537 relations: Affirmative action, Afro-Cuban, Aftonbladet, Ahmed Ben Bella, Albert Camus, Alberto Bayo, Alberto Granado, Alberto Korda, Alcoholism, Aleida Guevara, Aleida March, Algiers, Alliance for Progress, Allies of World War II, Amazon River, American Popular Revolutionary Alliance, Anaconda Copper, Anatole France, Andes, André Gide, Andrea Mantegna, Anti-capitalism, Anti-Communist League of the Caribbean, Anti-consumerism, Anti-imperialism, Antonio Machado, Antwerp, Apartheid, Archaeology, Argentina, Argentine Northwest, Argentines, Ariel Dorfman, Aristotle, Armando Valladares, Associated Press, Asthma, Atacama Desert, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Audubon Ballroom, Author, Álava, Álvaro Vargas Llosa, Ñancahuazú Guerrilla, Škoda Works, Ballistic missile, Bandung Conference, Basque Argentines, Basque language, Battle of Las Mercedes, ..., Battle of Santa Clara, Bay of Pigs Invasion, BBC News, Berlin, Bertrand Russell, Bibliography of works on Che Guevara, Biology, Björn Kumm, Black Power, Bolivia, Bolivian Army, Bolsheviks, Bourgeoisie, Budapest, Buenos Aires, C. Douglas Dillon, Cabin cruiser, Cairo, Camagüey, Camiri, Cantabrian people, Capitalist mode of production (Marxist theory), Carlos Alberto Montaner, Carlos Castillo Armas, Carlos Quijano, Castilian Spanish, César Vallejo, CBS, Central Intelligence Agency, Che (2008 film), Che (interjection), Che Guevara in popular culture, Che Guevara Mausoleum, Che! (1969 film), Chess, Chile, Christopher Hitchens, Chuquicamata, Ciro Alegría, Class conflict, Class consciousness, Club Universitario de Buenos Aires, Collectivism, Colombia, Colonialism, Combat medic, Commodification, Communist Party of Bolivia, Communist Party of Chile, Communist Party of China, Community centre, Communization, Conglomerate (company), Consumer capitalism, Costa Rica, Counter-revolutionary, Counterculture of the 1960s, County Galway, Cuba–Soviet Union relations, Cuban Americans, Cuban exile, Cuban Literacy Campaign, Cuban Missile Crisis, Cuban peso, Cuban Revolution, Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces, Cyst, Czech Radio, Czechoslovakia, Dar es Salaam, Decree 900, Dependency theory, Desertion, Dialectical materialism, Diplomat, Discourse marker, Dominican Republic, Don Quixote, Dream interpretation, Dublin, Due process, Duty, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Dysentery, East Berlin, East Germany, East River, Eastern Bloc, Economic inequality, Ecuador, Ed Herlihy, Edmundo Murray, Egalitarianism, Egotism, Eh, El Cid, El Salvador, Emilio Salgari, Empire of Japan, Episodes of the Cuban Revolutionary War, Epitaph, Erik Durschmied, Espionage, Eugene McCarthy, Eutímio Guerra, Evo Morales, Execution by firing squad, Execution by shooting, Face the Nation, Félix Rodríguez (soldier), Federico García Lorca, Fidel Castro, Filler (linguistics), Fizi Territory, FN FAL, Foco, Force Publique, Forensic anthropology, Formaldehyde, Fort Gulick, Francoist Spain, Frank País, Frantz Fanon, Franz Kafka, Freedom Collection, FRELIMO, Friedrich Engels, Friedrich Nietzsche, Fulgencio Batista, Gabriela Mistral, Galahad, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gautama Buddha, Gender-blind, General Hospital of Mexico, George Galloway, Gerardo Machado, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Graham Greene, Granma (yacht), Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guerrilla warfare, Guerrilla Warfare (book), Guerrillero Heroico, Guevara, Spain, Guevarism, H. G. Wells, Harry "Pombo" Villegas, Harry S. Truman, Havana, Havana Harbor, Headquarters of the United Nations, Helena Leiva de Holst, Herbert Matthews, Hilda Gadea, Hill & Wang, Hiroshima, Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, Hispanic America, History (U.S. TV network), Homer Bigart, Honduras, Hoover Institution, Horacio Quiroga, Huber Matos, Hugh Thomas, Baron Thomas of Swynnerton, Human nature, Hunger, Idealism, If—, Ignacio Ramonet, Imperialism, Independent Institute, Individualism, Indonesia, Indonesian National Revolution, Informant, Instituto Nacional de Reforma Agraria, Insurgency, Intellectual, Inter Press Service, Interest, International Workers' Day, Irish Argentine, Irish Rebellion of 1798, Issues and Answers, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Jack London, Jacobin (magazine), Jacobo Árbenz, Jakarta, Jawaharlal Nehru, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jim Crow laws, Jim Fitzpatrick (artist), Johann Hari, John Berger, John D. Rockefeller, John F. Kennedy, John Foster Dulles, John Keats, Jon Lee Anderson, Jorge Castañeda Gutman, Jorge Icaza Coronel, José Hernández (writer), José Martí, Joseph Stalin, Juan Almeida Bosque, Juan Perón, Jules Verne, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, Jungle warfare, Karl Marx, Kolkata, Ku Klux Klan, La Cabaña, La Coubre explosion, La Higuera, La Paz, Labour movement, Lake Tanganyika, Lamentation of Christ (Mantegna), Land reform, Land reform in Cuba, Latifundium, Latin American culture, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, Law of value, Left-wing politics, Legacy of Che Guevara, Leper colony, Liberalization, Libertarianism, Libido, Limerick, Lisa Howard (reporter), List of diplomatic missions of Argentina, List of women's organizations, Literacy, Little Boy, Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, Louis Pasteur, Lyndon B. Johnson, Lyric poetry, M1 carbine, Machu Picchu, Mad Mike Hoare, Major (United States), Malcolm X, Marcha (newspaper), Mario Monje, Mario Terán, Market economy, Martín Fierro, Martyr, Martyr (politics), Marx's theory of alienation, Marxism, Marxism–Leninism, Maryland Institute College of Art, Mathematics, Maximilien Robespierre, May 1968 events in France, Medical school, Memoir, Mercantilism, Mercedes (marque), Merchandising, Metanarrative, Mexico, Mexico City, Miami, Miami Herald, Michael Löwy, Michiko Kakutani, Miguel Ángel Asturias, Miguel de Cervantes, Military dictatorship, Military theory, Militia, Mobutu Sese Seko, Moisés Naím, Moncada Barracks, Monochrome, Morality, Morning Star (British newspaper), Murray Rothbard, Museum of the Revolution (Cuba), Narcissism, National Autonomous University of Mexico, National Geographic Society, National Security Advisor (United States), National Security Agency, National Security Archive, Nationalization, Nazism, Nelson Mandela, Neocolonialism, New Statesman, Newtonian dynamics, Nicaragua, North Vietnam, Northern Hemisphere, Nuclear warfare, Nuclear weapon, Nuremberg trials, Oedipus complex, Oligarchy, Order of the Southern Cross, Order of the White Lion, Organization of American States, Organization of Solidarity with the People of Asia, Africa and Latin America, Pablo Neruda, Palace of Culture, Pan-Africanism, Panama, Panama Canal Zone, Parable, Paris, Paternalism, Patrice Lumumba, Patrick Lynch (Argentina), Paul Robeson, Página/12, PBS, Peaceful coexistence, Pedagogy, Peru, Peter Kornbluh, Peter McLaren, Philip Agee, Photo op, Physician, Physics, Pinar del Río, Pirate radio, Plaza de la Revolución, Political science, Prague, Prensa Latina, President of the United States, Proceso (magazine), Proletarian internationalism, Protests of 1968, Pseudonym, Public good, Puerto Barrios, Punta del Este, Puppet state, Puritans, Quechuan languages, Raúl Castro, Racial segregation in the United States, Radio Rebelde, Radio y Televisión Martí, Radiotelephone, Rafael Trujillo, Ramparts (magazine), Régis Debray, Rebellion, Relations of production, Rembrandt, René Barrientos, Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville), Reuters, Revolutionary, Revolutionary wave, Richard Gott, Richard N. Goodwin, Robert Frost, Robert