known as Gigaliner, EuroCombi, EcoLiner, innovative commercial vehicle, mega-truck, etc., typically long and weighing up to 60 tonnes are used in some countries, and the implications of allowing them to cross borders was being considered.

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Letter of credit

A letter of credit (LC), also known as a documentary credit, bankers commercial credit, is a payment mechanism used in international trade to perform the same economic function as a guarantee, by allocating risk undertaken by contracting parties.

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LGV Nord

The LGV Nord (Ligne à Grande Vitesse) is a French -long high-speed rail line, opened in 1993, that connects Paris to the Belgian border and the Channel Tunnel via Lille.

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Loading gauge

A loading gauge defines the maximum height and width for railway vehicles and their loads to ensure safe passage through bridges, tunnels and other structures.

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Loch Linnhe

For the CalMac ferry see MV Loch Linnhe Loch Linnhe is a sea loch on the west coast of Scotland.

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LTE (telecommunication)

In telecommunication, Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for high-speed wireless communication for mobile devices and data terminals, based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies.

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M20 motorway

The M20 is a motorway in Kent, England.

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Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.

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Markham & Co.

Markham & Co. was an ironworks and steelworks company near Chesterfield, Derbyshire, England.

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Marl or marlstone is a calcium carbonate or lime-rich mud or mudstone which contains variable amounts of clays and silt.

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Marmaray is a partially operational rail transportation project in the Turkish city of Istanbul.

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A megaproject is an extremely large-scale investment project.

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Megaprojects and Risk

Megaprojects and Risk: An Anatomy of Ambition is a 2003 book by Bent Flyvbjerg, Nils Bruzelius, and Werner Rothengatter, published by Cambridge University Press.

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Member of the European Parliament

A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.

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Migrants around Calais

Since 1999, thousands of migrants and refugees (mostly from Africa and Asia) have gathered around the French port city of Calais, seeking to enter the United Kingdom by crossing the Channel Tunnel or by surreptitiously boarding the cargo area of lorries heading for ferries that cross the English Channel.

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Mount Baker Tunnel

The Mount Baker Tunnel or Mount Baker Ridge Tunnel carries Interstate 90 under the Mount Baker neighborhood of Seattle, Washington.

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MyFerryLink was an English Channel passenger and freight ferry company which began operating between Dover and Calais in August 2012.

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Napoleon III

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.

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National Grid (Great Britain)

The National Grid is the high-voltage electric power transmission network in Great Britain, connecting power stations and major substations and ensuring that electricity generated anywhere in GB (England, Scotland and Wales) can be used to satisfy demand elsewhere.

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National Railway Company of Belgium

NMBS/SNCB (Nationale Maatschappij der Belgische Spoorwegen, Société nationale des chemins de fer belges, Nationale Gesellschaft der Belgischen Eisenbahnen) is the national railway company of Belgium.

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New Austrian tunnelling method

The New Austrian tunneling method (NATM), also known as sequential excavation method (SEM), is a method of modern tunnel design and construction.

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Nightstar (train)

The Nightstar was a proposed overnight sleeper service from various parts of United Kingdom to continental Europe, via the Channel Tunnel.

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Nirj Deva

Niranjan Joseph De Silva Deva Aditya, (born 11 May 1948), commonly known as Nirj Deva, is a British politician.

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Nord-Pas-de-Calais (is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Hauts-de-France. It consisted of the departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais borders the English Channel (west), the North Sea (northwest), Belgium (north and east) and Picardy (south). The majority of the region was once part of the historical (Southern) Netherlands, but gradually became part of France between 1477 and 1678, particularly during the reign of king Louis XIV. The historical French provinces that preceded Nord-Pas-de-Calais are Artois, French Flanders, French Hainaut and (partially) Picardy. These provincial designations are still frequently used by the inhabitants. With its 330.8 people per km2 on just over 12,414 km2, it is a densely populated region, having some 4.1 million inhabitants, 7% of France's total population, making it the fourth most populous region in the country, 83% of whom live in urban communities. Its administrative centre and largest city is Lille. The second largest city is Calais, which serves as a major continental economic/transportation hub with Dover of Great Britain away; this makes Nord-Pas-de-Calais the closest continental European connection to the Great Britain. Other major towns include Valenciennes, Lens, Douai, Béthune, Dunkirk, Maubeuge, Boulogne, Arras, Cambrai and Saint-Omer. Numerous films, like Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis.

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Operation Stack

Operation Stack is a procedure used by Kent Police and the Port of Dover in England to park (or "stack") lorries on the M20 motorway in Kent when services across the English Channel, such as those through the Channel Tunnel or from the Port of Dover, are disrupted, for example by bad weather, industrial action, fire or derailments in the tunnel.

