306 relations: Acronym, Act of Uniformity 1662, Algernon Sidney, Anglicanism, Anne Hyde, Anne Lennard, Countess of Sussex, Anne of Denmark, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, Antoine of Navarre, Apoplexy, Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll, Argent, Arthur Capell, 1st Earl of Essex, Attitude (heraldry), Azure (heraldry), Barbara Palmer, 1st Duchess of Cleveland, Battle of Dunbar (1650), Battle of Edgehill, Battle of Lowestoft, Battle of Preston (1648), Battle of Sedgemoor, Battle of the Dunes (1658), Battle of Worcester, Bishop of London, Bloodletting, Book of Common Prayer, Boscobel House, Brazil, Breda, British Empire, British Isles, Cabal, Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, Catherine FitzCharles, Catherine of Braganza, Catherine Pegge, Catholic Church, Cavalier, Cavalier Parliament, Chapel Royal, Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans, Charles Berkeley, 1st Earl of Falmouth, Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth, Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland, Charles I of England, Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, Charleston, South Carolina, Charlotte FitzRoy, Countess of Yarmouth, Charlotte Lee, Countess of Lichfield, Christopher Wren, ..., Church of England, City of London, Coat of arms of Ireland, Commonwealth of England, Conventicle Act 1664, Convention Parliament (1660), Coronation of the British monarch, Corporation Act 1661, Covenanter, Criminal jurisdiction, Cultural depictions of Charles II of England, Cupping therapy, Declaration of Breda, Despotism, Diana, Princess of Wales, Dissenter, Dover, Dowry, Duke of Buccleuch, Duke of Cleveland, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Grafton, Duke of Leinster, Duke of Lennox, Duke of Marlborough (title), Duke of Northumberland, Duke of Richmond, Duke of Rothesay, Duke of St Albans, Dutch Gift, Dutch Republic, Dynastic union, Earl of Clarendon, Earl of Northumberland, Earl of Plymouth, East India Company, East Indies, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, Edward III of England, Edward Lee, 1st Earl of Lichfield, Edward Radclyffe, 2nd Earl of Derwentwater, Elizabeth Killigrew, Viscountess Shannon, Engagers, English Civil War, English claims to the French throne, English Tangier, Episcopal polity, Escape of Charles II, Eucharist, Exclusion Crisis, Falmouth, Cornwall, Fidei defensor, First Anglo-Dutch War, Five Mile Act 1665, Fleur-de-lis, Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Francis Boyle, 1st Viscount Shannon, Frederick II of Denmark, Freedom of religion, George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland, George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, Glorious Revolution, Gloucester, Great Fire of London, Great Plague of London, Gules, Hanged, drawn and quartered, Hearth tax, Heir presumptive, Henrietta Maria of France, Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington, Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton, Henry Graham (of Levens), Henry Ireton, Henry IV of France, Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, High treason, Hilaire Belloc, HMS Royal Charles (1655), Hortense Mancini, House of Lords, House of Stuart, Hudson Bay, Hudson's Bay Company, Idolatry, Indemnity and Oblivion Act, Instrument of Government, Interregnum (England), Irish Convention (1660), Isaac Newton, Isles of Scilly, James de la Cloche, James Francis Edward Stuart, James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton, James II of England, James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, James VI and I, Jeanne d'Albret, Jersey, Joanna of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, John Bradshaw (judge), John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, John Evelyn, John Maitland, 1st Duke of Lauderdale, John Michael Wright, John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, Julian calendar, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Scotland, Label (heraldry), Lady Barbara FitzRoy, Lady Mary Tudor, Libertine, Lichfield Cathedral, List of English monarchs, List of regicides of Charles I, List of Scottish monarchs, Long Parliament, Lord Chancellor, Lord High Treasurer, Louis 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Restoration (England), Restoration comedy, Restoration literature, Richard Cromwell, Rijksmuseum, River Thames, Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke, Robert Hubert, Robert Killigrew, Roger Palmer, 1st Earl of Castlemaine, Ronald Hutton, Roundhead, Royal Arms of England, Royal Arms of Scotland, Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, Royal Declaration of Indulgence, Royal Hospital Chelsea, Royal Household, Royal Oak, Royal Observatory, Greenwich, Royal Society, Rump Parliament, Rupert's Land, Rye House Plot, Sale of Dunkirk, Salisbury, Samuel Pepys, Sarah, Duchess of York, Scheveningen, Scone Abbey, Second Anglo-Dutch War, Second English Civil War, Secret Treaty of Dover, Seven Islands of Bombay, Smallpox, Society of Jesus, Soho Square, Solemn League and Covenant, Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, South Kingstown, Rhode Island, Southern Netherlands, Spanish Netherlands, St James's Palace, St Paul's Cathedral, State religion, States General of the Netherlands, Stillbirth, Style (manner of address), Succession to the British throne, Superstition, Tangier, Test Act, The BMJ, The Hague, Third Anglo-Dutch War, Thomas Clifford, 1st Baron Clifford of Chudleigh, Thomas Hearne (antiquarian), Thomas Lennard, 1st Earl of Sussex, Thomas Osborne, 1st Duke of Leeds, Titus Oates, Tory, Tower of London, Treaty of Breda (1650), Treaty of Breda (1667), Treaty of Brussels (1656), Treaty of Paris (1657), Treaty of the Pyrenees, Triple Alliance (1668), Uremia, War of Devolution, West Country, Westminster Abbey, Whigs (British political party), William II, Prince of Orange, William III of England, William Laud, William Paston, 2nd Earl of Yarmouth, William Russell, Lord Russell, Winifred Wells. 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An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
The Act of Uniformity 1662 (14 Car 2 c 4) is an Act of the Parliament of England.