Louis Stevenson, Robin Hood, Rockefeller family, Rolex GMT Master II, Romanticism, Rosario, Santa Fe, Rubén Darío, Rudyard Kipling, Rugby union, Rugby union positions, Saint Patrick's Day, Samuel Farber, San Francisco Chronicle, San José, Costa Rica, Sanctification, Santa Clara, Cuba, Santa Fe Province, Santiago, Santiago de Cuba, Saul Landau, School of Medicine, UNAM, Sean O'Hagan (journalist), Second Spanish Republic, Secular humanism, Self-denial, Selfishness, Shortwave radio, Sierra Maestra, Sigmund Freud, Simba rebellion, Simeon Cuba Sarabia, Sino-Soviet split, Social inequality, Social relation, Socialist mode of production, Sociology, Solidarity, South America, Southern Hemisphere, Soviet Union, Spanish Argentines, Spanish Civil War, Spanish language, Special Activities Division, Special Forces (United States Army), State monopoly capitalism, Stokely Carmichael, Subsistence agriculture, Sukarno, Summary execution, Surname, Susan Sontag, Swahili language, Tad Szulc, Tamara Bunke, Tarará, Tarzan, Tehran, Teoponte, The Age, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, The Daily Telegraph, The Guardian, The Hands of Che Guevara, The Independent, The Japan Times, The Motorcycle Diaries (book), The Motorcycle Diaries (film), The New Republic, The New York Times, The Observer, The Washington Post, The Washington Times, The Wretched of the Earth, Third World, Time (magazine), Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century, Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Torture, Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests, Tupi–Guarani languages, Underdevelopment, United Arab Republic, United Fruit Company, United Nations General Assembly, United States Army Rangers, United States Marine Corps, Universal Newsreel, University "Marta Abreu" of Las Villas, University of Buenos Aires, Urban guerrilla warfare, Utopia, Vallegrande, Vallegrande Province, Value (ethics), Víctor Dreke, Venezuela, Vietnam War, Villa Clara Province, Vladimir Lenin, Walt Whitman, Walt Whitman Rostow, War crime, Wealth concentration, William Faulkner, William Ratliff, WJXX, World communism, World revolution, World War II, Young Communist League, Yugoslavia, 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état, 1968 Democratic National Convention protest activity, 26th of July Movement, 8th Special Forces Group (United States). 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Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.
The term Afro-Cuban refers to Cubans who mostly have West African ancestry, and to historical or cultural elements in Cuba thought to emanate from this community.
Aftonbladet is a Swedish evening newspaper published in Stockholm, Sweden.
Ahmed Ben Bella (أحمد بن بلّة; 25 December 1916 – 11 April 2012) was an Algerian socialist soldier and revolutionary who was the first President of Algeria from 1963 to 1965.
Albert Camus (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French philosopher, author, and journalist.
Alberto Bayo y Giroud (1892 in Camagüey – 1967 in Havana) was a Cuban military leader of the defeated left-wing Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War.
Alberto Granado Jiménez (August 8, 1922March 5, 2011) was an Argentine–Cuban biochemist, doctor, writer, and scientist.
Alberto Díaz Gutiérrez, better known as Alberto Korda or simply Korda (September 14, 1928 – May 25, 2001), was a Cuban photographer, remembered for his famous image Guerrillero Heroico of Argentine Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Aleida Guevara March (born 24 November 1960) is the eldest daughter of four children born to Ernesto "Che" Guevara and his second wife, Aleida March.
Aleida March (born on 19 October 1936 in Santa Clara, Cuba) was Ernesto "Che" Guevara's second wife, and a member of Castro's Cuban army.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
The Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso), initiated by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in 1961, aimed to establish economic cooperation between the U.S. and Latin America.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.
The American Popular Revolutionary Alliance - Peruvian Aprista Party (Spanish: Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana - Partido Aprista Peruano) is a centre-left Peruvian political party.
The Anaconda Copper Mining Company, part of the Amalgamated Copper Company from 1899 to 1915, was an American mining company.
italic (born italic,; 16 April 1844 – 12 October 1924) was a French poet, journalist, and successful novelist with several best-sellers.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
André Paul Guillaume Gide (22 November 1869 – 19 February 1951) was a French author and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Andrea Mantegna (September 13, 1506) was an Italian painter, a student of Roman archeology, and son-in-law of Jacopo Bellini.
Anti-capitalism encompasses a wide variety of movements, ideas and attitudes that oppose capitalism.
The Anti-Communist League of the Caribbean (Legión Anticomunista del Caribe, LAC), also known as the Anti-Communist Legion of the Caribbean, was an anti-Castroist right-wing group based in the Dominican Republic funded by the dictators Rafael Trujillo of the Dominican Republic, Anastasio Somoza of Nicaragua and former Cuban Secret Police Chief Orlando Piedra.
Anti-consumerism is a sociopolitical ideology that is opposed to consumerism, the continual buying and consuming of material possessions.
Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
Antonio Machado, in full Antonio Cipriano José María y Francisco de Santa Ana Machado y Ruiz (26 July 1875 – 22 February 1939), was a Spanish poet and one of the leading figures of the Spanish literary movement known as the Generation of '98.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Argentine Northwest (Noroeste Argentino) is a geographic and historical region of Argentina composed of the provinces of Catamarca, Jujuy, La Rioja, Salta, Santiago del Estero and Tucumán.
Argentines, also known as Argentinians (argentinos; feminine argentinas), are the citizens of the Argentine Republic, or their descendants abroad.
Vladimiro Ariel Dorfman (born May 6, 1942) is an Argentine-Chilean-American novelist, playwright, essayist, academic, and human rights activist.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Armando Valladares Perez (born May 30, 1937) is a Cuban poet, diplomat, and human rights activist.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
The Atacama Desert (Desierto de Atacama) is a plateau in South America (primarily in Chile), covering a 1000-km (600-mi) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The Audubon Theatre and Ballroom, generally referred to as the Audubon Ballroom, was a theatre and ballroom located at 3940 Broadway at West 165th Street in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City.
An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is thus also a writer.
Álava (in Spanish) or Araba (in Basque, dialectal), officially Araba/Álava, is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lordship of Álava, former medieval Catholic bishopric and now Latin titular see.
Álvaro Vargas Llosa (born 18 March 1966) is a Peruvian-Spanish writer and political commentator on international affairs with emphasis on Latin America.
The Ñancahuazú Guerrilla or Ejército de Liberación Nacional de Bolivia (National Liberation Army of Bolivia; ELN) was a group of mainly Bolivian and Cuban guerrillas led by the guerrilla leader Che Guevara which was active in the Cordillera Province, Bolivia from 1966 to 1967.
