134 relations: Active pixel sensor, Andor Technology, Angle–sensitive pixel, Argus (camera company), Astronomy, Astrophotography, AT&T Corporation, Autoguider, Avalanche breakdown, Avalanche diode, Bayer filter, Bell Labs, Biasing, Blue, Boron, Bubble memory, Bucket-brigade device, Camcorder, Capacitor, Carrier generation and recombination, Channel-stopper, Charge amplifier, Charge-coupled device, Charles Stark Draper Prize, Chemical vapor deposition, CMOS, Coating, Colour co-site sampling, Cosmic ray, Dark current (physics), Dark-frame subtraction, Defective pixel, Dichroic prism, Dielectric, Digital camera, Digital imaging, Doping (semiconductor), Electric charge, Electron, Empiricism, Epitaxy, F. J. Duarte, Fabry–Pérot interferometer, Fairchild Semiconductor, Fax, Fill factor (image sensor), Fluorescence microscope, George E. Smith, Gil Amelio, Glossary of video terms, ..., Green, Hewlett-Packard, Hole accumulation diode, Hubble Space Telescope, Human digestive system, Human eye, Image, Image scanner, Image sensor, Impact ionization, Infrared, Infrared photography, Ion implantation, James M. Early, John Wiley & Sons, Johnson–Nyquist noise, Kazuo Iwama (Sony), Kelvin, KH-11 Kennen, Kodak, Lens (optics), Light, Liquid nitrogen, List of types of interferometers, LOCOS, Logarithm, Lucky imaging, Luminance, Lux, Michael Francis Tompsett, Microchannel plate detector, Microscanning, MOSFET, National Academy of Engineering, Night vision, Night vision device, Nobel Prize in Physics, Optical format, Oxide, P–n junction, Phosphor, Phosphorus, Photocathode, Photodiode, Photographic film, Photolithography, Photon, Photon counting, Picosecond, Pixel, Polycrystalline silicon, Preclinical imaging, Professional video camera, Quantum efficiency, Raman spectroscopy, Range gate, RCA, Red, Remote control, Rotating line camera, Scientific American, Semiconductor, Shift register, Shutter (photography), Signal-to-noise ratio, Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Simon Sze, Single-molecule experiment, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Sony, Spectrometer, Stanford Computer Optics, Steven Sasson, Super-resolution microscopy, Superconducting camera, Texas Instruments, Thermoelectric cooling, Three-CCD camera, Time delay and integration, Video camera tube, Voltage, Wide dynamic range, Willard Boyle. Expand index (84 more) » « Shrink index
An active-pixel sensor (APS) is an image sensor where each picture element ("pixel") has a photodetector and an active amplifier.
Andor Technology Ltd is a developer and manufacturer of high performance light measuring solutions (scientific digital cameras).
An angle-sensitive pixel (ASP) is a light sensor made entirely in CMOS with a sensitivity to incoming light that is sinusoidal in incident angle.
Argus was an American maker of cameras and photographic products, founded in 1936 in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Astrophotography is a specialized type of photography for recording photos of astronomical objects, celestial events, and areas of the night sky.
AT&T Corp., originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies.
An autoguider is an automatic electronic guidance tool used in astronomy to keep a telescope pointed precisely at an object being observed.
Avalanche breakdown is a phenomenon that can occur in both insulating and semiconducting materials.
In electronics, an avalanche diode is a diode (made from silicon or other semiconductor) that is designed to experience avalanche breakdown at a specified reverse bias voltage.
A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array (CFA) for arranging RGB color filters on a square grid of photosensors.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
Biasing in electronics means establishing predetermined voltages or currents at various points of an electronic circuit for the purpose of establishing proper operating conditions in electronic components.
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Bubble memory is a type of non-volatile computer memory that uses a thin film of a magnetic material to hold small magnetized areas, known as bubbles or domains, each storing one bit of data.
A bucket brigade or bucket-brigade device (BBD) is a discrete-time analogue delay line, developed in 1969 by F. Sangster and K. Teer of the Philips Research Labs.
A camcorder is an electronic device originally combining a video camera and a videocassette recorder.
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.
In the solid-state physics of semiconductors, carrier generation and recombination are processes by which mobile charge carriers (electrons and electron holes) are created and eliminated.
In semiconductor device fabrication, channel-stopper or channel-stop is an area in semiconductor devices produced by implantation or diffusion of ions, by growing or patterning the silicon oxide, or other isolation methods in semiconductor material with the primary function to limit the spread of the channel area or to prevent the formation of parasitic channels (inversion layers).