Algernon Sidney or Sydney (14 or 15 January 1623 – 7 December 1683) was an English politician and member of the middle part of the Long Parliament.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Anne Hyde (12 March 163731 March 1671) was Duchess of York and of Albany as the first wife of the future King James II of England.
Anne Lennard (née Palmer), Countess of Sussex (25 February 1661 – 16 May 1721 or 1722), formerly Lady Anne Fitzroy, was the eldest daughter of Barbara Villiers, mistress to King Charles II.
Anne of Denmark (12 December 1574 – 2 March 1619) was Queen consort of Scotland, England, and Ireland by marriage to King James VI and I. The second daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark, Anne married James in 1589 at age 15 and bore him three children who survived infancy, including the future Charles I. She demonstrated an independent streak and a willingness to use factional Scottish politics in her conflicts with James over the custody of Prince Henry and his treatment of her friend Beatrix Ruthven.
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, PC (22 July 1621 – 21 January 1683), known as Anthony Ashley Cooper from 1621 to 1630, as Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, 2nd Baronet from 1630 to 1661, and as The Lord Ashley from 1661 to 1672, was a prominent English politician during the Interregnum and during the reign of King Charles II.
Antoine (in English, Anthony; 22 April 1518 – 17 November 1562) was the King of Navarre through his marriage (jure uxoris) to Queen Jeanne III, from 1555 until his death.
Apoplexy is bleeding within internal organs and the accompanying symptoms.
Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll, 8th Earl of Argyll, chief of Clan Campbell, (March 160727 May 1661) was a Scottish nobleman, politician, and peer.
In heraldry, argent is the tincture of silver, and belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals." It is very frequently depicted as white and usually considered interchangeable with it.
Arthur Capell, 1st Earl of Essex, PC (163113 July 1683), also spelled Capel, of Cassiobury House, Watford, Hertfordshire, was an English statesman.
In heraldry, an attitude is the position in which an animal, bird, fish, human or human-like being is emblazoned as a charge, supporter or crest.
In heraldry, azure is the tincture with the colour blue, and belongs to the class of tinctures called "colours".
Barbara Palmer, 1st Duchess of Cleveland (– 9 October 1709), more often known by her maiden name Barbara Villiers or her title of Countess of Castlemaine, was an English royal mistress of the Villiers family and perhaps the most notorious of the many mistresses of King Charles II of England, by whom she had five children, all of them acknowledged and subsequently ennobled.
The Battle of Dunbar (3 September 1650) was a battle of the Third English Civil War.
The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was a pitched battle of the First English Civil War.
The Battle of Lowestoft took place on 13 June (New Style) 1665 during the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
The Battle of Preston (17–19 August 1648), fought largely at Walton-le-Dale near Preston in Lancashire, resulted in a victory for the New Model Army under the command of Oliver Cromwell over the Royalists and Scots commanded by the Duke of Hamilton.
The Battle of Sedgemoor was fought on 6 July 1685 and took place at Westonzoyland near Bridgwater in Somerset, England.
The Battle of the Dunes, also known as the Battle of Dunkirk, was fought on 14 June 1658 (Gregorian calendar).
The Battle of Worcester took place on 3 September 1651 at Worcester, England, and was the final battle of the English Civil War.
The Bishop of London is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury.
Bloodletting (or blood-letting) is the withdrawal of blood from a patient to prevent or cure illness and disease.
The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, Anglican realignment and other Anglican Christian churches.
Boscobel House is a Grade II* listed building in the parish of Boscobel in Shropshire.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Breda is a city and municipality in the southern part of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Brabant.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
A cabal is a small group of people united in some close design, usually to promote their private views of or interests in an ideology, state, or other community, often by intrigue and usually unbeknownst to those outside their group.
Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, (born Camilla Rosemary Shand, later Parker Bowles; 17 July 1947) is a member of the British royal family.
Catherine FitzCharles, born in 1658, was the illegitimate daughter of Charles II of England and his mistress, Catherine Pegge.
Catherine of Braganza (Catarina; 25 November 1638 – 31 December 1705) was queen consort of England, of Scotland and of Ireland from 1662 to 1685, as the wife of King Charles II.
Catherine Pegge, born about 1635, was a long term mistress of Charles II.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The term Cavalier was first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration (1642 – c. 1679).
The Cavalier Parliament of England lasted from 8 May 1661 until 24 January 1679.
In both the United Kingdom and Canada, a Chapel Royal refers not to a building but to a distinct body of priests and singers who explicitly serve the spiritual needs of the sovereign.
Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans, KG (8 May 1670 – 10 May 1726) was an illegitimate son of King Charles II of England by his mistress Nell Gwynne.
Charles Berkeley 1st Earl of Falmouth (11 January 1630 – 3 June 1665) was the son of Charles Berkeley (1599–1668) and his wife Penelope née Godolphin (died 1669), of the Bruton branch of the Berkeley family.
Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth (1657 – 17 October 1680) was the illegitimate son of King Charles II of England, by Catherine Pegge.
Charles Palmer, later Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland, 1st Duke of Southampton, KG, Chief Butler of England (18 June 1662 – 9 September 1730), styled Baron Limerick before 1670 and Earl of Southampton between 1670 and 1675, was the eldest son of Barbara Villiers, later 1st Duchess of Cleveland, and one of the illegitimate sons of King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, 1st Duke of Lennox, 1st Duke of Aubigny (29 July 1672 – 27 May 1723) was an English nobleman and politician.
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria FitzRoy, Countess of Yarmouth (– 28 July 1684) was one of the many acknowledged illegitimate children of Charles II of England.
Charlotte Lee, Countess of Lichfield (5 September 1664 – 17 February 1718), formerly Lady Charlotte Fitzroy, was the illegitimate daughter of King Charles II of England by one of his best known mistresses, Barbara Villiers, 1st Duchess of Cleveland.
Sir Christopher Wren PRS FRS (–) was an English anatomist, astronomer, geometer, and mathematician-physicist, as well as one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London.
The coat of arms of Ireland is blazoned as Azure a Celtic Harp Or, stringed Argent (a gold harp with silver strings on a blue background).
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.
The Conventicle Act of 1664 was an Act of the Parliament of England (16 Charles II c. 4) that forbade conventicles, defined as religious assemblies of more than five people other than an immediate family, outside the auspices of the Church of England.
The Convention Parliament (25 April 1660 – 29 December 1660) followed the Long Parliament that had finally voted for its own dissolution on 16 March that year.
The coronation of the British monarch is a ceremony (specifically, initiation rite) in which the monarch of the United Kingdom is formally invested with regalia and crowned at Westminster Abbey.
The Corporation Act of 1661 was an Act of the Parliament of England (13 Cha. II. St. 2 c. 1).
The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century.
Criminal jurisdiction is a term used in constitutional law and public law to describe the power of courts to hear a case brought by a state accusing a defendant of the commission of a crime.
Charles II of England has been portrayed many times.
Cupping therapy is a form of alternative medicine in which a local suction is created on the skin.
The Declaration of Breda (dated 4 April 1660) was a proclamation by Charles II of England in which he promised a general pardon for crimes committed during the English Civil War and the Interregnum for all those who recognised Charles as the lawful king; the retention by the current owners of property purchased during the same period; religious toleration; and the payment of pay arrears to members of the army, and that the army would be recommissioned into service under the crown.
Despotism (Δεσποτισμός, Despotismós) is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power.
Diana, Princess of Wales (born Diana Frances Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997) was a member of the British royal family.
A dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, "to disagree") is one who disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc.
Dover is a town and major ferry port in the home county of Kent, in South East England.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
The title Duke of Buccleuch, formerly also spelt Duke of Buccleugh, is a title created twice in the Peerage of Scotland.
Duke of Cleveland is a title that has been created twice, once in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Duke of Cornwall is a title in the Peerage of England, traditionally held by the eldest son of the reigning British monarch, previously the English monarch.
Duke of Grafton is a title in the Peerage of England.
Duke of Leinster is a title in the Peerage of Ireland and the premier dukedom in that peerage.
The title Duke of Lennox has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland, for Clan Stewart of Darnley.
The Duke of Marlborough is a title in the Peerage of England.
Duke of Northumberland is a noble title that has been created three times in English and British history, twice in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of Great Britain.