The Škoda Works (Škodovy závody) was one of the largest European industrial conglomerates of the 20th century, founded by Czech engineer Emil Škoda in 1859 in Plzeň, then in the Kingdom of Bohemia, Austrian Empire.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
The first large-scale Asian–African or Afro–Asian Conference—also known as the Bandung Conference (Konferensi Asia-Afrika)—was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, which took place on April 18–24, 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia.
Basque Argentines are Argentine citizens of Basque descent or people from Basque residing in Argentina.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
The Battle of Las Mercedes (July 29 – August 8, 1958) was the last battle of Operation Verano, the summer offensive of 1958 launched by the Batista government during the Cuban Revolution.
The Battle of Santa Clara was a series of events in late December 1958 that led to the capture of the Cuban city of Santa Clara by revolutionaries under the command of Che Guevara.
The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, politician, author, intellectual, physician, military theorist, and guerrilla leader.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Björn Kumm (born 1938) is a Swedish journalist and author.
Black Power is a political slogan and a name for various associated ideologies aimed at achieving self-determination for people of African descent.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
The Bolivian Army or Ejército Boliviano is the land forces component of the Armed Forces of Bolivia.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
Clarence Douglas Dillon (born Clarence Douglass Dillon; August 21, 1909 – January 10, 2003) was an American diplomat and politician, who served as U.S. Ambassador to France (1953–1957) and as the 57th Secretary of the Treasury (1961–1965).
A cabin cruiser is a type of power boat that provides accommodation for its crew and passengers inside the structure of the craft.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Camagüey is a city and municipality in central Cuba and is the nation's third largest city with more than 321,000 inhabitants.
Camiri (Camirito, La Bomba, Choreti, Capital Petrolera de Bolivia) is a city in Bolivia, Santa Cruz Department, Cordillera Province.
The Cantabrians (Cantabrian and cántabros) are the native inhabitants living in the region of Cantabria, in northern Spain.
In Karl Marx's critique of political economy and subsequent Marxian analyses, the capitalist mode of production refers to the systems of organizing production and distribution within capitalist societies.
Carlos Alberto Montaner (born 1943) is an exiled Cuban author known for his more than 25 books and thousands of articles, including several novels, the last of which is La mujer del coronel (The Colonel's wife).
Carlos Castillo Armas (November 4, 1914 – July 26, 1957) was a Guatemalan military officer and politician.
Carlos Quijano (Montevideo, 21 March 1900 - Mexico, 10 June 1984) was a Uruguayan lawyer, politician, essayist and journalist.
In English, Castilian Spanish sometimes refers to the variety of Peninsular Spanish spoken in northern and central Spain or as the language standard for radio and TV speakers.
César Abraham Vallejo Mendoza (March 16, 1892 – April 15, 1938) was a Peruvian poet, writer, playwright, and journalist.
CBS (an initialism of the network's former name, the Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Che is a two-part 2008 biographical film about Argentine Marxist revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara, directed by Steven Soderbergh and starring Benicio del Toro.
Che (tchê; xe) is an interjection commonly used in Latin America and the Valencian Community, signifying "hey!", "fellow", "guy".
Appearances of Argentine Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara (1928–1967) in popular culture are common throughout the world.
The Che Guevara Mausoleum (officially Conjunto Escultórico Memorial Comandante Ernesto Che Guevara) is a memorial in Santa Clara, Cuba, located in "Plaza Che Guevara" (Che Guevara Square).
Che! is a 1969 American biographical drama film directed by Richard Fleischer and starring Omar Sharif as Marxist revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist.
Chuquicamata, or "Chuqui" as it is more familiarly known, is by excavated volume the largest open pit copper mine in the world, located in the north of Chile, just outside Calama at above sea level, northeast of Antofagasta and north of the capital, Santiago.
Ciro Alegría Bazán (November 4, 1909 – February 17, 1967) was a Peruvian journalist, politician, and novelist.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
In political theory and particularly Marxism, class consciousness is the set of beliefs that a person holds regarding their social class or economic rank in society, the structure of their class, and their class interests.
Club Universitario de Buenos Aires, commonly known for its acronym CUBA, is an Argentine sports club with headquarters in the autonomous city of Buenos Aires.
Collectivism is a cultural value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over self.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Combat medics or field medics (or medics) are military personnel who have been trained to at least an EMT-B level (16-week course in the U.S. Army), and are responsible for providing first aid and frontline trauma care on the battlefield.
Commodification is the transformation of goods, services, ideas and people into commodities, or objects of trade.
The Communist Party of Bolivia (Partido Comunista de Bolivia) is a communist party in Bolivia.
The Communist Party of Chile (Partido Comunista de Chile) is a Chilean political party inspired by the thoughts of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
Community centres or community centers are public locations where members of a community tend to gather for group activities, social support, public information, and other purposes.
Communization (or communisation in British English) mainly refers to a contemporary communist theory in which there is a "mixing-up of insurrectionist anarchism, the communist ultra-left, post-autonomists, anti-political currents, groups like the Invisible Committee, as well as more explicitly ‘communizing’ currents, such as Théorie Communiste.
A conglomerate is the combination of two or more corporations operating in entirely different industries under one corporate group, usually involving a parent company and many subsidiaries.
Consumer capitalism is a theoretical economic and social political condition in which consumer demand is manipulated, in a deliberate and coordinated way, on a very large scale, through mass-marketing techniques, to the advantage of sellers.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part.
The counterculture of the 1960s refers to an anti-establishment cultural phenomenon that developed first in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) and then spread throughout much of the Western world between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s, with London, New York City, and San Francisco being hotbeds of early countercultural activity.
County Galway (Contae na Gaillimhe) is a county in Ireland.
After the establishment of diplomatic ties with the Soviet Union after the Cuban Revolution of 1959, Cuba became increasingly dependent on Soviet markets and military aid, becoming an ally of the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Cuban Americans (Cubanoamericanos) are Americans who trace their ancestry to Cuba.
The term "Cuban exile" refers to the many Cubans who fled from or left the island of Cuba.
The Cuban Literacy Campaign (Spanish: Campaña Nacional de Alfabetización en Cuba) was a year-long effort to abolish illiteracy in Cuba after the Cuban Revolution.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
The peso (ISO 4217 code: CUP, sometimes called the "national currency" or in Spanish moneda nacional) is one of two official currencies in use in Cuba, the other being the convertible peso (ISO 4217 code: CUC, occasionally called "dollar" in the spoken language).
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
The Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias – FAR) consist of ground forces, naval forces, air and air defence forces, and other paramilitary bodies including the Territorial Troops Militia (Milicias de Tropas Territoriales – MTT), Youth Labor Army (Ejército Juvenil del Trabajo – EJT), and the Defense and Production Brigades (Brigadas de Producción y Defensa – BPD), plus the Civil Defense Organization (Defensa Civil de Cuba – DCC) and the National Reserves Institution (Instituto Nacional de las Reservas Estatales – INRE).
A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division compared with the nearby tissue.
Český rozhlas (ČRo) is the public radio broadcaster of the Czech Republic, operating since 1923.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Dar es Salaam (Dar) (from دار السلام, "the house of peace"; formerly Mzizima) is the former capital as well as the most populous city in Tanzania and a regionally important economic centre.
Decree 900 (Decreto 900), also called the Agrarian Reform Law, was a Guatemalan land reform law passed on June 17, 1952, during the Guatemalan Revolution.
Dependency theory is the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.
In military terminology, desertion is the abandonment of a duty or post without permission (a pass, liberty or leave) and is done with the intention of not returning.
Dialectical materialism (sometimes abbreviated diamat) is a philosophy of science and nature developed in Europe and based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations.