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Orange S.A.

Orange S.A., formerly France Télécom S.A., is a French multinational telecommunications corporation.

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Overhead line

An overhead line or overhead wire is used to transmit electrical energy to trams, trolleybuses or trains.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Paris Peace Conference, 1919

The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.

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Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France named after the French designation of the Strait of Dover, which it borders ('pas' meaning passage).

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A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country's government, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder primarily for the purpose of international travel.

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Permeability (earth sciences)

Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it.

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Popular Mechanics

Popular Mechanics is a classic magazine of popular science and technology.

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Prima (locomotive)

Prima is a family of railway diesel and electric locomotives built by Alstom.

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Pristina (Prishtina or Prishtinë) or Priština (Приштина), is the capital and largest city of Kosovo.

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Rail (magazine)

Rail is a British magazine on the subject of current rail transport in Great Britain.

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Rail freight transport

Rail freight transport is the use of railroads and trains to transport cargo as opposed to human passengers.

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Railway Gazette International

Railway Gazette International is a monthly business journal covering the railway, metro, light rail and tram industries worldwide.

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Réseau Ferré de France

Réseau ferré de France (RFF, French Rail Network) was a French company which owned and maintained the French national railway network from 1997 to 2014.

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Regional Eurostar

Regional Eurostar was the name given to plans to operate Eurostar train services from Paris and Brussels to locations in the United Kingdom beyond London.

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Richard Rowlands

Richard Verstegan, born Richard Rowlands (c. 1550 – 1640), was an Anglo-Dutch antiquary, publisher, humorist and translator.

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Royal assent

Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Samphire Hoe Country Park

Samphire Hoe Country Park is a country park situated west of Dover in Kent in southeast England.

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Sangatte is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department on the northern coast of France on the English Channel.

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Schengen Agreement

The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's Schengen Area, in which internal border checks have largely been abolished.

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Schengen Area

The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.

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Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.

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Seikan Tunnel

The is a 53.85 km (33.46 mi) dual gauge railway tunnel in Japan, with a 23.3 km (14.5 mi) long portion under the seabed.

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SFR (Société française du radiotéléphone) is a French telecommunications company that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to consumers and businesses.

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Shakespeare Cliff Halt railway station

Shakespeare Cliff Halt is a private halt station on the South Eastern Main Line.

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Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.

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Siemens Velaro

Siemens Velaro is a family of high-speed EMU trains used in Germany, Belgium, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Spain, China, Russia and Turkey.

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Single-track railway

A single-track railway is a railway where trains traveling in both directions share the same track.

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Sky News

Sky News is a 24-hour international multimedia news organisation based in the UK that started as a 24-hour television news channel.

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Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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The Société nationale des chemins de fer français (SNCF, "French National Railway Company") is France's national state-owned railway company.

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South Eastern Railway, UK

The South Eastern Railway (SER) was a railway company in south-eastern England from 1836 until 1922.

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St Pancras railway station

St Pancras railway station, also known as London St Pancras and officially since 2007 as St Pancras International, is a central London railway terminus located on Euston Road in the London Borough of Camden.

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Standard-gauge railway

A standard-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge of.

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A stowaway is a person who secretly boards a vehicle, such as a ship, an aircraft, a train, cargo truck or bus, in order to travel without paying and without being detected.

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Strait of Dover

The Strait of Dover or Dover Strait, historically known as the Dover Narrows (pas de Calais - Strait of Calais); Nauw van Kales or Straat van Dover), is the strait at the narrowest part of the English Channel, marking the boundary between the Channel and North Sea, separating Great Britain from continental Europe. The shortest distance across the strait,, is from the South Foreland, northeast of Dover in the English county of Kent, to Cap Gris Nez, a cape near to Calais in the French département of Pas-de-Calais. Between these points lies the most popular route for cross-channel swimmers. The entire strait is within the territorial waters of France and the United Kingdom, but a right of transit passage under the UNCLOS exists allowing unrestricted shipping. On a clear day, it is possible to see the opposite coastline of England from France and vice versa with the naked eye, with the most famous and obvious sight being the white cliffs of Dover from the French coastline and shoreline buildings on both coastlines, as well as lights on either coastline at night, as in Matthew Arnold's poem "Dover Beach".

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Strait of Gibraltar crossing

The Strait of Gibraltar crossing is a hypothetical bridge or tunnel spanning the Strait of Gibraltar (about 14 km or 9 miles at its narrowest point) that would connect Europe and Africa.