A charge amplifier is an electronic current integrator that produces a voltage output proportional to the integrated value of the input current.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
The National Academy of Engineering annually awards the Draper Prize, which is given for the advancement of engineering and the education of the public about engineering.
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is deposition method used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials, typically under vacuum.
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate.
Colour co-site sampling is a system of photographic colour sensing, wherein 4, 16 or 36 images are collected from the sensor and merged to form a single image.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
In physics and in electronic engineering, dark current is the relatively small electric current that flows through photosensitive devices such as a photomultiplier tube, photodiode, or charge-coupled device even when no photons are entering the device; it consists of the charges generated in the detector when no outside radiation is entering the detector.
In digital photography, dark-frame subtraction is a way to minimize image noise for photographs shot with long exposure times, at high ISO sensor sensitivity or at high temperatures.
Defective pixels are pixels on a liquid crystal display (LCD) that are not performing as expected.
A dichroic prism is a prism that splits light into two beams of differing wavelength (colour).
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.
Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of a digitally encoded representation of the visual characteristics of an object, such as a physical scene or the interior structure of an object.
In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Epitaxy refers to the deposition of a crystalline overlayer on a crystalline substrate.
Francisco Javier "Frank" Duarte (born c. 1954) is a laser physicist and author/editor of several well-known books on tunable lasers and quantum optics.
In optics, a Fabry–Pérot interferometer (FPI) or etalon is typically made of a transparent plate with two reflecting surfaces, or two parallel highly reflecting mirrors.
Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California.
Fax (short for facsimile), sometimes called telecopying or telefax (the latter short for telefacsimile), is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed material (both text and images), normally to a telephone number connected to a printer or other output device.
The fill factor of an image sensor array is the ratio of a pixel's light sensitive area to its total area.
A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope that uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to study properties of organic or inorganic substances.
George Elwood Smith (born May 10, 1930) is an American scientist, applied physicist, and co-inventor of the charge-coupled device (CCD).
Gilbert Frank Amelio (born March 1, 1943) is an American technology executive.
This glossary defines terms that are used in the document, developed by the.
Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
A Hole accumulation diode (HAD) is an electronic noise reduction device in a charge-coupled device (CCD) or CMOS imaging sensor.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.
An image scanner—often abbreviated to just scanner, although the term is ambiguous out of context (barcode scanner, CT scanner etc.)—is a device that optically scans images, printed text, handwriting or an object and converts it to a digital image.
An image sensor or imaging sensor is a sensor that detects and conveys the information that constitutes an image.
Impact ionization is the process in a material by which one energetic charge carrier can lose energy by the creation of other charge carriers.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Top: tree photographed in the near infrared range.
Ion implantation is low-temperature process by which ions of one element are accelerated into a solid target, thereby changing the physical, chemical, or electrical properties of the target.
James M. Early (July 25, 1922 – January 12, 2004) was an American engineer, best known for his work on transistors and charge-coupled device imagers.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.
was a Japanese engineer who became the president of Sony.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
The KH-11 KENNEN, renamed CRYSTAL in 1982p.199-200 and according to leaked NRO budget documentation currently going by the codename of Evolved Enhanced CRYSTAL (EEC) (but also referenced by the codenames 1010,p.82 Key Hole and "Key Hole"), is a type of reconnaissance satellite first launched by the American National Reconnaissance Office in December 1976.
The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak) is an American technology company that produces imaging products with its historic basis on photography.
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.
LOCOS, short for LOCal Oxidation of Silicon, is a microfabrication process where silicon dioxide is formed in selected areas on a silicon wafer having the Si-SiO2 interface at a lower point than the rest of the silicon surface.
In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.
Lucky imaging (also called lucky exposures) is one form of speckle imaging used for astronomical photography.
Luminance is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction.
The lux (symbol: lx) is the SI derived unit of illuminance and luminous emittance, measuring luminous flux per unit area.
Michael Francis Tompsett is a British-born physicist, engineer, and inventor, and the founder director of the US software company TheraManager.
A micro-channel plate (MCP) is a planar component used for detection of single particles (electrons, ions and neutrons) and low intensity impinging radiation (ultraviolet radiation and X-rays).
Microscanning is a method for increasing resolution of digital cameras.