A discourse marker is a word or a phrase that plays a role in managing the flow and structure of discourse.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
The Ingenious Nobleman Sir Quixote of La Mancha (El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha), or just Don Quixote (Oxford English Dictionary, ""), is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes.
Dream interpretation is the process of assigning meaning to dreams.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
A duty (from "due" meaning "that which is owing"; deu, did, past participle of devoir; debere, debitum, whence "debt") is a commitment or expectation to perform some action in general or if certain circumstances arise.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
East Berlin existed from 1949 to 1990 and consisted of the Soviet sector of Berlin established in 1945.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The East River is a salt water tidal estuary in New York City.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Edward Joseph "Ed" Herlihy (August 14, 1909 – January 30, 1999Cox, Jim (2008). This Day in Network Radio: A Daily Calendar of Births, Debuts, Cancellations and Other Events in Broadcasting History. McFarland & Company, Inc..) was an American newsreel narrator for Universal-International.
Edmundo Murray (b. 1955 in Buenos Aires), is a writer, born in a family with Argentine, Colombian, Irish and Swiss origins.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
Egotism is the drive to maintain and enhance favorable views of oneself, and generally features an inflated opinion of one's personal features and importance.
Eh is a spoken interjection in English that is similar in meaning to "Excuse me?," "Please repeat that", or "Huh?".
Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (1099) was a Castilian nobleman and military leader in medieval Spain.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
Emilio Salgari (but often erroneously pronounced; 21 August 1862 – 25 April 1911) was an Italian writer of action adventure swashbucklers and a pioneer of science fiction.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Episodes of the Cuban Revolutionary War, also titled Reminiscences of the Cuban Revolutionary War, is an autobiographical book by Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara about his experiences during the Cuban Revolution (1956–1958) to overthrow the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista.
An epitaph (from Greek ἐπιτάφιος epitaphios "a funeral oration" from ἐπί epi "at, over" and τάφος taphos "tomb") is a short text honoring a deceased person.
Erik Durschmied is a cinematographer, producer, director and also an author, military history professor and a former war correspondent for BBC, CBS.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
Eugene Joseph McCarthy (March 29, 1916December 10, 2005) was an American politician, poet, and a long-time Congressman from Minnesota.
Eutimio Guerra (1920 — February 1957) was a Cuban peasant army guide executed during the Cuban revolution by Che Guevara.
Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959), popularly known as Evo, is a Bolivian politician and cocalero activist who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006.
Execution by firing squad, in the past sometimes called fusillading (from the French fusil, rifle), is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in the military and in times of war.
Execution by shooting is a method of capital punishment in which a person is shot to death by one or more firearms.
Face the Nation is an American Sunday morning political interview show broadcast on the CBS television network.
Félix Ismael Rodríguez Mendigutia (born 31 May 1941) is a former Central Intelligence Agency Paramilitary Operations Officer in the famed Special Activities Division, known for his involvement in the Bay of Pigs Invasion, in the execution of Leftist revolutionary Che Guevara and his ties to George H. W. Bush during the Iran–Contra affair.
Federico del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús García Lorca, known as Federico García Lorca (5 June 1898 – 19 August 1936) was a Spanish poet, playwright, and theatre director.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
In linguistics, a filler is a sound or word that is spoken in conversation by one participant to signal to others a pause to think without giving the impression of having finished speaking.
Fizi is a territory in the south of Sud-Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, bordering the South Kivu territories of Uvira, Mwenga and Shabunda to the north, Lake Tanganyika in the east, and the provinces Katanga in the south and Maniema in the west.
The FN FAL (Fusil Automatique Léger, English: Light Automatic Rifle), is a battle rifle designed by Belgian small arms designers Dieudonné Saive and Ernest Vervier and manufactured by Fabrique Nationale d'Herstal (FN Herstal).
The foco theory of revolution by way of guerrilla warfare, also known as focalism, was formulated by French intellectual and government official Régis Debray, whose main source of inspiration was Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara's experiences surrounding his rebel army's victory in the 1959 Cuban Revolution.
The Force Publique ("Public Force"; Openbare Weermacht) was a gendarmerie and military force in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1885 (when the territory was known as the Congo Free State), through the period of Belgian colonial rule (Belgian Congo – 1908 to 1960).
Forensic anthropology is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy, in a legal setting.
Fort Gulick was a United States Army base in the former Panama Canal Zone located on the Atlantic side of the Panama Canal near Fort Davis, on Gatun Lake.
Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
Frank País García (December 7, 1934 – July 30, 1957) was a Cuban revolutionary who campaigned for the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batista's government in Cuba.
Frantz Fanon (20 July 1925 – 6 December 1961) was a Martinican psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary, and writer whose works are influential in the fields of post-colonial studies, critical theory, and Marxism.
Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking Bohemian Jewish novelist and short story writer, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature.
Freedom Collection is a repository documenting the continued struggle for human freedom and liberty around the world.
The Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO), from the Portuguese Frente de Libertação de Moçambique is the dominant political party in Mozambique.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (born Rubén Zaldívar; January 16, 1901 – August 6, 1973) was the elected President of Cuba from 1940 to 1944, and U.S.-backed dictator from 1952 to 1959, before being overthrown during the Cuban Revolution.
Lucila Godoy Alcayaga (7 April 1889 – 10 January 1957), known by her pseudonym Gabriela Mistral, was a Chilean poet-diplomat, educator and humanist.
Sir Galahad (sometime referred to as Galeas or Galath), in Arthurian legend, is a knight of King Arthur's Round Table and one of the three achievers of the Holy Grail.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
A gender-blind (or unisex) person is someone who adheres to not distinguishing people by gender.
The General Hospital of Mexico (Hospital General de México, HGM) is a hospital in Mexico City, operated by the Secretariat of Health, the federal government department in charge of all social health services in Mexico.
George Galloway (born 16 August 1954) is a British politician, broadcaster and writer.
Gerardo Machado y Morales (28 September 1871 – 29 March 1939) was a general of the Cuban War of Independence and President of Cuba from 1925 to 1933.
Giuseppe Garibaldi; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification. Garibaldi was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was very popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand, showered him with admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts worn by his volunteers, the Garibaldini, in lieu of a uniform.
Henry Graham Greene (2 October 1904 – 3 April 1991), better known by his pen name Graham Greene, was an English novelist regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century.
Granma is the yacht that was used to transport 82 fighters of the Cuban Revolution from Mexico to Cuba in November 1956 for the purpose of overthrowing the regime of Fulgencio Batista.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Guatemala City (Ciudad de Guatemala), locally known as Guatemala or Guate, officially Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción (New Guatemala of the Assumption), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Guatemala, and the most populous in Central America.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Guerrilla Warfare (La Guerra de Guerrillas) is a book by Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara that was written right after the Cuban Revolution and published in 1961.
Guerrillero Heroico ("Heroic Guerrilla Fighter") is an iconic photograph of Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara taken by Alberto Korda.
Guevara (in Basque and officially Gebara) is a small village and former municipality through which the Zadorra River runs.
Guevarism is a theory of communist revolution and a military strategy of guerilla warfare associated with Marxist revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara, a leading figure of the Cuban Revolution who believed in the idea of Marxism–Leninism and embraced its principles.
Herbert George Wells.
Harry "Pombo" Villegas (born 1940 in Yara, Cuba) is a Cuban Communist guerrilla, who fought alongside Che Guevara in battles from the Sierra Maestra to the Bolivian insurgency.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
Havana Harbor is the port of Havana, the capital of Cuba, and it is the main port in Cuba (not including Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, a territory on lease by the United States).