Duke of Richmond is a title in the Peerage of England that has been created four times in British history.
Duke of Rothesay (Diùc Baile Bhòid, Duik o Rothesay) is a dynastic title of the heir apparent to the British throne, currently Prince Charles.
Duke of St Albans is a title in the Peerage of England.
The Dutch Gift of 1660 was a collection of 28 mostly Italian Renaissance paintings and 12 classical sculptures, along with a yacht, the ''Mary'', and furniture, which was presented to King Charles II of England by the States-General of the Netherlands in 1660.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
A dynastic union is a kind of federation with only two different states that are governed by the same dynasty, while their boundaries, their laws and their interests remain distinct.
Earl of Clarendon is a title that has been created twice in British history, in 1661 and 1776.
The title of Earl of Northumberland was created several times in the Peerage of England and of Great Britain, succeeding the title Earl of Northumbria.
Earl of Plymouth is a title that has been created three times: twice in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia.
Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 16099 December 1674) was an English statesman who served as Lord Chancellor to King Charles II from 1658, two years before the Restoration of the Monarchy, until 1667.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Edward Henry Lee, 1st Earl of Lichfield (4 February 1663 – 14 July 1716) was an English peer.
Edward Radclyffe, 2nd Earl of Derwentwater (1655 – 29 April 1705) was an English peer, styled Viscount Radclyffe from 1688 to 1695.
Elizabeth Killigrew, Viscountess Shannon (16 May 1622 (baptised) – December 1680) was an English courtier, the daughter of Sir Robert Killigrew and sister of dramatist Thomas Killigrew.
The Engagers were a faction of the Scottish Covenanters, who made "The Engagement" with King Charles I in December 1647 while he was imprisoned in Carisbrooke Castle by the English Parliamentarians after his defeat in the First Civil War.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England (and, later, of Great Britain) also claimed the throne of France.
Tangier was an English overseas possession between 1661 and 1684.
An episcopal polity is a hierarchical form of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") in which the chief local authorities are called bishops.
The escape of Charles II from England in 1651 was a key episode in his life.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
The Exclusion Crisis ran from 1679 through 1681 in the reign of King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Falmouth (Aberfala) is a town, civil parish and port on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.
Fidei defensor (feminine: Fidei defensatrix) is a Latin title which translates to Defender of the Faith in English and Défenseur de la Foi in French.
The First Anglo-Dutch War, or, simply, the First Dutch War, (Eerste Engelse zeeoorlog "First English Sea War") (1652–54) was a conflict fought entirely at sea between the navies of the Commonwealth of England and the United Provinces of the Netherlands.
The Five Mile Act, or Oxford Act, or Nonconformists Act 1665, is an Act of the Parliament of England (17 Charles II c. 2), passed in 1665 with the long title "An Act for restraining Non-Conformists from inhabiting in Corporations".
The fleur-de-lis/fleur-de-lys (plural: fleurs-de-lis/fleurs-de-lys) or flower-de-luce is a stylized lily (in French, fleur means "flower", and lis means "lily") that is used as a decorative design or motif, and many of the Catholic saints of France, particularly St. Joseph, are depicted with a lily.
Francesco I (25 March 1541 – 19 October 1587) was the second Grand Duke of Tuscany, ruling from 1574 until his death in 1587, a member of the House of Medici.
Francis Boyle, 1st Viscount Shannon (1623–1699) was a Privy Counsellor of Ireland and held the office of Governor of County Cork.
Frederick II (1 July 1534 – 4 April 1588) was King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Lieutenant-General George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland, KG, PC (28 December 1665 – 28 June 1716) was the third and youngest illegitimate son of King Charles II of England; his mother was Barbara Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine (also known as Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland).
George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, KG (6 December 1608 – 3 January 1670) was an English soldier and politician, and a key figure in the Restoration of the monarchy to King Charles II in 1660.
George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, 20th Baron de Ros, (30 January 1628 – 16 April 1687) was an English statesman and poet.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
Gloucester is a city and district in Gloucestershire, England, of which it is the county town.
The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London from Sunday, 2 September to Thursday, 6 of September 1666.
The Great Plague, lasting from 1665 to 1666, was the last major epidemic of the bubonic plague to occur in England.
In heraldry, gules is the tincture with the colour red, and belongs to the class of dark tinctures called "colours." In engraving, it is sometimes depicted as a region of vertical lines or else marked with gu. as an abbreviation.
To be hanged, drawn and quartered was from 1352 a statutory penalty in England for men convicted of high treason, although the ritual was first recorded during the reign of King Henry III (1216–1272).
A hearth tax was a property tax in certain countries during the medieval and early modern period, levied on each hearth, thus by proxy on each family unit.
