391 relations: Absolute monarchy, Advowson, Albrecht Dürer, Alexander Seton, 1st Earl of Dunfermline, Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland, Andrea del Sarto, Andrea Mantegna, Anglicanism, Anna of Brandenburg, Duchess of Mecklenburg, Anne Hyde, Anne of Denmark, Anne Stuart (1637–1640), Anne, Queen of Great Britain, Anthony van Dyck, Antonio da Correggio, Archbishop of Canterbury, Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, Argent, Arminianism, Arthur Haselrig, Attitude (heraldry), Azure (heraldry), Banqueting House, Whitehall, Barry Coward, Battle of Brentford (1642), Battle of Cropredy Bridge, Battle of Edgehill, Battle of Lostwithiel, Battle of Marston Moor, Battle of Naseby, Battle of Newburn, Battle of Preston (1648), Battle of the Downs, Battle of Turnham Green, Battle of White Mountain, Benefice, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Bill of attainder, Bishop of Ross (Scotland), Bishops' Wars, Bohemian Revolt, Book of Common Prayer, Cadency, Calendar of saints (Church of England), Calvinism, Canterbury, Caravaggio, Carisbrooke Castle, Caroline era, Catherine of Braganza, ..., Catholic Church, Cádiz expedition (1625), Chapel Royal, Charles I Insulted by Cromwell's Soldiers, Charles I's journey from Oxford to the Scottish army camp near Newark, Charles II of England, Christian III of Denmark, Church of England, Church of King Charles the Martyr, Falmouth, Church of King Charles the Martyr, Royal Tunbridge Wells, Church of Scotland, Command responsibility, Commission of array, Commonwealth of England, Congregational church, Constitutional monarchy, Convocations of Canterbury and York, Coronation of the British monarch, County Durham, Court of High Commission, Covenanter, Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Cropping (punishment), Cultural depictions of Charles I of England, Cumberland, Damnation, Daniël Mijtens, Darnell's Case, David Lindsay (bishop of Ross), De jure, Decapitation, Declaration of Sports, Denzil Holles, 1st Baron Holles, Diego Velázquez, Diet (assembly), Divine right of kings, Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg, Dudley Digges, Duke of Albany, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Duke of York, Dunfermline, Dunfermline Palace, Earl of Chester, Earl of Ormond (Scotland), Earl of Ross, Early modern Britain, East India Company, Edinburgh, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, Edward III of England, Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester, Eikon Basilike, Eikonoklastes, Electoral Palatinate, Elizabeth I of England, Elizabeth of Denmark, Duchess of Mecklenburg, Elizabeth Stuart (daughter of Charles I), Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, Engagers, England, English Civil War, English claims to the French throne, English Council of State, English Reformation, Episcopal polity, Ernst von Mansfeld, Essex, Execution of Louis XVI, Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Fidei defensor, Fife, First Battle of Newbury, First English Civil War, Five Members, Fleur-de-lis, Forest of Dean, Francis Bacon, Francis Cottington, 1st Baron Cottington, Frederick I of Denmark, Frederick II of Denmark, Frederick V of the Palatinate, Gaelic Ireland, Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares, General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, George III of the United Kingdom, George Joyce, George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, Gerard van Honthorst, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Grand Remonstrance, Gregorian calendar, Gules, Habsburg Spain, Hampton Court Palace, Hans Holbein the Younger, Heads of Proposals, Heidelberg, Heir apparent, Henrietta Maria of France, Henrietta of England, Henry Burton (theologian), Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, Henry Rolle, Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, Henry Vane the Elder, Henry VI of England, Henry VII of England, Henry VIII of England, High church, High Tory, High treason, History of the Calvinist–Arminian debate, Holdenby House, Holy Roman Emperor, Holyrood Palace, House of Bourbon, House of Commons of England, House of Habsburg, House of Lords, House of Stuart, Hugh Peter, Hurst Castle, Hyde Park, London, Imperial election, 1619, Impropriation, Independent (religion), Isle of Wight, James II of England, James IV of Scotland, James V of Scotland, James VI and I, Jane Seymour, Jenny Geddes, John Bastwick, John Bradshaw (judge), John Cook (regicide), John Eliot (statesman), John Finch, 1st Baron Finch, John Hampden, John Milton, John Philipps Kenyon, John Pym, John Rolle (Parliamentarian), John Wilde (jurist), Jointure, Julian calendar, Kent, Kevin Sharpe (historian), King Charles the Martyr, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Scotland, Kingston upon Hull, Kirk, La Rochelle, Label (heraldry), Leonardo da Vinci, Lionel Cranfield, 1st Earl of Middlesex, List of Bohemian monarchs, List of Chancellors of the University of Cambridge, List of English monarchs, List of regicides of Charles I, List of rulers of Mantua, List of Scottish monarchs, Liturgy, Long Parliament, Lord Chancellor, Lord Deputy of Ireland, Lord High Treasurer, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, Lord Protector, Louis XIII of France, Magnum Concilium, Margaret Douglas, Margaret Tudor, Maria Anna of Spain, Mary II of England, Mary of Guise, Mary of Modena, Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange, Mary, Queen of Scots, Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, Militia Ordinance, Mocking of Jesus, Monarchy of Ireland, New Model Army, New World, Newark-on-Trent, Newbury, Berkshire, Newcastle upon Tyne, Newmarket, Suffolk, Newport, Isle of Wight, Norman invasion of Ireland, Normans in Ireland, Northumberland, Notre-Dame de Paris, Nottingham, Oatlands Palace, Old Style and New Style dates, Oliver Cromwell, Oliver St John, Or (heraldry), Order of the Bath, Order of the Garter, Orle (heraldry), Oxford, Oxford Parliament (1644), Palace of Whitehall, Palatinate campaign, Pale (heraldry), Paolo Veronese, Parliament of England, Parliament of Ireland, Patrick Ruthven, 1st Earl of Forth, Paul Delaroche, Penal law (British), Personal Rule, Peter Heylin, Peter Paul Rubens, Petition of Right, Philip Henry, Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Pillory, Plantation of Ulster, Plantations of Ireland, Popish soap, Porphyria, Prague, Predestination, Presbyterian polity, Presbyterianism, Pride's Purge, Prince of Wales, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Prosecutor, Protestant Union, Protestantism, Protestation of 1641, Proxy marriage, Puritans, Quartering (heraldry), Queen's Bench, Raphael, Reading (legislature), Recusancy, Relief of Newark, Rembrandt, Restoration (England), Richard Brandon, Richard Cromwell, Richard Montagu, Rickets, River Severn, Robert Bertie, 1st Earl of Lindsey, Robert Carey, 1st Earl of Monmouth, Robert Dalzell, 1st Earl of Carnwath, Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, Robert Hammond (Roundhead), Ronald Hutton, Roundel (heraldry), Royal Arms of England, Royal Arms of Scotland, Royal assent, Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, Royal forest, Royal Mint, Royal prerogative, Rump Parliament, Saint-Martin-de-Ré, Salvation, Samuel Rawson Gardiner, Second Battle of