153 relations: A (Cyrillic), Absolutive case, Adjective, Adverb, Affix, Affricate consonant, Agglutinative language, Allative case, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, Antipassive voice, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arabic diacritics, Arabic script, Aspirated consonant, Back vowel, Be (Cyrillic), Branching (linguistics), Caucasian War, Central Asia, Central vowel, Che (Cyrillic), Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Chechens, Chechnya, Comparative case, Complementary distribution, Complementizer, Conjunction (grammar), Consonant, Consonant cluster, Cyrillic script, Dative case, De (Cyrillic), Demonstrative, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Denti-alveolar consonant, Dependent-marking language, Dialect, Diphthong, E (Cyrillic), Ef (Cyrillic), Ejective consonant, El (Cyrillic), Em (Cyrillic), En (Cyrillic), Er (Cyrillic), Ergative case, Ergative–absolutive language, ..., Es (Cyrillic), Flap consonant, Fortis and lenis, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Ge (Cyrillic), Gemination, Genitive case, Georgia (country), Georgian scripts, German language, Glottal consonant, Glottal stop, Grammatical case, Hard sign, I (Cyrillic), I-mutation, Indo-European languages, Infinitive, Ingush language, Instrumental case, Islam, Japanese language, Johanna Nichols, Jordan, Ka (Cyrillic), Kazakhstan, Kha (Cyrillic), Kist people, Kyrgyzstan, Labial consonant, Languages of Europe, Languages of the Caucasus, Latin script, Lexicography, List of Cyrillic digraphs and trigraphs, Loanword, Locative case, Metathesis (linguistics), Morpheme, Morphosyntactic alignment, Murmured voice, Nakh languages, Nasal consonant, Nasalization, Nominative case, Northeast Caucasian languages, Northwest Caucasian languages, Noun, Noun class, Noun phrase, O (Cyrillic), October Revolution, Open vowel, Optative mood, Palochka, Pe (Cyrillic), Peter von Uslar, Pharyngeal consonant, Pharyngealization, Phonetics, Postalveolar consonant, Preposition and postposition, Register (sociolinguistics), Relative clause, Resh, Rhotic consonant, Root (linguistics), Roundedness, Russia, Russian Census (2010), Salishan languages, Sha (Cyrillic), Shamil, 3rd Imam of Dagestan, Shcha, Short I, Soft sign, Stop consonant, Swedish language, Syllable, Syria, Te (Cyrillic), Tse (Cyrillic), Turkey, Turkish language, U (Cyrillic), Umlaut (linguistics), Uvular consonant, Vainakhish language, Ve (Cyrillic), Velar consonant, Verb, Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel length, Ya (Cyrillic), Ye (Cyrillic), Yery, Yo (Cyrillic), Yu (Cyrillic), Ze (Cyrillic), Zhe (Cyrillic). Expand index (103 more) » « Shrink index
A (А а; italics: А а) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The absolutive case (abbreviated) is the unmarked grammatical case of a core argument of a verb (generally other than the nominative) that is used as the citation form of a noun.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
Allative case (abbreviated; from Latin allāt-, afferre "to bring to") is a type of locative case.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The antipassive voice (abbreviated or) is a type of grammatical voice that either does not include the object or includes the object in an oblique case.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic script has numerous diacritics, including i'jam -, consonant pointing and tashkil -, supplementary diacritics.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Be (Б б italics: Б б б) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
In linguistics, branching refers to the shape of the parse trees that represent the structure of sentences.
The Caucasian War (Кавказская война; Kavkazskaya vojna) of 1817–1864 was an invasion of the Caucasus by the Russian Empire which resulted in Russia's annexation of the areas of the North Caucasus, and the ethnic cleansing of Circassians.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Che or Cha (Ч ч; italics: Ч ч) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (Nóxçiyn Paçẋalq Içkeri noχtʃʰiːn pʰɑtʃʜɑlq nɔχtʃɪtʃʰy̯ø, Cyrillic: Нохчийн Пачхьалкх Ичкери; Чеченская Республика Ичкерия; abbreviated as "ChRI" or "CRI") is the unrecognized secessionist government of the Chechen Republic.