An heir presumptive or heiress presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent, male or female, or of a new heir presumptive with a better claim to the position in question.
Henrietta Maria of France (Henriette Marie; 25 November 1609 – 10 September 1669) was queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I. She was mother of his two immediate successors, Charles II and James II/VII.
Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington, KG, PC (1618 – 28 July 1685) was an English statesman.
Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton (28 September 16639 October 1690) was the illegitimate son of King Charles II of England.
Henry Graham, of Levens (ca. 1676 – 7 January 1706/1707), also spelt Grahme, was an English gentleman, heir to a Westmorland estate, and member of parliament.
Henry Ireton (1611 – 26 November 1651) was an English general in the Parliamentary army during the English Civil War, the son-in-law of Oliver Cromwell.
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester (8 July 1640 – 13 September 1660) was the youngest son of Charles I and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France, the third son to survive to adulthood (his eldest brother, Charles, Duke of Cornwall and of Rothesay, was born and died the same day).
Henry Stuart (or Stewart), Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 10 February 1567), styled as Lord Darnley until 1565, was king consort of Scotland from 1565 until his murder at Kirk o' Field in 1567.
Treason is criminal disloyalty.
Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc (27 July 187016 July 1953) was an Anglo-French writer and historian.
Royal Charles was an 80-gun first-rate three-decker ship of the line of the English Navy.
Hortense Mancini, Duchesse de Mazarin (6 June 1646, Rome – 2 July 1699, Chelsea), was the favourite niece of Cardinal Mazarin, chief minister of France, and a mistress of Charles II, King of England, Scotland and Ireland.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.
Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.
The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian retail business group.
Idolatry literally means the worship of an "idol", also known as a cult image, in the form of a physical image, such as a statue or icon.
The Indemnity and Oblivion Act 1660 is an Act of the Parliament of England (12 Cha. II c. 11), the long title of which is "An Act of Free and General Pardon, Indemnity, and Oblivion".
The Instrument of Government was a constitution of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
The Interregnum was the period between the execution of Charles I on 30 January 1649 and the arrival of his son Charles II in London on 29 May 1660 which marked the start of the Restoration.
The Irish Convention sat 7 February, 2 March and 27 May 1660, and again January 1661.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
The Isles of Scilly (Syllan or Enesek Syllan) is an archipelago off the southwestern tip of Cornwall.
James de la Cloche (1644?–1669?) is an alleged would-be-illegitimate son of Charles II of England who would have first joined a Jesuit seminary and then gave up his habit to marry a Neapolitan woman.
James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766), nicknamed the Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena.
James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose (1612 – 21 May 1650) was a Scottish nobleman, poet and soldier, who initially joined the Covenanters in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, but subsequently supported King Charles I as the English Civil War developed.
James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton KG PC (19 June 1606 – 9 March 1649) was a Scottish nobleman and influential political and military leader during the Thirty Years' War and the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, 1st Duke of Buccleuch, KG, PC (9 April 1649 – 15 July 1685) was an English nobleman.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Jeanne d'Albret (Basque: Joana Albretekoa; Occitan: Joana de Labrit; 16 November 1528 – 9 June 1572), also known as Jeanne III, was the queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.
Joanna of Austria (German Johanna von Österreich, Italian Giovanna d'Austria) (24 January 1547 – 11 April 1578) was born an Archduchess of Austria as the youngest daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary.
John Bradshaw (15 July 1602 – 31 October 1659) was an English judge.
General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st Count of Nellenburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722 O.S.) was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs.
John Evelyn, FRS (31 October 1620 – 27 February 1706) was an English writer, gardener and diarist.
John Maitland, 1st Duke and 2nd Earl of Lauderdale, 3rd Lord Thirlestane KG PC (24 May 1616, Lethington, East Lothian – 24 August 1682), was a Scottish politician, and leader within the Cabal Ministry.
John Michael Wright (May 1617 – July 1694) was a portrait painter in the Baroque style.
John Wilmot (1 April 1647 – 26 July 1680) was an English poet and courtier of King Charles II's Restoration court.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
In heraldry, a label (occasionally lambel, the French form of the word) is a charge resembling the strap crossing the horse's chest from which pendants are hung.
Lady Barbara FitzRoy (16 July 1672 – 6 May 1737), was the sixth and youngest child of Barbara Palmer, 1st Duchess of Cleveland, a mistress of Charles II of England.
Lady Mary Tudor (16 October 1673 – 5 November 1726) was a natural daughter of King Charles II of England by his mistress, Mary "Moll" Davies, an actress and singer.
A libertine is one devoid of most moral or sexual restraints, which are seen as unnecessary or undesirable, especially one who ignores or even spurns accepted morals and forms of behaviour sanctified by the larger society.
