78 relations: Africa, Aide-de-camp, American Revolutionary War, Archibald Campbell (British Army officer, born 1739), Battle of Guilford Court House, Benjamin Lincoln, Brigadier, British Army, Capture of Senegal, Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, Charles Henri Hector d'Estaing, Charles Lee (general), Charles Rainsford, Charleston, South Carolina, Cheshire Regiment, Coldstream Guards, Continental Europe, Cornet (rank), Dan River, David Dundas (British Army officer), Discipline, Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Field marshal (United Kingdom), French Revolutionary Wars, Gambling, General (United Kingdom), General officer, George Washington, Gibraltar, Governor of Gibraltar, Governor-General of India, Guillotine, Henry Clinton (British Army officer, born 1730), Holy Roman Empire, Irish Town, Gibraltar, Italy, James O'Hara, 2nd Baron Tyrawley, Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau, John Hely-Hutchinson, 2nd Earl of Donoughmore, John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent, John Manners, Marquess of Granby, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Portugal, Legitimacy (family law), Lieutenant, Lieutenant colonel, Lisbon, Major general, Mary Berry (writer, born 1763), Mediterranean Fleet, ..., Mel Gibson, Napoleon, Nathanael Greene, New York City, North Carolina, O'Hara's Tower, Officer (armed forces), Pardon, Paris, Peace of Paris (1783), Peter Woodward, Portugal, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, Roland Emmerich, Sandy Hook, Senegal, Seven Years' War, South Mole, Gibraltar Harbour, Spanish invasion of Portugal (1762), The Patriot (2000 film), Thomas Gage, Thomas Paine, Toulon, Treaty of Paris (1783), West Africa, Westminster School, 3rd The King's Own Hussars, 74th (Highland) Regiment of Foot. Expand index (28 more) » « Shrink index
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
An aide-de-camp (French expression meaning literally helper in the military camp) is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, a member of a royal family, or a head of state.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Major-General Sir Archibald Campbell KB (21 August 1739 – 31 March 1791) served as governor of Jamaica, Madras, and Georgia.
The Battle of Guilford Court House was a battle fought on March 15, 1781, at a site which is now in Greensboro, the county seat of Guilford County, North Carolina, during the American Revolutionary War.
Benjamin Lincoln (January 24, 1733 (O.S. January 13, 1732) – May 9, 1810) was an American army officer.
Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The Capture of Senegal took place in 1758 during the Seven Years' War with France, as part of a concerted British strategy to weaken the French economy by damaging her international trade.
Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis KG, PC (31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805), styled Viscount Brome between 1753 and 1762 and known as The Earl Cornwallis between 1762 and 1792, was a British Army general and official.
Jean Baptiste Charles Henri Hector, comte d'Estaing (24 November 1729 – 28 April 1794) was a French general and admiral.
Charles Lee (– 2 October 1782) served as a general of the Continental Army during the American War of Independence.
General Charles Rainsford (3 February 1728 – 24 May 1809) was a British Army officer.
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.
The Cheshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Prince of Wales' Division.
The Coldstream Guards (COLDM GDS) is a part of the Guards Division, Foot Guards regiments of the British Army.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
Cornet was originally the third and lowest grade of commissioned officer in a British cavalry troop, after captain and lieutenant.
The Dan River flows in the U.S. states of North Carolina and Virginia.
General Sir David Dundas (1735 – 18 February 1820) was a British Army officer who fought in the Seven Years' War and French Revolutionary Wars, wrote important texts on the Principles of Military Movements and then served as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces from 1809 to 1811.
Discipline is action or inaction that is regulated to be in accordance (or to achieve accord) with a system of governance.
Ferdinand, Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg (12 January 1721, Wolfenbüttel – 3 July 1792, Vechelde), was a German-Prussian field marshal (1758–1766) known for his participation in the Seven Years' War.
Field Marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
Gambling is the wagering of money or something of value (referred to as "the stakes") on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning money or material goods.
General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Governor of Gibraltar is the representative of the British monarch in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.
A guillotine is an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading.
General Sir Henry Clinton, KB, MP (16 April 1730 – 23 December 1795) was a British army officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1772 and 1795.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Irish Town is a pedestrianised street in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Field Marshal James O'Hara, 2nd Baron Tyrawley and 1st Baron Kilmaine, PC (1682 – 14 July 1774), was an Irish officer in the British Army.
Marshal Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1 July 1725 – 10 May 1807) was a French nobleman and general who played a major role in helping the Thirteen Colonies win independence during the American Revolution.
General John Hely-Hutchinson, 2nd Earl of Donoughmore, GCB (15 May 1757 – 29 June 1832) was an Anglo-Irish politician, hereditary peer and soldier.
Admiral of the Fleet John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent (9 January 1735 – 14 March 1823) was an admiral in the Royal Navy and Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom.
Lieutenant-General John Manners, Marquess of Granby (2 January 1721 – 18 October 1770) was a British soldier and the eldest son of the 3rd Duke of Rutland.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law, is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce.
A lieutenant (abbreviated Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a junior commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations.
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
Mary Berry (16 March 1763 – 20 November 1852) was an English non-fiction writer born in Kirkbridge, North Yorkshire.
The British Mediterranean Fleet also known as the Mediterranean Station was part of the Royal Navy.
Mel Colmcille Gerard Gibson (born January 3, 1956) is an American actor and filmmaker.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Nathanael Greene (June 19, 1786, sometimes misspelled Nathaniel) was a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783).