The United Nations is headquartered in New York City, in a complex designed by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer and built by the architectural firm Harrison & Abramovitz.
Helena Leiva de Holst (1897-1978) was a socialist who traveled to both China and the Soviet Union to study Marxism.
Herbert Lionel Matthews (January 10, 1900 – July 30, 1977) was a reporter and editorialist for The New York Times who won widespread attention after revealing that Fidel Castro was still alive and living in the Sierra Maestra mountains, though Fulgencio Batista had claimed publicly that he was killed during the 26th of July Movement's landing.
Hilda Gadea Acosta (21 March 1925 – February 1974)"." Macmillan; retrieved 23 February 2009.
Hill & Wang is an American book publishing company focused on American history, world history, and politics.
is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu - the largest island of Japan.
The Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum is a museum located in Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, in central Hiroshima, Japan, dedicated to documenting the atomic bombing of Hiroshima in World War II.
Hispanic America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica, or América hispana), also known as Spanish America (Spanish: América española), is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.
History (originally The History Channel from 1995 to 2008) is a history-based digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by A&E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Communications and the Disney–ABC Television Group division of the Walt Disney Company.
Homer William Bigart (October 25, 1907 – April 16, 1991) was an American reporter who worked for the New York Herald Tribune from 1929 to 1955 and for The New York Times from 1955 to his retirement in 1972.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California.
Horacio Silvestre Quiroga Forteza (31 December 1878 – 19 February 1937) was a Uruguayan playwright, poet, and short story writer.
Huber Matos Benítez (26 November 1918 – 27 February 2014) was a Cuban military leader, political dissident, activist and writer.
Hugh Swynnerton Thomas, Baron Thomas of Swynnerton (21 October 1931 – 7 May 2017) was an English historian, writer and life peer in the House of Lords.
Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.
In politics, humanitarian aid, and social science, hunger is a condition in which a person, for a sustained period, is unable to eat sufficient food to meet basic nutritional needs.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
"If—" is a poem by English Nobel laureate Rudyard Kipling, written circa 1895 as a tribute to Leander Starr Jameson.
Ignacio Ramonet Miguez (born 5 May 1943) is a Spanish journalist and writer.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
The Independent Institute is an American think tank based in Oakland, California.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Indonesian National Revolution, or Indonesian War of Independence (Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia; Indonesische Onafhankelijkheidsoorlog), was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial Indonesia.
An informant (also called an informer) is a person who provides privileged information about a person or organization to an agency.
The National Institute for Agrarian Reform (Instituto Nacional de Reforma Agraria, INRA) was an agency of the Cuban Government that was formed to institute the Agrarian Reform Law of 1959.
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).
An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about society and proposes solutions for its normative problems.
Inter Press Service (IPS) is a global news agency.
Interest is payment from a borrower or deposit-taking financial institution to a lender or depositor of an amount above repayment of the principal sum (i.e., the amount borrowed), at a particular rate.
International Workers' Day, also known as Labour Day or Workers' Day in some countries and often referred to as May Day, is a celebration of labourers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labour movement which occurs every year on May Day (1 May), an ancient European spring festival.
Irish Argentines are Argentine citizens who are fully or partially of Irish descent.
The Irish Rebellion of 1798 (Éirí Amach 1798), also known as the United Irishmen Rebellion (Éirí Amach na nÉireannach Aontaithe), was an uprising against British rule in Ireland lasting from May to September 1798.
Issues and Answers was a once-weekly TV news program that was telecast by the American Broadcasting Company network from November 1960 to November 1981.
Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
John Griffith "Jack" London (born John Griffith Chaney; January 12, 1876 – November 22, 1916) was an American novelist, journalist, and social activist.
Jacobin is a left-wing quarterly magazine based in New York offering socialist and anti-capitalist perspectives on politics, economics and culture from the American left.
Colonel Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán (September 14, 1913 – January 27, 1971), nicknamed The Big Blonde (Guatemalan El Chelón) or The Swiss (El Suizo) for his Swiss origins, was a Guatemalan military officer who was the second democratically elected President of Guatemala from 1951 to 1954.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
Jim Fitzpatrick is an Irish artist.
Johann Eduard Hari (born 21 January 1979) is a Swiss-British writer and journalist.
John Peter Berger (5 November 1926 – 2 January 2017) was an English art critic, novelist, painter and poet.
John Davison Rockefeller Sr. (July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937) was an American oil industry business magnate, industrialist, and philanthropist.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888May 24, 1959) was an American diplomat.
John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet.
Jon Lee Anderson (born January 15, 1957) is an American biographer, author, investigative reporter, war correspondent and staff writer for The New Yorker, reporting from war zones such as Afghanistan, Iraq, Uganda, Israel, El Salvador, Ireland, Lebanon, Iran, and throughout the Middle East as well as during Hurricane Katrina rescue efforts with K38 Water Safety as documented in the New Yorker article Leaving Desire.
Jorge Castañeda Gutman (born May 24, 1953) is a Mexican politician and academic who served as Secretary of Foreign Affairs (2000–2003).
Jorge Icaza Coronel (June 10, 1906 – May 26, 1978), commonly referred to as Jorge Icaza, was a writer from Ecuador, best known for his novel Huasipungo, which brought attention to the exploitation of Ecuador's indigenous people by Ecuadorian whites.
José Hernández (born José Rafael Hernández y Pueyrredón; November 10, 1834 – October 21, 1886) was an Argentine journalist, poet, and politician best known as the author of the epic poem Martín Fierro.
José Julián Martí Pérez (January 28, 1853 – May 19, 1895) was a Cuban National Hero and an important figure in Latin American literature.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Juan Almeida Bosque (February 17, 1927 – September 11, 2009) was a Cuban politician and one of the original commanders of the insurgent forces in the Cuban Revolution.
Juan Domingo Perón (8 October 1895 – 1 July 1974) was an Argentine army lieutenant general and politician.
Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were United States citizens who spied for the Soviet Union and were tried, convicted, and executed by the Federal government of the United States.
Jungle warfare is a term used to cover the special techniques needed for military units to survive and fight in jungle terrain.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
The Ku Klux Klan, commonly called the KKK or simply the Klan, refers to three distinct secret movements at different points in time in the history of the United States.
Fortaleza de San Carlos de la Cabaña (Fort of Saint Charles), colloquially known as La Cabaña, is an 18th-century fortress complex, the third-largest in the Americas, located on the elevated eastern side of the harbor entrance in Havana, Cuba.
The French freighter La Coubre exploded in the harbor of Havana, Cuba, on 4 March 1960 while it was unloading 76 tons of munitions.
La Higuera (Spanish: "The Fig Tree") is a small village in Bolivia located in the Province of Vallegrande, in the Department of Santa Cruz.
La Paz, officially known as Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace), also named Chuqi Yapu (Chuquiago) in Aymara, is the seat of government and the de facto national capital of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (the constitutional capital of Bolivia is Sucre).
The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings, the trade union movement (British English) or labor union movement (American English), also called trade unionism or labor unionism on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other.
Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake.
The Lamentation of Christ (also known as the Lamentation over the Dead Christ, or the Dead Christ and other variants) is a painting of about 1480 by the Italian Renaissance artist Andrea Mantegna.
Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.
The agrarian reform laws of Cuba sought to break up large landholdings and redistribute land to those peasants who worked it, to cooperatives, and the state.
A latifundium is a very extensive parcel of privately owned land.