Newbury, Second English Civil War, Ship money, Short Parliament, Siege of Gloucester, Siege of Hull (1642), Siege of La Rochelle, Siege of Oxford, Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré, Siege of York, Sir John Hotham, 1st Baronet, Society of King Charles the Martyr, Solicitor General for England and Wales, Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, Sophie of Pomerania, Southampton Water, Sovereign immunity, Spanish match, Spanish Netherlands, Spanish treasure fleet, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, St James's Palace, Star Chamber, Statute of Monopolies, Storming of Bristol, Stuart period, Style (manner of address), Subsidiary title, Sudeley Castle, The Complete Peerage, The Hague, The Incident (conspiracy), The Protectorate, Third English Civil War, Thirty Years' War, Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel, Thomas Lunsford, Thomas Murray (provost of Eton), Thomas Pride, Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, Thorough, Tintoretto, Titian, Tonnage and poundage, Tower of London, Treaty of Berwick (1639), Treaty of Oxford, Treaty of Ripon, Treaty of Suza, Triennial Acts, Typhoid fever, Ulrich, Duke of Mecklenburg, Wenceslaus Hollar, Western Rising and disafforestation riots, Westminster Abbey, Whig history, Whitehall Group, William Hewlett (regicide), William II, Prince of Orange, William III of England, William Laud, William Lenthall, William Prynne, William Strode, Windsor Castle, York. Expand index (341 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Advowson (or "patronage") is the right in English law of a patron (avowee) to present to the diocesan bishop (or in some cases the ordinary if not the same person) a nominee for appointment to a vacant ecclesiastical benefice or church living, a process known as presentation (jus praesentandi, Latin: "the right of presenting").
Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.
Alexander Seton, 1st Earl of Dunfermline (1555–1622) was a Scottish lawyer, judge and politician.
Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland, 4th Baron Percy, KG (29 September 1602 – 13 October 1668) was an English military leader and a prominent supporter of the Parliamentary cause in the English Civil War.
Andrea del Sarto (1486–1530) was an Italian painter from Florence, whose career flourished during the High Renaissance and early Mannerism.
Andrea Mantegna (September 13, 1506) was an Italian painter, a student of Roman archeology, and son-in-law of Jacopo Bellini.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Anna of Brandenburg (1 January 1507 – June 19, 1567 in Lübz) was a Princess of Brandenburg and by marriage Duchess of Mecklenburg.
Anne Hyde (12 March 163731 March 1671) was Duchess of York and of Albany as the first wife of the future King James II of England.
Anne of Denmark (12 December 1574 – 2 March 1619) was Queen consort of Scotland, England, and Ireland by marriage to King James VI and I. The second daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark, Anne married James in 1589 at age 15 and bore him three children who survived infancy, including the future Charles I. She demonstrated an independent streak and a willingness to use factional Scottish politics in her conflicts with James over the custody of Prince Henry and his treatment of her friend Beatrix Ruthven.
Anne Stuart (17 March 16375 November 1640) was the daughter of King Charles I and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France.
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707.
Sir Anthony van Dyck (many variant spellings; 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and the Southern Netherlands.
Antonio Allegri da Correggio (August 1489 – March 5, 1534), usually known as Correggio, was the foremost painter of the Parma school of the Italian Renaissance, who was responsible for some of the most vigorous and sensuous works of the 16th century.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus (c. 148922 January 1557) was a Scottish nobleman active during the reigns of James V and Mary, Queen of Scots.
In heraldry, argent is the tincture of silver, and belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals." It is very frequently depicted as white and usually considered interchangeable with it.
Arminianism is based on theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560–1609) and his historic supporters known as Remonstrants.
Sir Arthur Haselrig, 2nd Baronet (16017 January 1661) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1640 and 1659.
In heraldry, an attitude is the position in which an animal, bird, fish, human or human-like being is emblazoned as a charge, supporter or crest.
In heraldry, azure is the tincture with the colour blue, and belongs to the class of tinctures called "colours".
The Banqueting House, Whitehall, is the grandest and best known survivor of the architectural genre of banqueting house and the only remaining component of the Palace of Whitehall.
Barry Coward (22 February 1941 - 17 March 2011) was professor of history at Birkbeck College, University of London, and an expert on the Stuart age.
The Battle of Brentford was a small pitched battle which took place on 12 November 1642, between a detachment of the Royalist army (predominantly horse with one regiment of Welsh foot) under the command of Prince Rupert, and two infantry regiments of Parliamentarians with some horse in support.
The Battle of Cropredy Bridge was a battle of the English Civil Wars, fought on 29 June 1644 between a Parliamentarian army under Sir William Waller and the Royalist army of King Charles.
The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was a pitched battle of the First English Civil War.
The Battles of Lostwithiel or Lostwithiel Campaign, took place near Lostwithiel and Fowey in Cornwall during the First English Civil War in 1644.
The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on 2 July 1644, during the First English Civil War of 1642–1646.
The Battle of Naseby was a decisive engagement of the English Civil War, fought on 14 June 1645 between the main Royalist army of King Charles I and the Parliamentarian New Model Army, commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell.
The Battle of Newburn, sometimes known as Newburn Ford, was fought on 28 August 1640 during the Second Bishops' War between a Scottish Covenanter army led by General Alexander Leslie and English forces commanded by Edward, Lord Conway.
The Battle of Preston (17–19 August 1648), fought largely at Walton-le-Dale near Preston in Lancashire, resulted in a victory for the New Model Army under the command of Oliver Cromwell over the Royalists and Scots commanded by the Duke of Hamilton.
The naval Battle of the Downs took place on 21 October 1639 (New Style), during the Eighty Years' War, and was a decisive defeat of the Spanish, commanded by Admiral Antonio de Oquendo, by the United Provinces, commanded by Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp.
The Battle of Turnham Green occurred on 13 November 1642 near the village of Turnham Green, at the end of the first campaigning season of the First English Civil War.
The Battle of White Mountain (Czech: Bitva na Bílé hoře, German: Schlacht am Weißen Berg) was an important battle in the early stages of the Thirty Years' War.