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
O'Hara's Tower was a watchtower in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
A pardon is a government decision to allow a person to be absolved of guilt for an alleged crime or other legal offense, as if the act never occurred.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Peace of Paris of 1783 was the set of treaties which ended the American Revolutionary War.
Peter Woodward (born 24 January 1956) is an English actor, stuntman and screenwriter.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, (Edward Augustus; 2 November 1767 – 23 January 1820) was the fourth son and fifth child of Britain's king, George III, and the father of Queen Victoria.
Roland Emmerich (born November 10, 1955) is a German film director, screenwriter, and producer, widely known for his disaster films.
Sandy Hook is a barrier spit in Middletown Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
The South Mole is a breakwater located in the southern section of Gibraltar Harbour, in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar, at the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Spanish invasion of Portugal between 5 May and 24 November 1762 was a main military episode of the wider Seven Years' War, where Spain and France were heavily defeated by the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance (including broad popular resistance). It initially involved the forces of Spain and Portugal, before the French and British intervened in the conflict on the side of their respective allies. The war was also strongly marked by a national guerilla warfare in the mountainous country, cutting off supplies from Spain and a hostile peasantry that enforced a scorched earth policy as the invading armies approached, leaving the invaders starving and short of military supplies. During the first invasion, 22,000 Spaniards commanded by Nicolás de Carvajal, Marquis of Sarria, entered the Province of Alto Trás-os-Montes (northeast of Portugal) having Oporto as their ultimate goal. After occupying some fortresses, they were confronted with a national uprising. Taking advantage of the mountainous terrain, the guerrilla bands inflicted heavy losses on the invaders and practically cut off their communication lines with Spain, causing a shortage of essential supplies. Near starvation, the Spaniards tried to conquer Oporto quickly, but were defeated in the battle of the Douro and at Montalegre before retreating to Spain. After this failure, the Spanish commander was replaced by Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Count of Aranda. Meanwhile, 7,104 British troops landed in Lisbon, leading a massive reorganization of the Portuguese army under the Count of Lippe, the supreme allied commander-in-chief. During the second invasion of Portugal (Province of Beira), 42,000 Franco-Spaniards under Aranda took Almeida and several other strongholds, while the Anglo-Portuguese army stopped another Spanish invasion of Portugal by the province of Alentejo, attacking at Valencia de Alcántara (Spanish Extremadura), where a third Spanish corps was assembling for invasion. The allies managed to stop the invading army in the mountains east of Abrantes, where the slope of the heights facing the Franco-Spanish army was abrupt but very soft on the side of the allies, which facilitated the supply and movements of the allies but acted as a barrier for the Franco-Spaniards. The Anglo-Portuguese also prevented the invaders from crossing the river Tagus and defeated them at Vila Velha. The Franco-Spanish army (which had their supply lines from Spain cut off by the guerrillas) was virtually destroyed by a deadly scorched earth strategy: peasants abandoned all the villages around, taking with them or destroying the crops, food and all that could be used by the invaders, including the roads and houses. The Portuguese government also encouraged desertion among the invaders offering large sums to all deserters and defectors. The invaders had to choose between stay and starve or withdraw.The final outcome was the disintegration of the Franco-Spanish army, which was compelled to retreat to Castelo Branco (closer to the frontier) when a Portuguese force under Townshend made an encircling movement towards its rearguard. According to a British observer, the invaders suffered 30,000 losses (almost three-quarters of the original army), mainly caused by starvation, desertion and capture during the chase of the Franco-Spanish remnants by the Anglo-Portuguese army and peasantry. Finally the allied army took the Spanish headquarters, Castelo Branco, capturing a large number of Spaniards, wounded and sick – who Aranda had abandoned when he fled to Spain, after a second allied encircling movement. During the third invasion of Portugal, the Spaniards attacked Marvão and Ouguela but were defeated with casualties. The allied army left their winter quarters and chased the retreating Spaniards, taking some prisoners; and a Portuguese corps entered Spain taking more prisoners at Codicera. On 24 November, Aranda asked for a truce which was accepted and signed by Lippe on 1 December 1762.
The Patriot is a 2000 American epic historical fiction war film directed by Roland Emmerich, written by Robert Rodat, and starring Mel Gibson, Chris Cooper, Heath Ledger, and Jason Isaacs.
General Thomas Gage (10 March 1718/19 – 2 April 1787) was a British Army general officer and colonial official best known for his many years of service in North America, including his role as British commander-in-chief in the early days of the American Revolution. Being born to an aristocratic family in England, he entered military service, seeing action in the French and Indian War, where he served alongside his future opponent George Washington in the 1755 Battle of the Monongahela. After the fall of Montreal in 1760, he was named its military governor. During this time he did not distinguish himself militarily, but proved himself to be a competent administrator. From 1763 to 1775 he served as commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, overseeing the British response to the 1763 Pontiac's Rebellion. In 1774 he was also appointed the military governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, with instructions to implement the Intolerable Acts, punishing Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. His attempts to seize military stores of Patriot militias in April 1775 sparked the Battles of Lexington and Concord, beginning the American Revolutionary War. After the Pyrrhic victory in the June Battle of Bunker Hill, he was replaced by General William Howe in October, 1775, and returned to Great Britain.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
Toulon (Provençal: Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm)) is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base.
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
Westminster School is an independent day and boarding school in London, England, located within the precincts of Westminster Abbey.
The 3rd (The King's Own) Hussars was a cavalry regiment of the British Army, first raised in 1685.
The 74th (Highland) Regiment of Foot was a British Army line infantry regiment, raised in 1787.