Latin American culture is the formal or informal expression of the people of Latin America and includes both high culture (literature and high art) and popular culture (music, folk art, and dance) as well as religion and other customary practices.
Laurent-Désiré Kabila (November 27, 1939 – January 16, 2001), or simply Laurent Kabila (US), was a Congolese revolutionary and politician who served as the third President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from May 17, 1997, when he overthrew Mobutu Sese Seko, until his assassination by one of his bodyguards on January 16, 2001.
The law of value (German: Wertgesetz) is a central concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy, first expounded in his polemic The Poverty of Philosophy (1847) against Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, with reference to David Ricardo's economics.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
The legacy of Argentine Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967) is constantly evolving in the collective imagination.
A leper colony, leprosarium, or lazar house is a place to quarantine people with leprosy (Hansen's disease).
Liberalization (or liberalisation) is a general term for any process whereby a state lifts restrictions on some private individual activities.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
Limerick (Luimneach) is a city in County Limerick, Ireland.
Lisa Howard (April 24, 1926 – July 4, 1965) was an American journalist, writer, and television news anchor who previously had a career as an off-Broadway theater and soap opera actress.
This is a list of diplomatic missions of Argentina, excluding honorary consulates.
This is a list of women's organizations by geography.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
"Little Boy" was the codename for the atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 during World War II by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces.
Louis Antoine Léon de Saint-Just (25 August 176728 July 1794) was a military and political leader during the French Revolution.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
The M1 carbine (formally the United States Carbine, Caliber.30, M1) is a lightweight, easy to use,.30 caliber (7.62 mm) semi-automatic carbine that was a standard firearm for the U.S. military during World War II, the Korean War and well into the Vietnam War.
Machu Picchu (or,, Machu Pikchu) is a 15th-century Inca citadel situated on a mountain ridge above sea level.
Thomas Michael "Mad Mike" Hoare (born 17 March 1919) is a British-Irish mercenary leader known for military activities in Africa and his attempt to conduct a coup d'état in the Seychelles.
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, major is a field grade military officer rank above the rank of captain and below the rank of lieutenant colonel.
Malcolm X (19251965) was an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist.
Marcha was an influential Uruguayan weekly newspaper.
Mario Monje Molina was the Secretary-General of the PCB, the Communist Party of Bolivia (Partido Comunista Boliviano).
Mario Terán (born c. 1940) is the Bolivian Army sergeant who was chosen to carry out the execution of Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara as a young man on October 9, 1967.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Martín Fierro, also known as El Gaucho Martín Fierro, is a 2,316-line epic poem by the Argentine writer José Hernández.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
In politics, a martyr is someone who suffers persecution and/or death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, and/or refusing to advocate a political belief or cause.
Karl Marx's theory of alienation describes the estrangement (Entfremdung) of people from aspects of their Gattungswesen ("species-essence") as a consequence of living in a society of stratified social classes.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA) is an art and design college in Baltimore, Maryland.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.
The volatile period of civil unrest in France during May 1968 was punctuated by demonstrations and massive general strikes as well as the occupation of universities and factories across France.
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.
A memoir (US: /ˈmemwɑːr/; from French: mémoire: memoria, meaning memory or reminiscence) is a collection of memories that an individual writes about moments or events, both public or private, that took place in the subject's life.
Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).
Mercedes was a brand of the Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft (DMG).
In the broadest sense, merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products to a retail consumer.
A metanarrative (also meta-narrative and grand narrative; métarécit) in critical theory and particularly in postmodernism is a narrative about narratives of historical meaning, experience, or knowledge, which offers a society legitimation through the anticipated completion of a (as yet unrealized) master idea.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Miami is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida in the southeastern United States.
The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by the McClatchy Company and headquartered in Doral, Florida, a city in western Miami-Dade County and the Miami metropolitan area, several miles west of downtown Miami.
Michael Löwy (born May 6, 1938 in São Paulo, Brazil) is a French-Brazilian Marxist sociologist and philosopher.
is an American literary critic and former chief book critic for The New York Times.
Miguel Ángel Asturias Rosales (October 19, 1899 – June 9, 1974) was a Nobel Prize-winning Guatemalan poet-diplomat, novelist, playwright and journalist.
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (29 September 1547 (assumed)23 April 1616 NS) was a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
Military theory is the analysis of normative behavior and trends in military affairs and military history, beyond simply describing events in war, Military theories, especially since the influence of Clausewitz in the nineteenth century, attempt to encapsulate the complex cultural, political and economic relationships between societies and the conflicts they create.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
Marshal Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga (born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu; 14 October 1930 – 7 September 1997) was the military dictator and President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (which Mobutu renamed Zaire in 1971) from 1965 to 1997.
Moisés Naím (born July 5, 1952) is a Venezuelan columnist whose writings are published by leading papers worldwide, and the author of more than 10 books.
The Moncada Barracks was a military barracks in Santiago de Cuba, named after the General Guillermón Moncada, a hero of the Cuban War of Independence.
Monochrome describes paintings, drawings, design, or photographs in one color or values of one color.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Morning Star is a left-wing British daily tabloid newspaper with a focus on social, political and trade union issues.
Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an American heterodox economist of the Austrian School, a historian and a political theorist whose writings and personal influence played a seminal role in the development of modern right-libertarianism.
The Museum of the Revolution (Museo de la Revolución) is a museum located in the Old Havana section of Havana, Cuba.
Narcissism is the pursuit of gratification from vanity or egotistic admiration of one's own attributes.
The National Autonomous University of Mexico (Spanish: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, - literal translation: Autonomous National University of Mexico, UNAM) is a public research university in Mexico.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor (NSA) or at times informally termed the NSC Advisor,The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 1.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-governmental, non-profit research and archival institution located on the campus of the George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 to check rising government secrecy, the National Security Archive is an investigative journalism center, open government advocate, international affairs research institute, and is the largest repository of declassified U.S. documents outside the federal government.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
Neocolonialism, neo-colonialism or neo-imperialism is the practice of using capitalism, globalization and cultural imperialism to influence a developing country in lieu of direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control (hegemony).
The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London.
In physics, the Newtonian dynamics is understood as the dynamics of a particle or a small body according to Newton's laws of motion.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
The Oedipus complex is a concept of psychoanalytic theory.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
The National Order of the Southern Cross (Ordem Nacional do Cruzeiro do Sul) is a Brazilian order of chivalry founded by Emperor Pedro I on 1 December 1822.
The Order of the White Lion (Řád Bílého lva) is the highest order of the Czech Republic.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
The Organization of Solidarity with the People of Asia, Africa and Latin America (Spanish: Organización de Solidaridad con los Pueblos de Asia, África y América Latina), abbreviated as OSPAAAL, is a Cuban political movement with the stated purpose of fighting globalisation, imperialism, neoliberalism and defending human rights.
Ricardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto (12 July 1904 – 23 September 1973), better known by his pen name and, later, legal name Pablo Neruda, was a Chilean poet-diplomat and politician.
Palace of Culture (dvorets kultury,, wénhuà gōng) or House of Culture (dom kultury) was the name for major club-houses in the Soviet Union and the rest of the Eastern bloc.
Pan-Africanism is a worldwide intellectual movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all people of African descent.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
The Panama Canal Zone (Zona del Canal de Panamá) was an unincorporated territory of the United States from 1903 to 1979, centered on the Panama Canal and surrounded by the Republic of Panama.
A parable is a succinct, didactic story, in prose or verse that illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Paternalism is action limiting a person's or group's liberty or autonomy which is intended to promote their own good.