Chechens (Нохчий; Old Chechen: Нахчой Naxçoy) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe.
The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.
The comparative case (abbreviated) is a grammatical case used in languages such as Mari and Chechen to mark a likeness to something.
In linguistics, complementary distribution, as distinct from contrastive distribution and free variation, is the relationship between two different elements of the same kind in which one element is found in one set of environments and the other element is found in a non-intersecting (complementary) set of environments.
In linguistics (especially generative grammar), complementizer or complementiser (glossing abbreviation) is a lexical category (part of speech) that includes those words that can be used to turn a clause into the subject or object of a sentence.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
De (Д д; italics: Д д) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.
The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, a denti-alveolar consonant or dento-alveolar consonant is a consonant that is articulated with a flat tongue against the alveolar ridge and upper teeth, such as and in languages such as Spanish and French.
A dependent-marking language has grammatical markers of agreement and case government between the words of phrases that tend to appear more on dependents than on heads.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
E (Э э; italics:; also known as backwards e, from Russian э оборо́тное, e oborótnoye) is a letter found in two Slavic languages: Russian and Belarusian.
Ef (Ф ф; italics: Ф ф) is a Cyrillic letter, commonly representing the voiceless labiodental fricative, like the pronunciation of in "fill".
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
El (Л л; italics: Л л) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Em (М м; italics: М м) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
En (Н н; italics: Н н) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Er (Р р; italics: Р р) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The ergative case (abbreviated) is the grammatical case that identifies the noun as a subject of a transitive verb in ergative–absolutive languages.
Ergative–absolutive languages, or ergative languages are languages that share a certain distinctive pattern relating to the subjects (technically, arguments) of verbs.
Es (С с; italics: С с) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
In linguistics, fortis and lenis (Latin for "strong" and "weak"), sometimes identified with '''tense''' and '''lax''', are pronunciations of consonants with relatively greater and lesser energy.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Ghe or Ge (Г г; italics: Г г) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
The letter Ъ (italics Ъ, ъ) of the Cyrillic script, also spelled jer or er, is known as the hard sign (твёрдый знак tvjórdyj znak) in the modern Russian and Rusyn alphabets, as er golyam (ер голям, "big er") in the Bulgarian alphabet, and as debelo jer (дебело їер, "fat yer") in pre-reform Serbian orthography.
I (И и; italics: И и) is a letter used in almost all Cyrillic alphabets.
I-mutation (also known as umlaut, front mutation, i-umlaut, i/j-mutation or i/j-umlaut) is a type of sound change in which a back vowel is fronted or a front vowel is raised if the following syllable contains /i/, /ī/ or /j/ (a voiced palatal approximant, sometimes called yod, the sound of English in yes).
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
Ingush (ГӀалгӀай,, pronounced) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by about 500,000 people, known as the Ingush, across a region covering the Russian republics of Ingushetia and Chechnya.
The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Johanna Nichols (born 1945, Iowa City, Iowa) is a professor emerita Linguist in the Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures at the University of California, Berkeley.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Ka (К к; italics: К к) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kha or Ha (Х х; italics: Х х) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Kists (ქისტები kist'ebi, Kistoj, Kisti) are a Chechen in Georgia.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups.
The following digraphs (and trigraphs) are used in the Cyrillic script.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
Metathesis (from Greek, from "I put in a different order"; Latin: trānspositiō) is the transposition of sounds or syllables in a word or of words in a sentence.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the grammatical relationship between arguments—specifically, between the two arguments (in English, subject and object) of transitive verbs like the dog chased the cat, and the single argument of intransitive verbs like the cat ran away.
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.