A benefice or living is a reward received in exchange for services rendered and as a retainer for future services.
Berwick-upon-Tweed (Sooth Berwick, Bearaig a Deas) is a town in the county of Northumberland.
A bill of attainder (also known as an act of attainder or writ of attainder or bill of pains and penalties) is an act of a legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime and punishing them, often without a trial.
The Bishop of Ross was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Ross, one of Scotland's 13 medieval bishoprics.
The Bishops' Wars (Bellum Episcopale) were conflicts, both political and military, which occurred in 1639 and 1640 centred on the nature of the governance of the Church of Scotland, and the rights and powers of the Crown.
The Bohemian Revolt (1618–1620) was an uprising of the Bohemian estates against the rule of the Habsburg dynasty that began the Thirty Years' War.
The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, Anglican realignment and other Anglican Christian churches.
In heraldry, cadency is any systematic way of distinguishing otherwise identical coats of arms belonging to members of the same family.
The Church of England commemorates many of the same saints as those in the General Roman Calendar, mostly on the same days, but also commemorates various notable (often post-Reformation) Christians who have not been canonised by Rome, with a particular though not exclusive emphasis on those of English origin.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England.
Michelangelo Merisi (Michele Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily from the early 1590s to 1610.
Carisbrooke Castle is an historic motte-and-bailey castle located in the village of Carisbrooke (near Newport), Isle of Wight, England.
The Caroline or Carolean era refers to the era in English and Scottish history during the Stuart period (1603–1714) that coincided with the reign of Charles I (1625–1642), Carolus being Latin for Charles.
Catherine of Braganza (Catarina; 25 November 1638 – 31 December 1705) was queen consort of England, of Scotland and of Ireland from 1662 to 1685, as the wife of King Charles II.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Cádiz expedition of 1625 was a naval expedition against Spain by English and Dutch forces.
In both the United Kingdom and Canada, a Chapel Royal refers not to a building but to a distinct body of priests and singers who explicitly serve the spiritual needs of the sovereign.
Charles I Insulted by Cromwell's Soldiers is an oil painting by the French artist Hippolyte Delaroche, depicting Charles I of England taunted by the victorious soldiers of Oliver Cromwell after the Second English Civil War, prior to his execution in 1649.
Charles I of England left Oxford on 27 April 1646 and travelled by a circuitous route through enemy held territory to arrive at the Scottish army camp located close to Southwell near Newark-on-Trent on 5 May 1646.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Christian III (12 August 1503 – 1 January 1559) reigned as King of Denmark from 1534 until his death, and King of Norway from 1537 until his death.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Church of King Charles the Martyr (Eglos Karol Myghtern ha Merther) is a parish church in the Church of England situated in the centre of Falmouth, Cornwall.
The Church of King Charles the Martyr is a Church of England parish church in Royal Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard or the Medina standard, and also known as superior responsibility, is the legal doctrine of hierarchical accountability for war crimes.
A commission of array was a commission given by English sovereigns to officers or gentry in a given territory to muster and array the inhabitants and to see them in a condition for war, or to put soldiers of a country in a condition for military service.
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.
Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Convocations of Canterbury and York are the synodical assemblies of the bishops and clergy of each of the two provinces which comprise the Church of England.
The coronation of the British monarch is a ceremony (specifically, initiation rite) in which the monarch of the United Kingdom is formally invested with regalia and crowned at Westminster Abbey.
County Durham (locally) is a county in North East England.
The Court of High Commission was the supreme ecclesiastic court in England.
The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century.
The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland or Cromwellian war in Ireland (1649–53) refers to the conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
Cropping is the removal of a person's ears as an act of physical punishment.
Charles I of England has been depicted in popular culture a number of times.
Cumberland is a historic county of North West England that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974.
Damnation (from Latin damnatio) is the concept of divine punishment and torment in an afterlife for actions that were committed on Earth.
Daniël Mijtens (c. 1590 – 1647/48), known in England as Daniel Mytens the Elder, was a Dutch portrait painter who spent the central years of his career working in England.
The Five Knights' case (1627) 3 How St Tr 1 (also Darnel's or Darnell's case) (K.B. 1627), is a case in English law, and now UK constitutional law, fought by five knights (among them Thomas Darnell) in 1627 against forced loans placed on them by King Charles I in a common law court.
David Lindsay (1531–1613) was of the twelve original ministers nominated to the "chief places in Scotland" in 1560.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
Decapitation is the complete separation of the head from the body.
The Declaration of Sports (also known as the Book of Sports) was a declaration of James I of England issued just for Lancashire in 1617, nationally in 1618, and reissued by Charles I in 1633.
Denzil Holles, 1st Baron Holles PC (31 October 1599 – 17 February 1680) was an English statesman and writer, best known as one of the Five Members whose attempted unconstitutional arrest by King Charles I in the House of Commons of England in 1642 sparked the Civil War.
Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (baptized on June 6, 1599August 6, 1660) was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV, and one of the most important painters of the Spanish Golden Age.
In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg (9 July 1511 – 7 October 1571) was the wife of King Christian III of Denmark and the queen consort of Denmark and Norway.
Sir Dudley Digges (19 May 1583 – 18 March 1639) was an English diplomat and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1610 and 1629.
Duke of Albany was a peerage title that has occasionally been bestowed on the younger sons in the Scottish and later the British royal family, particularly in the Houses of Stuart and Windsor.
Duke of Cornwall is a title in the Peerage of England, traditionally held by the eldest son of the reigning British monarch, previously the English monarch.
Duke of Rothesay (Diùc Baile Bhòid, Duik o Rothesay) is a dynastic title of the heir apparent to the British throne, currently Prince Charles.
The Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Dunfermline (Dunfaurlin, Dùn Phàrlain) is a town and former Royal Burgh, and parish, in Fife, Scotland, on high ground from the northern shore of the Firth of Forth.
Dunfermline Palace is a ruined former Scottish royal palace and important tourist attraction in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland.
The Earldom of Chester (Welsh: Iarll Caer) was one of the most powerful earldoms in medieval England, extending principally over the counties of Cheshire and Flintshire.
The title Earl of Ormond was twice created in the Peerage of Scotland, both times for members of the Douglas family.
The Earl or Mormaer of Ross was the ruler of the province of Ross in northern Scotland.
Early modern Britain is the history of the island of Great Britain roughly corresponding to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 16099 December 1674) was an English statesman who served as Lord Chancellor to King Charles II from 1658, two years before the Restoration of the Monarchy, until 1667.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester, KG, KB, FRS (1602 – 5 May 1671) was an important commander of Parliamentary forces in the First English Civil War, and for a time Oliver Cromwell's superior.