Patrice Émery Lumumba (alternatively styled Patrice Hemery Lumumba; 2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was a Congolese politician and independence leader who served as the first Prime Minister of the independent Democratic Republic of the Congo (then Republic of the Congo) from June until September 1960.
Patrick Lynch (born 1715, died 1789) was an Irish emigrant who became a significant landowner in Rio de la Plata, which is now part of Argentina.
Paul Leroy Robeson (April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976) was an American bass baritone concert artist and stage and film actor who became famous both for his cultural accomplishments and for his political activism.
Página/12 is a newspaper published in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Peaceful coexistence (translit) was a theory developed and applied by the Soviet Union at various points during the Cold War in the context of primarily Marxist–Leninist foreign policy and was adopted by Soviet-allied socialist states that they could peacefully coexist with the capitalist bloc (i.e., U.S.-allied states).
Pedagogy is the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of teaching and how these influence student learning.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Peter Kornbluh (born 1956) is director of the National Security Archive's Chile Documentation Project and of the Cuba Documentation Project.
Peter McLaren (born August 2, 1948) is Distinguished Professor in Critical Studies, College of Educational Studies, Chapman University, where he is Co-Director of the Paulo Freire Democratic Project and International Ambassador for Global Ethics and Social Justice.
Philip Burnett Franklin Agee (July 19, 1935 – January 7, 2008)Will Weissert,, Associated Press (sfgate.com), January 9, 2008.
A photo op (sometimes written as photo opp), short for photograph opportunity (photo opportunity), is an arranged opportunity to take a photograph of a politician, a celebrity, or a notable event.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Pinar del Río is a Cuban city, capital of Pinar del Río Province.
Pirate radio or a pirate radio station is a radio station that broadcasts without a valid license.
Plaza de la Revolución, "Revolution Square", is a municipality (or borough) and a square in Havana, Cuba.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Prensa Latina, legal name Agencia de Noticias Latinoamericana S.A. (Latin American News Agency), is the official state news agency of Cuba, founded in March 1959 shortly after the Cuban Revolution.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Proceso (Spanish: "Process") is a left-wing Mexican news magazine published in Mexico City.
Proletarian internationalism, sometimes referred to as international socialism, is the perception of all communist revolutions as being part of a single global class struggle rather than separate localized events.
The protests of 1968 comprised a worldwide escalation of social conflicts, predominantly characterized by popular rebellions against military and bureaucratic elites, who responded with an escalation of political repression.
A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name (orthonym).
In economics, a public good is a good that is both non-excludable and non-rivalrous in that individuals cannot be effectively excluded from use and where use by one individual does not reduce availability to others.
Puerto Barrios is a city in Guatemala, located within the Gulf of Honduras.
Punta del Este is the second city of Uruguayhttp://www.lanacion.com.ar/1439666-tips-gasoleros-para-veranear-en-punta-del-este and the most important resort town in South America, the Punta area 220,000 residents add to a peak of over 600,000 people during the summer season, while year-round the town receives one million tourists.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz (born 3 June 1931) is a Cuban politician and leader who is currently serving as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, the most senior position in the Communist state, succeeding his brother Fidel Castro in April 2011.
Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, includes the segregation or separation of access to facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines.
Radio Rebelde (English: Rebel Radio) is a Cuban Spanish-language radio station.
Radio y Televisión Martí is an American radio and television international broadcaster based in Miami, Florida, financed by the Federal government of the United States through the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG), which transmits political propaganda in Spanish to Cuba.
A radiotelephone (or radiophone) is a communications system for transmission of speech over radio.
Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina (24 October 1891 – 30 May 1961), nicknamed El Jefe (The Chief or The Boss), was a Dominican politician, soldier and dictator, who ruled the Dominican Republic from February 1930 until his assassination in May 1961.
Ramparts was a glossy illustrated American political and literary magazine, published from 1962 to 1975 and closely associated with the New Left political movement.
Jules Régis Debray (born 2 September 1940) is a French philosopher, journalist, former government official and academic.
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.
Relations of production (German: Produktionsverhältnisse) is a concept frequently used by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in their theory of historical materialism and in Das Kapital.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.
René Barrientos Ortuño (30 May 1919 – 27 April 1969) was a Bolivian military officer and politician who served as his country's Vice President in 1964 and as its President from 1966 to 1969.
The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo) was a sovereign state in Central Africa that was created with the independence of the Belgian Congo in 1960.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution.
A revolutionary wave or revolutionary decade is a series of revolutions occurring in various locations within a similar time span.
Richard Willoughby Gott (born 28 October 1938, Aston Tirrold, England) is a British journalist and historian.
Richard Naradof Goodwin (December 7, 1931 – May 20, 2018) was an American writer and presidential advisor.
Robert Lee Frost (March26, 1874January29, 1963) was an American poet.
Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, musician and travel writer.
Robin Hood is a legendary heroic outlaw originally depicted in English folklore and subsequently featured in literature and film.
The Rockefeller family is an American industrial, political, and banking family that owns one of the world's largest fortunes.
The Rolex Oyster Perpetual Date GMT Master is part of the Rolex Professional Watch Collection.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Rosario is the largest city in the province of Santa Fe, in central Argentina.
Félix Rubén García Sarmiento (January 18, 1867 – February 6, 1916), known as Rubén Darío, was a Nicaraguan poet who initiated the Spanish-American literary movement known as modernismo (modernism) that flourished at the end of the 19th century.
Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)The Times, (London) 18 January 1936, p. 12 was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
In the game of rugby union, there are 15 players on each team, comprising eight forwards (numbered 1–8) and seven backs (numbered 9–15).
Saint Patrick's Day, or the Feast of Saint Patrick (Lá Fhéile Pádraig, "the Day of the Festival of Patrick"), is a cultural and religious celebration held on 17 March, the traditional death date of Saint Patrick (AD 385–461), the foremost patron saint of Ireland.
Samuel Farber (born in Marianao, Havana, Cuba) is an American writer born and raised in Cuba.
The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.
San José (literally meaning "Saint Joseph") is the capital and largest city of Costa Rica.
Sanctification is the act or process of acquiring sanctity, of being made or becoming holy.
Santa Clara is the capital city of the Cuban province of Villa Clara.
The Province of Santa Fe (Provincia de Santa Fe) is a province of Argentina, located in the center-east of the country.
Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.
Santiago de Cuba is the second-largest city of Cuba and the capital city of Santiago de Cuba Province.
Saul Landau (January 15, 1936 – September 9, 2013) was an American journalist, filmmaker and commentator.
UNAM's School of Medicine (Spanish:Facultad de Medicina de la UNAM) is the medical school of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), located at the university's main campus of Ciudad Universitaria.
Sean O'Hagan is an Irish writer for The Guardian and The Observer, his specialty being photography.
The Spanish Republic (República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española), was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939.
Secular humanism is a philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making.
Self-denial (related but different from self-abnegation or self-sacrifice) is an act of letting go of the self as with altruistic abstinence – the willingness to forgo personal pleasures or undergo personal trials in the pursuit of the increased good of another.
Selfishness is being concerned excessively or exclusively, for oneself or one's own advantage, pleasure, or welfare, regardless of others.
Shortwave radio is radio transmission using shortwave radio frequencies.
Sierra Maestra is a mountain range that runs westward across the south of the old Oriente Province in southeast Cuba, rising abruptly from the coast.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
The Simba rebellion of 1964 was a revolt in Congo-Léopoldville (the modern Democratic Republic of the Congo) which took place within the wider context of the Congo Crisis and the Cold War.