Lichfield Cathedral is situated in Lichfield, Staffordshire, England.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
Following the trial of Charles I in January 1649, 59 commissioners (judges) signed his death warrant.
The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland.
The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660.
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking even the Prime Minister.
The post of Lord High Treasurer or Lord Treasurer was an English government position and has been a British government position since the Acts of Union of 1707.
Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Louise Renée de Penancoët de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth (September 1649 – 14 November 1734) was a mistress of Charles II of England.
Lucy Walter or Lucy Barlow (c. 1630 – 1658) was a Welsh mistress of King Charles II of England and mother of James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth.
Luisa María Francisca de Guzmán y Sandoval (Luísa Maria Francisca de Gusmão; 13 October 1613 – 27 February 1666) was a queen consort of Portugal.
Marie de' Medici (Marie de Médicis, Maria de' Medici; 26 April 1575 – 3 July 1642) was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon.
Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.
Mary Bagot, Countess of Falmouth and Dorset, ca. 1664-65, by Sir Peter Lely Mary, Countess of Falmouth and Dorset (1645 – 1679) was a British courtier.
Mary, Princess Royal (Mary Henrietta; 4 November 1631 – 24 December 1660) was Princess of Orange and Countess of Nassau by marriage to Prince William II, and co-regent for her son during his minority as Sovereign Prince of Orange from 1651 to 1660.
Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.
The Mercat Cross of Edinburgh stands in Parliament Square next to St Giles' Cathedral, facing the High Street in the Old Town of Edinburgh.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
Mary "Moll" Davis (also Davies or Davys; ca. 1648 – 1708) was a seventeenth-century entertainer and courtesan, singer, and actress who became one of the many mistresses of King Charles II of England.
A monarchical system of government existed in Ireland from ancient times until, for what became the Republic of Ireland, the mid-twentieth century.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
The Navigation Acts were a series of English laws that restricted colonial trade to England.
Eleanor "Nell" Gwyn (2 February 1650 – 14 November 1687; also spelled Gwynn, Gwynne) was a long-time mistress of King Charles II of England and Scotland.
New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam, or) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland.
Newmarket is a market town in the English county of Suffolk, approximately 65 miles (105 kilometres) north of London.
In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
Restoration Day, more commonly known as Oak Apple Day or Royal Oak Day, was an English public holiday, observed annually on 29 May, to commemorate the restoration of the English monarchy in May 1660.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
In heraldry, or (French for "gold") is the tincture of gold and, together with argent (silver), belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals", or light colours.
The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.
Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
In heraldry, an orle is a subordinary consisting of a narrow band occupying the inward half of where a bordure would be, following the exact outline of the shield but within it, showing the field between the outer edge of the orle and the edge of the shield.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
The Palace of Whitehall (or Palace of White Hall) at Westminster, Middlesex, was the main residence of the English monarchs from 1530 until 1698, when most of its structures, except for Inigo Jones's Banqueting House of 1622, were destroyed by fire.
A pale is a term used in heraldic blazon and vexillology to describe a charge on a coat of arms (or flag), that takes the form of a band running vertically down the centre of the shield.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland.
In English history, penal law refers to a specific series of laws that sought to uphold the establishment of the Church of England against Protestant nonconformists and Catholicism, by imposing various forfeitures, civil penalties, and civil disabilities upon these dissenters.
Pendennis Castle is an artillery fort constructed by Henry VIII near Falmouth, Cornwall, England between 1540 and 1542.
The Popish Plot was a fictitious conspiracy concocted by Titus Oates that between 1678 and 1681 gripped the Kingdoms of England and Scotland in anti-Catholic hysteria.
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, mainly on Portsea Island, south-west of London and south-east of Southampton.
The Portuguese Restoration War (Guerra da Restauração; Guerra de Restauración portuguesa) was the name given by nineteenth-century Romantic historians to the war between Portugal and Spain that began with the Portuguese revolution of 1640 and ended with the Treaty of Lisbon in 1668.
Posthumous execution is the ritual or ceremonial mutilation of an already dead body as a punishment.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
Presbyterian (or presbyteral) polity is a method of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
Pride's Purge was an event that took place in December 1648, during the Second English Civil War, when troops of the New Model Army under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the Long Parliament all those who were not supporters of the Grandees in the New Model Army and the Independents.
Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru) was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards; the term replaced the use of the word king.
Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland (17 December 1619 – 29 November 1682) was a noted German soldier, admiral, scientist, sportsman, colonial governor and amateur artist during the 17th century.
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982) is a member of the British royal family.
Pudding Lane is a minor street in London widely known for being the location of Thomas Farriner's bakery where the Great Fire of London started in 1666.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Quartering in is a method of joining several different coats of arms together in one shield by dividing the shield into equal parts and placing different coats of arms in each division.