The Eikon Basilike (Greek: Εἰκὼν Βασιλική, the "Royal Portrait"), The Pourtrature of His Sacred Majestie in His Solitudes and Sufferings, is a purported spiritual autobiography attributed to King Charles I of England.
Eikonoklastes (from the Greek εἰκονοκλάστης, "iconoclast") is a book by John Milton, published October 1649.
The County Palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein), later the Electorate of the Palatinate (Kurfürstentum von der Pfalz) or simply Electoral Palatinate (Kurpfalz), was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire (specifically, a palatinate) administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Elisabeth of Denmark (14 October 1524 – 15 October 1586) was Danish princess and a Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and later of Mecklenburg-Güstrow through marriage.
Elizabeth Stuart (28 December 1635 – 8 September 1650) was the second daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France.
Elizabeth Stuart (19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was Electress of the Palatinate and briefly Queen of Bohemia as the wife of Frederick V of the Palatinate.
The Engagers were a faction of the Scottish Covenanters, who made "The Engagement" with King Charles I in December 1647 while he was imprisoned in Carisbrooke Castle by the English Parliamentarians after his defeat in the First Civil War.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England (and, later, of Great Britain) also claimed the throne of France.
The English Council of State, later also known as the Protector's Privy Council, was first appointed by the Rump Parliament on 14 February 1649 after the execution of King Charles I. Charles's execution on 30 January was delayed for several hours so that the House of Commons could pass an emergency bill to declare the representatives of the people, the House of Commons, as the source of all just power and to make it an offence to proclaim a new King.
The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
An episcopal polity is a hierarchical form of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") in which the chief local authorities are called bishops.
Ernst Graf von Mansfeld (c. 158029 November 1626), was a German military commander during the early years of the Thirty Years' War.
Essex is a county in the East of England.
The execution of Louis XVI, by means of the guillotine, a major event of the French Revolution, took place on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution ("Revolution Square", formerly Place Louis XV, and renamed Place de la Concorde in 1795) in Paris.
Ferdinand II (9 July 1578 – 15 February 1637), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), King of Bohemia (1617–1619, 1620–1637), and King of Hungary (1618–1637).
Fidei defensor (feminine: Fidei defensatrix) is a Latin title which translates to Defender of the Faith in English and Défenseur de la Foi in French.
Fife (Fìobha) is a council area and historic county of Scotland.
The First Battle of Newbury was a battle of the First English Civil War that was fought on 20 September 1643 between a Royalist army, under the personal command of King Charles, and a Parliamentarian force led by the Earl of Essex.
The First English Civil War (1642–1646) began the series of three wars known as the English Civil War (or "Wars").
The Five Members were those five Members of Parliament whom King Charles I (1625–1649) attempted to arrest when he, accompanied by armed soldiers, entered the English House of Commons on 4 January 1642, during the sitting of the Long Parliament.
The fleur-de-lis/fleur-de-lys (plural: fleurs-de-lis/fleurs-de-lys) or flower-de-luce is a stylized lily (in French, fleur means "flower", and lis means "lily") that is used as a decorative design or motif, and many of the Catholic saints of France, particularly St. Joseph, are depicted with a lily.
The Forest of Dean is a geographical, historical and cultural region in the western part of the county of Gloucestershire, England.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Francis Cottington, 1st Baron Cottington (c. 15791652) was the English lord treasurer and ambassador and leader of the pro-Spanish, pro-Roman Catholic faction in the court of Charles I.
Frederick I (7 October 1471 – 10 April 1533) was the King of Denmark and Norway.
Frederick II (1 July 1534 – 4 April 1588) was King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death.
Frederick V (Friedrich V.; 26 August 1596 – 29 November 1632) was the Elector Palatine of the Rhine in the Holy Roman Empire from 1610 to 1623, and served as King of Bohemia from 1619 to 1620.
Gaelic Ireland (Éire Ghaidhealach) was the Gaelic political and social order, and associated culture, that existed in Ireland from the prehistoric era until the early 17th century.
Don Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimentel Ribera y Velasco de Tovar, Count of Olivares and Duke of Sanlúcar la Mayor, Grandee of Spain (Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimentel, conde-duque de Olivares, also known as Olivares y duque de Sanlúcar la Mayor, Grande de España; January 6, 1587 – July 22, 1645), was a Spanish royal favourite of Philip IV and minister.
The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Church's governing body.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
Cornet George Joyce (born 1618) was an officer in the Parliamentary New Model Army during the English Civil War.
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, (28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628), was an English courtier, statesman, and patron of the arts.
Gerard van Honthorst (Gerrit van Honthorst) (4 November 1592 – 27 April 1656) was a Dutch Golden Age painter who became especially noted for his depiction of artificially lit scenes, eventually receiving the nickname Gherardo delle Notti ("Gerard of the nights").
Gian Lorenzo Bernini (also Gianlorenzo or Giovanni Lorenzo; 7 December 1598 – 28 November 1680) was an Italian sculptor and architect.
The Grand Remonstrance was a list of grievances presented to King Charles I of England by the English Parliament on 1 December 1641, but passed by the House of Commons on 22 November 1641, during the Long Parliament; it was one of the chief events which were to precipitate the English Civil War.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
In heraldry, gules is the tincture with the colour red, and belongs to the class of dark tinctures called "colours." In engraving, it is sometimes depicted as a region of vertical lines or else marked with gu. as an abbreviation.
Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).
Hampton Court Palace is a royal palace in the borough of Richmond upon Thames, London, England, south west and upstream of central London on the River Thames.
Hans Holbein the Younger (Hans Holbein der Jüngere) (– between 7 October and 29 November 1543) was a German artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style, known as one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century.
The Heads of Proposals was a set of propositions intended to be a basis for a constitutional settlement after King Charles I was defeated in the First English Civil War.
Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
Henrietta Maria of France (Henriette Marie; 25 November 1609 – 10 September 1669) was queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I. She was mother of his two immediate successors, Charles II and James II/VII.
Henrietta of England (16 June 1644 O.S. (26 June 1644 N.S.) – 30 June 1670) was the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France.
Henry Burton (Yorkshire, 1578–1648), was an English puritan.
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales (19 February 1594 – 6 November 1612) was the elder son of James VI and I, King of England and Scotland, and his wife, Anne of Denmark.
Sir Henry Rolle (1589–1656), of Shapwick in Somerset, was Chief Justice of the King's Bench and served as MP for Callington, Cornwall, (1614–1623–4) and for Truro, Cornwall (1625–1629).
Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester (8 July 1640 – 13 September 1660) was the youngest son of Charles I and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France, the third son to survive to adulthood (his eldest brother, Charles, Duke of Cornwall and of Rothesay, was born and died the same day).
Henry Stuart (or Stewart), Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 10 February 1567), styled as Lord Darnley until 1565, was king consort of Scotland from 1565 until his murder at Kirk o' Field in 1567.
Sir Henry Vane, the elder (18 February 15891655) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1614 and 1654.
Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453.
Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
The term "high church" refers to beliefs and practices of ecclesiology, liturgy, and theology, generally with an emphasis on formality and resistance to "modernisation." Although used in connection with various Christian traditions, the term originated in and has been principally associated with the Anglican/Episcopal tradition, where it describes Anglican churches using a number of ritual practices associated in the popular mind with Roman Catholicism.
High Toryism (sometimes referred to as conservative gentryism) is a term used in Britain, and elsewhere, to refer to old traditionalist conservatism which is in line with the Toryism originating in the 17th century.
Treason is criminal disloyalty.
The history of the Calvinist–Arminian debate begins in early 17th century in the Netherlands with a Christian theological dispute between the followers of John Calvin and Jacobus Arminius, and continues today among some Protestants, particularly evangelicals.
Holdenby House is a historic country house in Northamptonshire, traditionally pronounced, and sometimes spelt, Holmby.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Palace of Holyroodhouse, commonly referred to as Holyrood Palace, is the official residence of the British monarch in Scotland, Queen Elizabeth II.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Commons of England was the lower house of the Parliament of England (which incorporated Wales) from its development in the 14th century to the union of England and Scotland in 1707, when it was replaced by the House of Commons of Great Britain.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.
Hugh Peter (or Peters) (baptized 29 June 1598 – 16 October 1660) was an English preacher, political advisor and soldier who supported the Parliamentary cause during the English Civil War, and became highly influential.
Hurst Castle is an artillery fort established by Henry VIII on the Hurst Spit in Hampshire, England, between 1541 and 1544.
Hyde Park is a Grade I-listed major park in Central London.
The imperial election of 1619 was an imperial election held to select the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Impropriation, a term from English ecclesiastical law, was the destination of the income from tithes of an ecclesiastical benefice to a layman.
In English church history, Independents advocated local congregational control of religious and church matters, without any wider geographical hierarchy, either ecclesiastical or political.
The Isle of Wight (also referred to informally as The Island or abbreviated to IOW) is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
James IV (17 March 1473 – 9 September 1513) was the King of Scotland from 11 June 1488 to his death.
James V (10 April 1512 – 14 December 1542) was King of Scotland from 9 September 1513 until his death, which followed the Scottish defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Jane Seymour (c. 150824 October 1537) was Queen of England from 1536 to 1537 as the third wife of King Henry VIII.
Jenny Geddes (c. 1600 – c. 1660) was a Scottish market-trader in Edinburgh who is alleged to have thrown her stool at the head of the minister in St Giles' Cathedral in objection to the first public use of an Episcopalian Book of Common Prayer in Scotland.
John Bastwick (1593–1654) was an English Puritan physician and controversial writer.
John Bradshaw (15 July 1602 – 31 October 1659) was an English judge.
John Cook (1608 – 16 October 1660) was the first Solicitor General of the English Commonwealth and led the prosecution of Charles I. Following the English Restoration, Cook was convicted of regicide and hanged, drawn and quartered on 16 October 1660.
Sir John Eliot (11 April 1592 – 27 November 1632) was an English statesman who was serially imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he would die, by King Charles I for advocating the rights and privileges of Parliament.
John Finch, 1st Baron Finch (17 September 1584 – 27 November 1660) was an English judge, and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1621 and 1629.
John Hampden (ca. 1595 – 1643) was an English politician who was one of the leading parliamentarians involved in challenging the authority of Charles I of England in the run-up to the English Civil War.
John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.
John Philipps Kenyon (18 June 1927 – 6 January 1996) was an English historian and Fellow of the British Academy.
John Pym (1584 – 8 December 1643) was an English parliamentarian, leader of the Long Parliament and a prominent critic of Kings James I and then Charles I. He was one of the Five Members whose attempted arrest by King Charles I in the House of Commons of England in 1642 sparked the Civil War.
John Rolle (1598–1648) was a Turkey Merchant and also served as MP for the Rolle family's controlled borough of Callington, Cornwall, in 1626 and 1628 and for Truro, Cornwall, in 1640 for the Short Parliament and in November 1640 for the Long Parliament.
John Wilde (also known as John Wyldemonumental inscriptions, church of St Peter de Witton Droitwich) (1590–1669) was an English lawyer and politician.
Jointure is, in law, a provision for a wife after the death of her husband.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
Kevin M. Sharpe (26 January 1949 – 5 November 2011) was a historian, Director of the Centre for Renaissance and Early Modern Studies, Leverhulme Research Professor and Professor of Renaissance Studies at Queen Mary, University of London.
King Charles the Martyr, or Charles, King and Martyr, is a title of Charles I, who was King of England, of Scotland and of Ireland from 1625 until his execution on 30 January 1649.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.
Kirk is a Scottish and Northern English word meaning "church", or more specifically, the Church of Scotland.
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.
In heraldry, a label (occasionally lambel, the French form of the word) is a charge resembling the strap crossing the horse's chest from which pendants are hung.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Lionel Cranfield, 1st Earl of Middlesex (1575 – 6 August 1645) was an English merchant and politician.
This is a list of Bohemian monarchs now also referred to as list of Czech monarchs who ruled as Dukes and Kings of Bohemia.
The Chancellors of the University of Cambridge, from c.1215 to the present day were.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
Following the trial of Charles I in January 1649, 59 commissioners (judges) signed his death warrant.
During his history as independent entity, Mantua knew different rulers, who governed on the city and the lands of Mantua from Middle Ages to early modern period.
The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660.
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking even the Prime Minister.
The Lord Deputy was the representative of the monarch and head of the Irish executive under English rule, during the Lordship of Ireland and then the Kingdom of Ireland.
The post of Lord High Treasurer or Lord Treasurer was an English government position and has been a British government position since the Acts of Union of 1707.
The Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England, and later of Great Britain, was formerly an officer of the English Crown charged with physical custody of the Great Seal of England.
Lord Protector (pl. Lords Protectors) is a title that has been used in British constitutional law for the head of state.
Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.