Simeón Cuba Sarabia (15 January 1935 – 9 October 1967), also known as Willy, was a member of the Ñancahuazú guerrilla column led by Che Guevara in Bolivia.
The Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences arising from each of the two powers' different interpretation of Marxism–Leninism as influenced by the national interests of each country during the Cold War.
Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons.
In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals.
In Marxist theory, socialism (also called the socialist mode of production) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Solidarity is unity (as of a group or class) which produces or is based on unities of interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spanish settlement in Argentina, that is the arrival of Spanish emigrants in Argentina, took place firstly in the period before Argentina's independence from Spain, and again in large numbers during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Special Activities Division (SAD) is a division of the United States Central Intelligence Agency responsible for covert operations.
The United States Army Special Forces, colloquially known as the Green Berets due to their distinctive service headgear, are a special operations force tasked with five primary missions: unconventional warfare (the original and most important mission of Special Forces), foreign internal defense, special reconnaissance, direct action, and counter-terrorism.
The theory of state monopoly capitalism (also referred as stamocap) was initially a Marxist doctrine popularised after World War II.
Kwame Ture (born Stokely Carmichael, June 29, 1941November 15, 1998) was a Trinidadian-born prominent organizer in the Civil Rights Movement in the United States and the global Pan-African movement.
Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.
Sukarno (born Kusno Sosrodihardjo; 6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia, serving in office from 1945 to 1967.
A summary execution is an execution in which a person is accused of a crime and immediately killed without benefit of a full and fair trial.
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).
Susan Sontag (January 16, 1933 – December 28, 2004) was an American writer, filmmaker, philosopher, teacher, and political activist.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
Tadeusz Witold Szulc (July 25, 1926 – May 21, 2001) was an author and foreign correspondent for The New York Times from 1953 to 1972.
Haydée Tamara Bunke Bider (November 19, 1937 – August 31, 1967), better known as Tania or Tania the Guerrilla, was an Argentine-born East German communist revolutionary and spy who played a prominent role in the Cuban government after the Cuban Revolution and in various Latin American revolutionary movements.
Tarará is a gated resort town in the municipality of Habana del Este in the city of Havana, Cuba.
Tarzan (John Clayton, Viscount Greystoke) is a fictional character, an archetypal feral child raised in the African jungle by the Mangani great apes; he later experiences civilization only to largely reject it and return to the wild as a heroic adventurer.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Teoponte is a village in the La Paz Department, Bolivia.
The Age is a daily newspaper that has been published in Melbourne, Australia, since 1854.
The Anatomy Lesson of Dr.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Hands of Che Guevara (Dutch: De handen van Che Guevara; Spanish: Las manos de Che Guevara) is a 2006 documentary film made by Dutch film director Peter de Kock.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Japan Times is Japan's largest and oldest English-language daily newspaper.
The Motorcycle Diaries (Diarios de Motocicleta) is a memoir that traces the early travels of Marxist revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara, then a 23-year-old medical student, and his friend Alberto Granado, a 29-year-old biochemist.
The Motorcycle Diaries (Diarios de motocicleta) is a 2004 biopic about the journey and written memoir of the 23-year-old Ernesto Guevara, who would several years later become internationally known as the iconic Marxist guerrilla commander and revolutionary Che Guevara.
The New Republic is a liberal American magazine of commentary on politics and the arts, published since 1914, with influence on American political and cultural thinking.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Washington Times is an American daily newspaper that covers general interest topics with a particular emphasis on American politics.
The Wretched of the Earth (Les Damnés de la Terre) is a 1961 book by Frantz Fanon, in which the author provides a psychiatric and psychologic analysis of the dehumanizing effects of colonization upon the individual and the nation, and discusses the broader social, cultural, and political implications inherent to establishing a social movement for the decolonization of a person and of a people.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century is a compilation of the 20th century's 100 most influential people, published in Time magazine in 1999.
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier refers to a monument dedicated to the services of an unknown soldier and to the common memories of all soldiers killed in any war.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, monsoon forest, vine thicket, vine scrub and dry rainforest is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes.
Tupi–Guarani is the name of the most widely distributed subfamily of the Tupian languages of South America.
Underdevelopment, relating to international development, reflects a broad condition or phenomena defined and critiqued by theorists in fields such as economics, development studies, and postcolonial studies.
The United Arab Republic (UAR; الجمهورية العربية المتحدة) was, between 1958 and 1971, a sovereign state in the Middle East, and between 1958 and 1961, a short-lived political union consisting of Egypt (including the occupied Gaza Strip) and Syria.
The United Fruit Company was an American corporation that traded in tropical fruit (primarily bananas), grown on Central and South American plantations, and sold in the United States and Europe.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United States Army Rangers are designated U.S. Army Ranger units, past or present, or are graduates of the U.S. Army Ranger School.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
Universal Newsreel (sometimes known as Universal-International Newsreel or just U-I Newsreel) was a series of 7- to 10-minute newsreels that were released twice a week between 1929 and 1967 by Universal Studios.
The University "Marta Abreu" of Las Villas (Universidad Central "Marta Abreu" de Las Villas, UCLV) is an undergraduate and graduate university located in Santa Clara, Cuba founded in 1952 and having a remote campus called "Universidad de Montaña" located in Topes de Collantes, the heart of the Escambray Mountains.
The University of Buenos Aires (Universidad de Buenos Aires, UBA) is the largest university in Argentina and the second largest university by enrollment in Latin America.
An urban guerrilla is someone who fights a government using unconventional warfare or domestic terrorism in an urban environment.
A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.
Vallegrande (Spanish: "Big Valley") is a small colonial town in Bolivia, located in the Department of Santa Cruz, some 125 km (bee-line) southwest of Santa Cruz de la Sierra.
Vallegrande is a province in the Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia.
In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.
Víctor Emilio Dreke Cruz (born 10 March 1937 in Sagua La Grande) is a Cuban Communist Party leader of notable African descent, and a former commander in the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Villa Clara is one of the provinces of Cuba.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Walter "Walt" Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, and journalist.
Walt Whitman Rostow (also known as Walt Rostow or W.W. Rostow) (October 7, 1916 – February 13, 2003) was an American economist and political theorist who served as Special Assistant for National Security Affairs to US President Lyndon B. Johnson from 1966 to 1969.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
Wealth concentration is a process by which created wealth, under some conditions, can become concentrated by individuals or entities.
William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi.
William Ratliff (1937 - April 11, 2014) was a research fellow and curator of Americas Collection at Stanford University's Hoover Institution, specializing in Latin America, China, and U.S. foreign policy.
WJXX, virtual channel 25 (VHF digital channel 10), is an ABC-affiliated television station serving Jacksonville, Florida, United States that is licensed to Orange Park.
World communism (also international communism and global communism) is a form of communism of international scope.
World revolution is the far-left Marxist concept of overthrowing capitalism in all countries through the conscious revolutionary action of the organized working class.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Young Communist League (YCL) is the name used by the youth wing of various Communist parties around the world.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
The 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état was a covert operation carried out by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) that deposed the democratically elected Guatemalan President Jacobo Árbenz and ended the Guatemalan Revolution of 1944–1954.
Protest activity against the Vietnam War took place prior to and during the 1968 Democratic National Convention.
The 26th of July Movement (Movimiento 26 de Julio; M-26-7) was a vanguard revolutionary organization then a party led by Fidel Castro that in 1959 overthrew the Fulgencio Batista dictatorship in Cuba.
The 8th Special Forces Group of the United States Army was established in 1963 at Fort Gulick, Panama Canal Zone.
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