The Raid on the Medway, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War in June 1667, was a successful attack conducted by the Dutch navy on English battleships at a time when most were virtually unmanned and unarmed, laid up in the fleet anchorages off Chatham Dockyard and Gillingham in the county of Kent.
The broad definition of regicide (regis "of king" + cida "killer" or cidium "killing") is the deliberate killing of a monarch, or the person responsible for the killing of a person of royalty.
The Restoration was both a series of events in April–May 1660 and the period that followed it in British history.
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
The term "Restoration comedy" refers to English comedies written and performed in the Restoration period from 1660 to 1710.
Restoration literature is the English literature written during the historical period commonly referred to as the English Restoration (1660–1689), which corresponds to the last years of the direct Stuart reign in England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland.
Richard Cromwell (4 October 162612 July 1712) became the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, and was one of only two commoners to become the English head of state, the other being his father, Oliver Cromwell, from whom he inherited the post.
The Rijksmuseum (National Museum) is a Dutch national museum dedicated to arts and history in Amsterdam.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
Robert Hubert (c. 1640 – 27 October 1666) was a watchmaker from Rouen, France, who was executed following his false confession of starting the Great Fire of London.
Sir Robert Killigrew (1580–1633) was an English courtier and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1601 and 1629.
Roger Palmer, 1st Earl of Castlemaine, PC (1634–1705) was an English courtier, diplomat, and briefly a member of parliament, sitting in the House of Commons for part of 1660.
Ronald Hutton (born 1953) is an English historian who specialises in the study of Early Modern Britain, British folklore, pre-Christian religion and contemporary Paganism.
Roundheads were supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War.
The Royal Arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form at the start of the age of heraldry (circa 1200) as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154.
The royal arms of Scotland is the official coat of arms of the King of Scots first adopted in the 12th century.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The Royal Declaration of Indulgence was Charles II of England's attempt to extend religious liberty to Protestant nonconformists and Roman Catholics in his realms, by suspending the execution of the Penal Laws that punished recusants from the Church of England.
The Royal Hospital Chelsea, often called simply Chelsea Hospital, is a retirement home and nursing home for some 300 veterans of the British Army.
A royal household or imperial household in ancient and medieval monarchies, and papal household for popes, formed the basis for the general government of the country as well as providing for the needs of the sovereign and his relations.
The Royal Oak is the English oak tree within which the future King Charles II of England hid to escape the Roundheads following the Battle of Worcester in 1651.
The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (ROG; known as the Old Royal Observatory from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, moved from Greenwich to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
The Rump Parliament was the English Parliament after Colonel Thomas Pride purged the Long Parliament, on 6 December 1648, of those members hostile to the Grandees' intention to try King Charles I for high treason.
Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870.
The Rye House Plot of 1683 was a plan to assassinate King Charles II of England and his brother (and heir to the throne) James, Duke of York.
The Sale of Dunkirk took place in 1662 when Charles II of England sold his sovereign rights to Dunkirk to his cousin Louis XIV of France.
Salisbury is a cathedral city in Wiltshire, England, with a population of 40,302, at the confluence of the rivers Nadder, Ebble, Wylye and Bourne.
Samuel Pepys (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament who is most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man.
Sarah, Duchess of York (born Sarah Margaret Ferguson; 15 October 1959), also referred to by the nickname "Fergie", is a British writer, charity patron, public speaker, film producer and television personality.
Scheveningen is one of the eight districts of The Hague, Netherlands, as well as a subdistrict (wijk) of that city.
Scone Abbey (originally Scone Priory) was a house of Augustinian canons located in Scone, Perthshire (Gowrie), Scotland.
The Second Anglo-Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667), or the Second Dutch War (Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry.
The Second English Civil War (1648–1649) was the second of three wars known collectively as the English Civil War (or Wars), which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651 and also include the First English Civil War (1642–1646) and the Third English Civil War (1649–1651).
The Treaty of Dover, also known as the Secret Treaty of Dover, was a treaty between England and France signed at Dover on 1 June 1670.
The seven islands of Bombay were 16th-century Portuguese territories lying off the west coast of India, that were handed over to England under this title as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza when she married Charles II in 1661.The isles had earlier been part of indigenous empires like the Silhara dynasty and the Sultan of Gujarat before they were captured by the Portuguese in 1534.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Soho Square is a garden square in Soho, London which has been de facto since 1954 a public park leased to the council at its centre.
The Solemn League and Covenant was an agreement between the Scottish Covenanters and the leaders of the English Parliamentarians in 1643 during the First English Civil War.
Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (4 September 1557 – 14 October 1631) was Queen of Denmark and Norway by marriage to Frederick II of Denmark.