MOSFET showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (white). surface-mount packages. Operating as switches, each of these components can sustain a blocking voltage of 120nbspvolts in the ''off'' state, and can conduct a continuous current of 30 amperes in the ''on'' state, dissipating up to about 100 watts and controlling a load of over 2000 watts. A matchstick is pictured for scale. A cross-section through an nMOSFET when the gate voltage ''V''GS is below the threshold for making a conductive channel; there is little or no conduction between the terminals drain and source; the switch is off. When the gate is more positive, it attracts electrons, inducing an ''n''-type conductive channel in the substrate below the oxide, which allows electrons to flow between the ''n''-doped terminals; the switch is on. Simulation result for formation of inversion channel (electron density) and attainment of threshold voltage (IV) in a nanowire MOSFET. Note that the threshold voltage for this device lies around 0.45 V The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon.
The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
Night vision is the ability to see in low-light conditions.
A night vision device (NVD), also known as night optical/observation device (NOD) and night vision goggles (NVG), is an optoelectronic device that allows images to be produced in levels of light approaching total darkness.
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
Optical format is a hypothetical measurement approximately 50% larger than the true diagonal size of a solid-state photo sensor.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
A p–n junction is a boundary or interface between two types of semiconductor materials, p-type and n-type, inside a single crystal of semiconductor.
A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
A photocathode is a negatively charged electrode in a light detection device such as a photomultiplier or phototube that is coated with a photosensitive compound.
A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current.
Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.
Photolithography, also termed optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photon counting is a technique in which individual photons are counted using some single-photon detector (SPD).
A picosecond is an SI unit of time equal to 10−12 or 1/1,000,000,000,000 (one trillionth) of a second.
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.
Polycrystalline silicon, also called polysilicon or poly-Si, is a high purity, polycrystalline form of silicon, used as a raw material by the solar photovoltaic and electronics industry.
Preclinical imaging is the visualization of living animals for research purposes, such as drug development.
A professional video camera (often called a television camera even though the use has spread beyond television) is a high-end device for creating electronic moving images (as opposed to a movie camera, that earlier recorded the images on film).
The term quantum efficiency (QE) may apply to incident photon to converted electron (IPCE) ratio, of a photosensitive device or it may refer to the TMR effect of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction.
Raman spectroscopy (named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.
A range gate is an electronic circuit that selects signals within a given time period; the "gate" allows signals to pass through only within the selected time.
The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919.
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.
In electronics, a remote control or clicker is a component of an electronic device used to operate the device from a distance, usually wirelessly.
A rotating line camera is a digital camera that uses a linear CCD array to assemble a digital image as the camera rotates.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
In digital circuits, a shift register is a cascade of flip flops, sharing the same clock, in which the output of each flip-flop is connected to the 'data' input of the next flip-flop in the chain, resulting in a circuit that shifts by one position the 'bit array' stored in it, 'shifting in' the data present at its input and 'shifting out' the last bit in the array, at each transition of the clock input.
In photography, a shutter is a device that allows light to pass for a determined period, exposing photographic film or a light-sensitive electronic sensor to light in order to capture a permanent image of a scene.
Signal-to-noise ratio (abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
A single-molecule experiment is an experiment that investigates the properties of individual molecules.
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey or SDSS is a major multi-spectral imaging and spectroscopic redshift survey using a dedicated 2.5-m wide-angle optical telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, United States.
is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.
A spectrometer is a scientific instrument used to separate and measure spectral components of a physical phenomenon.
Stanford Computer Optics, Inc, founded in 1989, is a developer and manufacturer of intensified CCD (ICCD) camera systems for scientific and R&D applications.
Steven J. Sasson (born July 4, 1950) is an American electrical engineer and the inventor of the first self-contained (portable) digital camera.
Super-resolution microscopy, in light microscopy, is a term that gathers several techniques, which allow images to be taken with a higher resolution than the one imposed by the diffraction limit.
The superconducting camera, SCAM, is an ultra-fast photon-counting camera developed by the European Space Agency.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
Thermoelectric cooling uses the Peltier effect to create a heat flux between the junction of two different types of materials.
A three-CCD (3CCD) camera is a camera whose imaging system uses three separate charge-coupled devices (CCDs), each one receiving filtered red, green, or blue color ranges.
A time delay and integration or time delay integration (TDI) charge-coupled device (CCD) is an image sensor for capturing images of moving objects at low light levels.
The video camera tube was a type of cathode ray tube used to capture the television image prior to the introduction of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) in the 1980s.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) is a term used in the surveillance camera industry to refer to High Dynamic Range Imaging.
Willard Sterling Boyle, (August 19, 1924May 7, 2011) was a Canadian physicist, pioneer in the field of laser technology and co-inventor of the charge-coupled device.
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