In the Kingdom of England, the Magnum Concilium, or Great Council, was an assembly convened at certain times of the year when church leaders and wealthy landowners were invited to discuss the affairs of the country with the king.
Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox (8 October 1515 – 7 March 1578), was the daughter of the Scottish queen dowager Margaret Tudor and her second husband Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus.
Margaret Tudor (28 November 1489 – 18 October 1541) was Queen of Scots from 1503 until 1513 by marriage to James IV of Scotland and then, after her husband died fighting the English, she became regent for their son James V of Scotland from 1513 until 1515.
Infanta Maria Anna of Spain (18 August 1606 – 13 May 1646),.
Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.
Mary of Guise (Marie; 22 November 1515 – 11 June 1560), also called Mary of Lorraine, ruled Scotland as regent from 1554 until her death.
Mary of Modena (Maria di Modena) (Maria Beatrice Anna Margherita Isabella d'Este; –) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the second wife of James II and VII (1633–1701).
Mary, Princess Royal (Mary Henrietta; 4 November 1631 – 24 December 1660) was Princess of Orange and Countess of Nassau by marriage to Prince William II, and co-regent for her son during his minority as Sovereign Prince of Orange from 1651 to 1660.
Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.
Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox (21 September 1516 – 4 September 1571), was the fourth Earl of Lennox, and a leader of the Catholic nobility in Scotland.
The Militia Ordinance was a piece of legislation passed by the Long Parliament of England in March 1642, which was a major step towards the Civil War between the King and Parliament of England.
The mocking of Jesus occurred several times, after his trial and before his crucifixion according to the canonical gospels of the New Testament.
A monarchical system of government existed in Ireland from ancient times until, for what became the Republic of Ireland, the mid-twentieth century.
The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Newark-on-Trent or Newark is a market town and civil parish in the Newark and Sherwood district of the county of Nottinghamshire, in the East Midlands of England.
Newbury is a market town in Berkshire, England, which is the administrative headquarters of West Berkshire.
Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.
Newmarket is a market town in the English county of Suffolk, approximately 65 miles (105 kilometres) north of London.
Newport is a civil parish and the county town of the Isle of Wight, an island off the south coast of England.
The Norman invasion of Ireland took place in stages during the late 12th century, at a time when Gaelic Ireland was made up of several kingdoms, with a High King claiming lordship over all.
The Normans in Ireland, or Hiberno-Normans, were a group of Normans who invaded the various realms of Gaelic Ireland.
Northumberland (abbreviated Northd) is a county in North East England.
Notre-Dame de Paris (meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, north of London, in the East Midlands.
Oatlands Palace is a former Tudor and Stuart royal palace which took the place of the former manor of the village of Oatlands in Surrey, England.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
Sir Oliver St John (pronounced "Sinjun") (c. 1598 – 31 December 1673), was an English judge and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 to 1653.
In heraldry, or (French for "gold") is the tincture of gold and, together with argent (silver), belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals", or light colours.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.
In heraldry, an orle is a subordinary consisting of a narrow band occupying the inward half of where a bordure would be, following the exact outline of the shield but within it, showing the field between the outer edge of the orle and the edge of the shield.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
The Oxford Parliament (also known as the King's Oxford Parliament or Mongrel Parliament) was the Parliament assembled by King Charles I for the first time 22 January 1644 and adjourned for the last time on 10 March 1645, with the purpose of instrumenting the Royalist war campaign.
The Palace of Whitehall (or Palace of White Hall) at Westminster, Middlesex, was the main residence of the English monarchs from 1530 until 1698, when most of its structures, except for Inigo Jones's Banqueting House of 1622, were destroyed by fire.
The Palatinate Campaign, or the Spanish conquest of the Palatinate,Spielvogel p.447 was a series of sieges, battles and conquests during the Palatinate Phase of the Thirty Years' War, carried out by the Army of Flanders under Don Ambrosio Spinola, and the Imperial-Spanish troops under Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly and Don Gonzalo de Córdoba.
A pale is a term used in heraldic blazon and vexillology to describe a charge on a coat of arms (or flag), that takes the form of a band running vertically down the centre of the shield.
Paolo Caliari, known as Paolo Veronese (1528 – 19 April 1588), was an Italian Renaissance painter, based in Venice, known for large-format history paintings of religion and mythology, such as The Wedding at Cana (1563) and The Feast in the House of Levi (1573).
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Parliament of Ireland was the legislature of the Lordship of Ireland, and later the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1297 until 1800.
Patrick Ruthven, 1st Earl of Forth and 1st Earl of Brentford (c. 1573 – 2 February 1651) was a Scottish nobleman, general, and diplomat.
Paul Delaroche (Paris, 17 July 1797 – 4 November 1856) was a French painter who achieved his greater successes painting history.
In English history, penal law refers to a specific series of laws that sought to uphold the establishment of the Church of England against Protestant nonconformists and Catholicism, by imposing various forfeitures, civil penalties, and civil disabilities upon these dissenters.
The Personal Rule (also known as the Eleven Years' Tyranny) was the period from 1629 to 1640, when King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland ruled without recourse to Parliament.
Peter Heylin or Heylyn (29 November 1599 – 8 May 1662) was an English ecclesiastic and author of many polemical, historical, political and theological tracts.
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.
The Petition of Right is a major English constitutional document that sets out specific liberties of the subject that the king is prohibited from infringing.
Philip Henry (24 August 1631 – 24 June 1696) was an English Nonconformist clergyman and diarist.
Philippe, Duke of Orléans (21 September 1640 – 9 June 1701) was the younger son of Louis XIII of France and his wife, Anne of Austria.
Pieter Bruegel (also Brueghel) the Elder (c. 1525-1530 – 9 September 1569) was the most significant artist of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, a painter and printmaker from Brabant, known for his landscapes and peasant scenes (so called genre painting); he was a pioneer in making both types of subject the focus in large paintings.
The pillory was a device made of a wooden or metal framework erected on a post, with holes for securing the head and hands, formerly used for punishment by public humiliation and often further physical abuse.
The Plantation of Ulster (Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-Scots: Plantin o Ulstèr) was the organised colonisation (plantation) of Ulstera province of Irelandby people from Great Britain during the reign of James VI and I. Most of the colonists came from Scotland and England, although there was a small number of Welsh settlers.
Plantations in 16th- and 17th-century Ireland involved the confiscation of land by the English crown and the colonisation of this land with settlers from the island of Great Britain.
Popish soap was a derisive name applied to soap manufactured under a patent granted by Charles I. Because the board of the manufacturing company included Catholics, the term Popish Soap (after The Pope) was applied to this monopoly commodity.
Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Predestination, in theology, is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God, usually with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul.
Presbyterian (or presbyteral) polity is a method of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
Pride's Purge was an event that took place in December 1648, during the Second English Civil War, when troops of the New Model Army under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the Long Parliament all those who were not supporters of the Grandees in the New Model Army and the Independents.
Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru) was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards; the term replaced the use of the word king.
Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland (17 December 1619 – 29 November 1682) was a noted German soldier, admiral, scientist, sportsman, colonial governor and amateur artist during the 17th century.
A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.
The Protestant Union (Protestantische Union), also known as the Evangelical Union, Union of Auhausen, German Union or as the Protestant Action Party, was a coalition of Protestant German states that was formed on May 14th, 1608 by Calvinist Frederick IV, Elector Palatine in order to defend the rights, lands and person of each member.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Protestation was an attempt to avert the English Civil War.
A proxy wedding or proxy marriage is a wedding in which one or both of the individuals being united are not physically present, usually being represented instead by other persons.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Quartering in is a method of joining several different coats of arms together in one shield by dividing the shield into equal parts and placing different coats of arms in each division.
The Queen's Bench (or, during the reign of a male monarch, the King's Bench, Cour du banc du Roi) is the superior court in a number of jurisdictions within some of the Commonwealth realms.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
A reading of a bill is a debate on the bill held before the general body of a legislature, as opposed to before a committee or an other group.
Recusancy was the state of those who refused to attend Anglican services during the history of England and Wales and of Ireland; these individuals were known as recusants.
The Relief of Newark (21 March 1644) was a Royalist victory during the First English Civil War.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
Richard Brandon (died 20 June 1649) was a 17th-century English hangman who inherited his role from his father Gregory Brandon and was sometimes known as "Young Gregory".
Richard Cromwell (4 October 162612 July 1712) became the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, and was one of only two commoners to become the English head of state, the other being his father, Oliver Cromwell, from whom he inherited the post.
Richard Montagu (or Mountague) (1577 – 13 April 1641) was an English cleric and prelate.
Rickets is a condition that results in weak or soft bones in children.
The River Severn (Afon Hafren, Sabrina) is a river in the United Kingdom.
Robert Bertie, 1st Earl of Lindsey (16 December 1582 – 24 October 1642, in Edge Hill) was an English peer, soldier and courtier.
Robert Carey, 1st Earl of Monmouth (ca. 1560 – 12 April 1639) was an English nobleman and courtier.
Robert Dalzell, 1st Earl of Carnwath, PC (1611 – 21 June 1654), known as Robert Dalzell, 2nd Lord Dalzell from 1636 to 1639, was a Scottish nobleman and Royalist supporter during the English Civil War.
Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, KB, PC (11 January 1591 – 14 September 1646) was an English Parliamentarian and soldier during the first half of the 17th century.
Robert Hammond (1621 – 24 October 1654) was an officer in the New Model Army under Oliver Cromwell during the First English Civil War and a politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1654.
Ronald Hutton (born 1953) is an English historian who specialises in the study of Early Modern Britain, British folklore, pre-Christian religion and contemporary Paganism.
A roundel is a circular charge in heraldry.
The Royal Arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form at the start of the age of heraldry (circa 1200) as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154.
The royal arms of Scotland is the official coat of arms of the King of Scots first adopted in the 12th century.
Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
A royal forest, occasionally "Kingswood", is an area of land with different definitions in England, Wales, and Scotland.
The Royal Mint is a government-owned mint that produces coins for the United Kingdom.
The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government.
The Rump Parliament was the English Parliament after Colonel Thomas Pride purged the Long Parliament, on 6 December 1648, of those members hostile to the Grandees' intention to try King Charles I for high treason.
Saint-Martin-de-Ré is a commune in the western French department of Charente-Maritime.
Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.
Samuel Rawson Gardiner (4 March 1829 – 24 February 1902) was an English historian, who specialized in 17th-century English history.
The Second Battle of Newbury was a battle of the English Civil War fought on 27 October 1644, in Speen, adjoining Newbury in Berkshire.
The Second English Civil War (1648–1649) was the second of three wars known collectively as the English Civil War (or Wars), which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651 and also include the First English Civil War (1642–1646) and the Third English Civil War (1649–1651).
Ship money was a tax of medieval origin levied intermittently in the Kingdom of England until the middle of the 17th century.
The Short Parliament was a Parliament of England that was summoned by King Charles I of England on 20 February 1640 and sat from 13 April to 5 May 1640.
The Siege of Gloucester was an engagement in the First English Civil War.
The Siege of Hull in 1642 was the first major action of the English Civil War.
The Siege of La Rochelle (French: Le Siège de La Rochelle, or sometimes Le Grand Siège de La Rochelle) was a result of a war between the French royal forces of Louis XIII of France and the Huguenots of La Rochelle in 1627–28.
The Siege of Oxford refers to the English Civil War military campaigns waged to besiege the Royalist controlled city of Oxford, involving three short engagements over twenty-five months, which ended with a Parliamentarian victory in June 1646.
The Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré, also Siege of St.
The Siege of York in 1644 was a prolonged contest for York during the English Civil War, between the Scottish Covenanter army and the Parliamentarian armies of the Northern Association and Eastern Association, and the Royalist Army under the Marquess of Newcastle.
Sir John Hotham, 1st Baronet, of Scorborough (circa July 1589 – 3 January 1645) was an English politician and Member of Parliament, who was governor of Hull in 1642 shortly before the start of the English Civil War.
The Society of King Charles the Martyr is an Anglican devotional society dedicated to the cult of King Charles the Martyr, a title of Charles I of England (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649).
Her Majesty's Solicitor General for England and Wales, known informally as the Solicitor General, is one of the Law Officers of the Crown, and the deputy of the Attorney General, whose duty is to advise the Crown and Cabinet on the law.
Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (4 September 1557 – 14 October 1631) was Queen of Denmark and Norway by marriage to Frederick II of Denmark.
Sophie of Pomerania (1498–1568) was queen of Denmark and Norway as the spouse of Frederick I. She is known for her independent rule over her fiefs Lolland and Falster, the castles in Kiel and Plön, and several villages in Holstein as queen.
Southampton Water is a tidal estuary north of the Solent and the Isle of Wight in England.
Sovereign immunity, or crown immunity, is a legal doctrine by which the sovereign or state cannot commit a legal wrong and is immune from civil suit or criminal prosecution.
The Spanish Match was a proposed marriage between Prince Charles, the son of King James I of Great Britain, and Infanta Maria Anna of Spain, the daughter of Philip III of Spain.