South Kingstown is a town in Washington County, Rhode Island, United States. The population was 30,639 at the 2010 census. South Kingstown is the largest town in Washington County and is the largest town (land and water area) in the state of Rhode Island.
The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, was the part of the Low Countries largely controlled by Spain (1556–1714), later Austria (1714–1794), and occupied then annexed by France (1794–1815).
Spanish Netherlands (Países Bajos Españoles; Spaanse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas espagnols, Spanische Niederlande) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain) from 1556 to 1714.
St James's Palace is the most senior royal palace in the United Kingdom.
St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).
Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.
A style of office or honorific is an official or legally recognized title.
Succession to the British throne is determined by descent, gender (for people born before October 2011), legitimacy, and religion.
Superstition is a pejorative term for any belief or practice that is considered irrational: for example, if it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a positive belief in fate or magic, or fear of that which is unknown.
Tangier (طَنجة Ṭanjah; Berber: ⵟⴰⵏⴵⴰ Ṭanja; old Berber name: ⵜⵉⵏⴳⵉ Tingi; adapted to Latin: Tingis; Tanger; Tánger; also called Tangiers in English) is a major city in northwestern Morocco.
The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and nonconformists.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The Third Anglo-Dutch War or the Third Dutch War (Derde Engelse Oorlog "Third English War", or Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog "Third English Sea War") was a military conflict between the Kingdom of England and the Dutch Republic, that lasted between April 1672 and early 1674.
Thomas Clifford, 1st Baron Clifford of Chudleigh (1 August 1630 – 17 October 1673) was an English statesman who sat in the House of Commons from 1660 to 1672 when he was created Baron Clifford.
Thomas Hearne or Hearn (July 1678 – 10 June 1735) was an English diarist and prolific antiquary, particularly remembered for his published editions of many medieval English chronicles and other important historical texts.
Thomas Lennard, 1st Earl of Sussex, 15th Baron Dacre, (13 May 1654 – 30 October 1715) was an English peer.
Thomas Osborne, 1st Duke of Leeds, KG (20 February 1632 – 26 July 1712), English politician who was part of the Immortal Seven group that invited William III, Prince of Orange to depose James II of England as monarch during the Glorious Revolution.
Titus Oates (15 September 1649 – 12/13 July 1705), also called Titus the Liar, was an English perjurer who fabricated the "Popish Plot", a supposed Catholic conspiracy to kill King Charles II.
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
The Treaty of Breda (1650) was signed on 1 May 1650 between Charles II (King in exile of England, Scotland and Ireland) and the Scottish Covenanters during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, 31 July (Gregorian calendar), 1667, by England, the United Provinces (Netherlands), France, and Denmark–Norway.
The Treaty of Brussels was an agreement between representatives of Philip IV of Spain and Charles II the leader of the exiled Royalists of England, Ireland and Scotland.
The Treaty of Paris signed in March 1657 allied the English Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell with King Louis XIV of France against King Philip IV of Spain, merging the Anglo-Spanish War (1654–1660) with the larger Franco-Spanish War (1635-1659).
The Treaty of the Pyrenees (Traité des Pyrénées, Tratado de los Pirineos, Tractat dels Pirineus, Tratado dos Pirenéus) was signed on 7 November 1659 to end the 1635–1659 war between France and Spain, a war that was initially a part of the wider Thirty Years' War.
The Triple Alliance of England, Sweden, and the United Provinces was formed in 1668 to support Spain against France.
Uremia is the condition of having "urea in the blood".
The War of Devolution (1667–68) saw the French armies of Louis XIV overrun the Habsburg-controlled Spanish Netherlands and the Franche-Comté (or Free County of Burgundy), only to be pressured to give most of it back by a Triple Alliance of England, Sweden and the Dutch Republic, in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
The West Country is a loosely defined area of south western England.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
William II (27 May 1626 – 6 November 1650) was sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from 14 March 1647 until his death three years later.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William Laud (7 October 1573 – 10 January 1645) was an English archbishop and academic.
William Paston, 2nd Earl of Yarmouth (1654 – 25 December 1732) was a British peer and politician.
William Russell, Lord Russell (29 September 1639 – 21 July 1683), was an English politician.
Winifred Wells was a courtier at the Stuart Restoration court as a Maid of Honour to Queen consort Catherine of Braganza.
Cha. 2, Charles II (England), Charles II (of England), Charles II Stuart, Charles II of Britain, Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland, Charles II of England and Scotland, Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland, Charles II of Great Britain, Charles II of Ireland, Charles II of Scotland, Charles II of the UK, Charles II of the United Kingdom, Charles II, King of England, Charles II, of England, Charles ii of england, King Charles II of England.