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In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.

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Strike and dip

Strike and dip refer to the orientation or attitude of a geologic feature.

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The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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Suez Canal

thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.

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A sump (American English and some parts of Canada: oil pan) is a low space that collects often undesirable liquids such as water or chemicals.

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Sunday Dispatch

The Sunday Dispatch was a British newspaper, published between 27 September 1801 and 18 June 1961, when it was merged with the ''Sunday Express''.

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Suspension bridge

A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck (the load-bearing portion) is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders.

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Team Sky

Team Sky is a British professional cycling team that competes in the UCI World Tour.

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The TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse, "high-speed train") is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the state-owned national rail operator.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper.

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The Mercury (Hobart)

The Mercury is a centre-right daily newspaper, published in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, by Davies Brothers Pty Ltd, part of News Corp Australia and News Corp.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Third rail

A third rail is a method of providing electric power to a railway locomotive or train, through a semi-continuous rigid conductor placed alongside or between the rails of a railway track.

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Three UK

Three UK is a British telecommunications and internet service provider operating as a subsidiary of CK Hutchison Holdings, operating under the global Three brand.

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Tony Blair

Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.

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Train protection system

A train protection system is a railway technical installation to ensure safe operation in the event of human failure.

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TransManche Link

TransManche Link (Cross Channel Link) or TML was a British-French construction consortium responsible for building the Channel Tunnel under the English Channel between Cheriton in Kent, United Kingdom, and Coquelles in France.

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Transmission Voie-Machine

Transmission Voie-Machine (TVM, English: track-to-train transmission) is a form of in-cab signalling originally deployed in France and used on high-speed railway lines.

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Treaty of Canterbury

The Treaty of Canterbury was signed by Foreign Secretary Sir Geoffrey Howe and French Minister of Foreign Affairs Roland Dumas on 12 February 1986, and is the original document providing for the undersea tunnel between the two countries.

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Trunk (botany)

In botany, the trunk (or bole) is the stem and main wooden axis of a tree, which is an important feature in tree identification, and which often differs markedly from the bottom of the trunk to the top, depending on the species.

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Tunnel boring machine

A tunnel boring machine (TBM), also known as a "mole", is a machine used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil and rock strata.

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Tunnelling the English Channel

Tunneling the English Channel (Le Tunnel sous la Manche ou le Cauchemar anglo-français) is a 1907 silent film by pioneer filmmaker Georges Méliès.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard.

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A van is a type of road vehicle used for transporting goods or people.

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Varne Bank

The Varne Bank is a five and three quarter mile long sand bank in the Strait of Dover, lying southwest of Dover in Kent, England.

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Ventilation (architecture)

Ventilation is the intentional introduction of ambient air into a space and is mainly used to control indoor air quality by diluting and displacing indoor pollutants; it can also be used for purposes of thermal comfort or dehumidification.

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Vodafone UK

Vodafone UK is a provider of telecommunications services in the United Kingdom, and a part of the Vodafone Group, the world's second-largest mobile phone company.

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A warehouse is a commercial building for storage of goods.

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Waterloo International railway station

Waterloo International station was the London terminus of the Eurostar international rail service from its opening on 14 November 1994 until it closed on 13 November 2007 when it was replaced by St Pancras as the terminal for international rail services.

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The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

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William Ewart Gladstone

William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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Winter of 2009–10 in Europe

The winter of 2009–2010 in Europe was unusually cold.

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Wonders of the World

Various lists of the Wonders of the World have been compiled from antiquity to the present day, to catalogue the world's most spectacular natural wonders and manmade structures.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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2008 Channel Tunnel fire

The 2008 Channel Tunnel fire occurred on 11 September 2008 in the Channel Tunnel.

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2014 Tour de France

The 2014 Tour de France was the 101st edition of the race, one of cycling's Grand Tours.

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25 kV AC railway electrification

25 kV alternating current electrification is commonly used in railway electrification systems worldwide, especially for high-speed rail.

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2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation cellular technology.

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3G, short for third generation, is the third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology.

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4G is the fourth generation of broadband cellular network technology, succeeding 3G.

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Channel Tunnel Group, Channel tunnel, Chunnel, Chunnel tunnel, Early Conceptions of the Channel Tunnel, Early conceptions of the Channel Tunnel, Early conceptions of the channel tunnel, ElecLink, English Chunnel, Euro Chunnel, Fixed Link Treaty, France-UK tunnel, Le tunnel sous la Manche, The Channel Tunnel, The Chunnel, Tunnel sous la Manche.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Channel_Tunnel

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