The Nakh languages are a group of languages within Northeast Caucasian, spoken chiefly by the Chechens and Ingush in the North Caucasus within Southern Russia.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
The Northeast Caucasian languages, or Nakh-Daghestanian languages, are a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia and in northern Azerbaijan as well as in diaspora populations in Western Europe, Turkey and the Middle East.
The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic (as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages), are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus region,Hoiberg, Dale H. (2010) chiefly in three Russian republics (Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia), the disputed territory of Abkhazia (whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia), and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
In linguistics, a noun class is a particular category of nouns.
A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.
O (О о; italics: О о) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
The optative mood or (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope.
The palochka or palotchka (Ӏ ӏ; italics: Ӏ ӏ) (r, literally "a stick") is a letter in the Cyrillic script.
Pe (П п; italics: П п) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Baron Peter von Uslar (Pjotr Karlovič Uslar) (— was a Russian general, engineer and linguist of German descent, known for his research of languages and ethnography of peoples of Caucasus. Peter von Uslar was born in Kurovo manor in Tver Governorate, Russian Empire. Peter von Uslar after as graduated from the Chief Engineering School, he graduated from the General Staff Academy and did not have formal education in linguistics. In 1850 he was appointed member of the Caucasus Department of the Russian Geographical Society and ordered to compile the history of Caucasus. This appointment had eventually led to his interest in researching of Caucasian languages and to his tremendous contribution into the recording of numerous Caucasian languages from variuous linguistical groups, such as Abkhaz, Ubykh, Svan, Chechen, Avar, Lak, Tabasaran, Lezgian, Dargin, etc. Category:1816 births Category:1875 deaths Category:People from Vyshnevolotsky District Category:Russian-German people Category:Military Engineering-Technical University alumni Category:Imperial Russian military personnel Category:Russian engineers Category:Linguists from Russia Category:Corresponding Members of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx.
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains the element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation between the relativized element in the relative clause and antecedent on which it depends.
Resh is the twentieth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Rēsh, Hebrew Rēsh, Aramaic Rēsh, Syriac Rēsh ܪ, and Arabic.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Census of 2010 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2010 го́да) is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of the Pacific Northwest in North America (the Canadian province of British Columbia and the American states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana).
Sha (Ш ш; italics: Ш ш) is a letter of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic script.
Imam Shamil (also spelled Shamyl, Schamil, Schamyl or Shameel; Шейх Шамил; Şeyh Şamil; Имам Шамиль; الشيخ شامل) (pronounced "Shaamil") (26 June 1797 – 4 February 1871) was the political, military, and spiritual leader of Caucasian resistance to Imperial Russia in the 1800s, as well as the third Imam of the Caucasian Imamate (1840–1859).
Shcha (Щ щ; italics: Щ щ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Short I or Yot (Й й; italics: Й й) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The soft sign (Ь, ь, italics Ь, ь; Russian: мягкий знак) also known as the front yer or front er, is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Te (Т т; italics: Т т) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Tse (Ц ц; italics: Ц ц) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
U (У у; italics: У у) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
In linguistics, umlaut (from German "sound alteration") is a sound change in which a vowel is pronounced more like a following vowel or semivowel.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
The Vainakhish language consist of the dialect continuum between the Chechen and Ingush languages, mainly spoken in the Russian republics of Chechnya and Ingushetia, as well as in the Chechen diaspora.
Ve (В в; italics: В в) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Ya (Я я; italics: Я я) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, the civil script variant of Old Cyrillic Little Yus.
Ye (Е е; italics: Е е) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Yery, Yeru, Ery or Eru (Ы ы; italics: Ы ы, usually called "Ы" in modern Russian or "еры" yerý historically and in modern Church Slavonic) is a letter in the Cyrillic script.
Yo (Ё ё; italics: Ё ё) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Yu (Ю ю; italics: Ю ю) is a letter of the Cyrillic script used in East Slavic and Bulgarian alphabets.
Ze (З з; italics: З з) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Zhe (Ж ж; italics: Ж ж) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.