Spanish Netherlands (Países Bajos Españoles; Spaanse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas espagnols, Spanische Niederlande) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain) from 1556 to 1714.
The Spanish treasure fleet, or West Indies Fleet from Spanish Flota de Indias, also called silver fleet or plate fleet (from the Spanish plata meaning "silver"), was a convoy system adopted by the Spanish Empire from 1566 to 1790, linking Spain with its territories in America across the Atlantic.
St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in England, is a chapel designed in the high-medieval Gothic style.
St James's Palace is the most senior royal palace in the United Kingdom.
The Star Chamber (Latin: Camera stellata) was an English court of law which sat at the royal Palace of Westminster, from the late to the mid-17th century (c. 1641), and was composed of Privy Councillors and common-law judges, to supplement the judicial activities of the common-law and equity courts in civil and criminal matters.
The Statute of Monopolies was an Act of the Parliament of England notable as the first statutory expression of English patent law.
The Storming of Bristol took place on 26 July 1643, during the First English Civil War.
The Stuart period of British history lasted from 1603 to 1714 during the dynasty of the House of Stuart.
A style of office or honorific is an official or legally recognized title.
A subsidiary title is an hereditary title held by a royal or a noble but which is not regularly used to identify that person, due to his concurrent holding of a greater title.
Sudeley Castle is located in the Cotswolds near Winchcombe, Gloucestershire, England.
The Complete Peerage (full title: The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom Extant, Extinct, or Dormant; first edition by George Edward Cokayne, Clarenceux King of Arms; 2nd edition revised by the Hon. Vicary Gibbs et al.) is a comprehensive and magisterial work on the titled aristocracy of the British Isles.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The Incident was a Royalist plot to kidnap a group of Scottish nobles.
The Protectorate was the period during the Commonwealth (or, to monarchists, the Interregnum) when England and Wales, Ireland and Scotland were governed by a Lord Protector as a republic.
The Third English Civil War (1649–1651) was the last of the English Civil Wars (1642–1651), a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel KG, (7 July 1586 – 4 October 1646) was a prominent English courtier during the reigns of King James I and King Charles I, but he made his name as a Grand Tourist and art collector rather than as a politician.
Sir Thomas Lunsford (ca. 1611–1656) was a Royalist colonel and Cavalier in the English Civil War.
Thomas Murray (1564 – 9 April, 1623) was a Scottish courtier, at the end of his life Provost of Eton.
General Sir Thomas Pride (died 23 October 1658) was a parliamentarian commander in the Civil War, best known as one of the Regicides of King Charles I and as the instigator of "Pride's Purge".
Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford (13 April 1593 (O.S.) – 12 May 1641) was an English statesman and a major figure in the period leading up to the English Civil War.
In 17th century England, Thorough was a name given by Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford to a scheme of his to establish absolute monarchy in England.
Tintoretto (born Jacopo Comin, late September or early October, 1518 – May 31, 1594) was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Venetian school.
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.
Tonnage and Poundage were certain duties and taxes first levied in Edward II's reign on every tun (cask) of imported wine, which came mostly from Spain and Portugal, and on every pound weight of merchandise exported or imported.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
The Treaty of Berwick (also known as the Peace of Berwick or the Pacification of Berwick) was signed on 19 June 1639 between England and Scotland.
The Treaty of Oxford of 1643 was an unsuccessful attempt by the Long Parliament and King Charles I to negotiate a peace treaty.
The Treaty of Ripon was an agreement signed by Charles I, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Scottish Covenanters on 26 October 1640, in the aftermath of the Second Bishops' War.
The Treaty of Susa (also sometimes spelled Suza) refers to two separate peace treaties signed in 1629 at Susa in the Duchy of Savoy (now in the Italian Piedmont near the French border), recently occupied by France during the Thirty Years' War.
The Triennial Act 1641 (16 Cha. I c. 1) (also known as the Dissolution Act) was an Act passed on 15 February 1641,, Accessed 7 May 2008 by the English Long Parliament, during the reign of King Charles I. The act requires that Parliament meet for at least a fifty-day session once every three years.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Ulrich III, Duke of Mecklenburg or Ulrich III of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (5 March 1527 – 14 March 1603) was Duke of Mecklenburg (-Güstrow) from 1555-56 to 1603.
Václav Hollar (13 July 160725 March 1677), was a Bohemian etcher, known in England as Wenceslaus or Wenceslas and by speakers of German as Wenzel Hollar.
The Western Rising was a series of riots which took place during 1626–1632 in Gillingham Forest on the Wiltshire-Dorset border, Braydon Forest in Wiltshire, and Dean Forest, Gloucestershire, in response to disafforestation of royal forests, sale of royal lands and enclosure of property by the new owners.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
Whig history (or Whig historiography) is an approach to historiography that presents the past as an inevitable progression towards ever greater liberty and enlightenment, culminating in modern forms of liberal democracy and constitutional monarchy.
The Whitehall group (or less frequently, Whitehall Circle) is a term applied to a small circle of art connoisseurs, collectors, and patrons, closely associated with King Charles I, who introduced a taste for the Italian old masters to England.
On 30 January 1649, Captain William Hewlett was the officer in charge of the soldiers at the execution of Charles I. After the Restoration, Captain Hewlett was convicted on 15 October 1660 for his part in the regicide of Charles I on 30 January 1649, but was not executed along with the other men who were tried with him: Daniel Axtell and Francis Hacker.
William II (27 May 1626 – 6 November 1650) was sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from 14 March 1647 until his death three years later.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William Laud (7 October 1573 – 10 January 1645) was an English archbishop and academic.
William Lenthall (1591 – 9 November 1662) was an English politician of the Civil War period.
William Prynne (1600 – 24 October 1669) was an English lawyer, author, polemicist, and political figure.
William Strode (1598 – 9 September, 1645) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons variously between 1624 and 1645.
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire.
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.
British King who got his head cut off, Cha. 1, Charles 1 of england, Charles I (England), Charles I (of England), Charles I Stuart, Charles I execution, Charles I of England and Scotland, Charles I of England, Ireland and Scotland, Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland, Charles I of Great Britain, Charles I of Ireland, Charles I of Scotland, Charles I of the UK, Charles I of the United Kingdom, Charles I, King of England, Charles I, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, Charles i of england, Charles of Scotland, Charles the Martyr, England's King Charles I, Execution of Charles I, Execution of King Charles I, King Charles I execution, King Charles I of England, King Charles the First of England, Saint Charles Stuart, St. Charles Stuart.