266 relations: Abdul-Halim Sadulayev, Abrek, Abukhadzhi Idrisov, Agriculture, Akhmad Kadyrov, Akhmed Zakayev, Alania, Alans, Alexander Goldfarb (biologist), Alexander Yakovlev (Russian politician), All-National Congress of the Chechen People, Amnesty International, Anatol Lieven, Andrey Illarionov, Anna Politkovskaya, Anti-gay purges in Chechnya, Anton Denikin, Arabs, Argun River (Caucasus), Argun, Chechen Republic, Arkady Babchenko, Armenians, Aslan Maskhadov, Avars (Caucasus), Azerbaijan, Baptism, Bats language, Battle of Berlin, Battle of the Terek River, Batu Khan, BBC, BBC News, Beslan, Beslan school siege, Bid‘ah, Bogdan Kobulov, Boris Yeltsin, Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis, Caning, Capital city, Caspian Sea, Caucas, Caucasian Knot, Caucasus, Caucasus Emirate, Caucasus Russians, Central Asia, Charlie Hebdo shooting, Chechen language, Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, ..., Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Chechens, Circassian genocide, Close air support, CNN, Coat of arms of the Chechen Republic, Cult of personality, Dagestan, Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, De facto, De-Stalinization, Decapitation, Deportation of the Chechens and Ingush, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Dokka Umarov, Dzhokhar Dudayev, Eastern Europe, Electoral fraud, Elena Milashina, Emir, England, European Parliament, Federal republic, Federal subjects of Russia, Fiqh, First Chechen War, Flag of Chechnya, Freedom House, Frontline (U.S. TV series), Genghis Khan, Genocide, Georgia (country), Georgian Civil War, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, Grozny, Grozny Oblast, Gudermes, Hanafi, Head of the Chechen Republic, Henry Harpending, Heraclius II of Georgia, Holodomor, Honor killing, Housewife, Human Rights Watch, Ibero-Caucasian languages, Ijtihad, Ilia State University, Ilyas Akhmadov, Ingush language, Ingush people, Ingushetia, Institute of Modern Russia, Insurgency, Insurgency in the North Caucasus, Iran, Irrigation, Islam, Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade, Ivan the Terrible, Johanna Nichols, Kadyrovtsy, Kalmykia, Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, Kazakhstan, Khanpasha Nuradilov, Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, Kumyks, Lake Kezenoyam, Land mine, Leonti Mroveli, LGBT rights in Chechnya, Madhhab, Magas, Maghas, Makhachkala, Malgobek, Maria Temryukovna, Marie Bennigsen-Broxup, Memorial (society), Mongols, Morale, Moscow hostage crisis chemical agent, Moscow Kremlin, Moscow theater hostage crisis, Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus, Movlid Visaitov, Muhammad, Murid War, Muslim, Myanmar, Nader Shah, Nakh languages, Naqshbandi, Naursky District, Nazi Germany, Nazran, Nikita Khrushchev, NKVD, Nogais, Norman Naimark, North Caucasian Federal District, North Caucasus, North Caucasus economic region, North Korea, North Ossetia-Alania, North Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Northeast Caucasian languages, Novaya Gazeta, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Ottoman Empire, Parliament of the Chechen Republic, Paul Klebnikov, PBS, PDF, Peace treaty, Peoples of the Caucasus, Peter Simon Pallas, Peter the Great, Population transfer in the Soviet Union, Prehistoric Caucasus, President of Russia, Prigorodny District, North Ossetia-Alania, Qajar dynasty, Quran, Ramzan Kadyrov, Red Army, Refugee camp, Republic, Republics of Russia, RIA Novosti, Russia, Russian apartment bombings, Russian Census (2002), Russian Census (2010), Russian Federal State Statistics Service, Russian language, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Revolution, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russians, Russification, Russo-Persian War (1722–1723), Russo-Persian War (1804–13), Russo-Persian War (1826–1828), Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829), Safavid dynasty, Sakha Republic, Satellite phone, Science (journal), Second Chechen War, Separatism, Sergey Abramov (politician), Shafi‘i, Shali, Chechen Republic, Shamil Basayev, Shamil, 3rd Imam of Dagestan, Sharia, Shatlak's Song, Sheikh Mansur, Shelkovskoy District, Soviet Air Forces, Soviet Union, State of emergency, Stavropol Krai, Stoning, Sufism, Sunnah, Sunni Islam, Sunzha River, Taliban, Tampa Bay Times, Tapa Tchermoeff, Taqlid, Tatarstan, Tawhid, Teip, Terek Cossacks, Terek River, The Economist, The Independent, The New York Times, Thomas Goltz, Tibet Autonomous Region, Timur, Tokhtamysh, Transcaucasia, Treaty of Georgievsk, Treaty of Gulistan, Treaty of Resht, Treaty of Turkmenchay, Trialetian, Tsardom of Russia, Tuva, Types of inhabited localities in Russia, Ukrainians, Umar Israilov, United States, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, Urus-Martan, Vainakh peoples, Vedeno, Vladikavkaz, Vladimir Putin, Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Mironov, Wahhabism, War of Dagestan, Western culture, Wildlife of Chechnya, World War II, Zelimxan, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, 1944 in the Soviet Union, 1957 in the Soviet Union, 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt. Expand index (216 more) » « Shrink index
Abdul-Halim Salamovich Sadulayev (Chechen: Сайд-Iелийн Абусаламин кІант Iабдул-Хьалим Sadulin Abusalamin-Kant Abdulhalim, Russian: Абдул-Халим Саламович Сайдулаев Abdul-Khalim Salamovich Saydulayev) (2 June 1966 – 17 June 2006) was the fourth President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.
Abrek is a North Caucasian term.
Abukhadzhi Idrisov (Абухажи Идрисов) (17 May 1918 in Berdikel, Chechen-Ingush ASSR – 22 October 1983 in Grozny, Chechen-Ingush ASSR) was a Soviet Chechen soldier who fought in World War II.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Akhmad Abdulkhamidovich Kadyrov (Ахмат Абдулхамидович Кадыров; Къадири lабдулхьамидан кlант Ахьмад-Хьажи; 23 August 1951 – 9 May 2004), also spelled Akhmat, was the Chief Mufti of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria in the 1990s during and after the First Chechen War.
Akhmed Halidovich Zakayev (Заки Хьалид кlант Ахьмад, Zaki Halid-khant Ahmad, Ахмед Халидович Закаев, Akhmed Khalidovich Zakayev; born 26 April 1959) is a former Deputy Prime Minister and Prime Minister of the unrecognised Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (ChRI).
Alania was a medieval kingdom of the Iranian Alans (proto-Ossetians) that flourished in the Northern Caucasus, roughly in the location of latter-day Circassia and modern North Ossetia–Alania, from its independence from the Khazars in the late 9th century until its destruction by the Mongol invasion in 1238-39.
The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
Alexander Davidovich Goldfarb (a.k.a. Alex Goldfarb, Александр Давидович Гольдфарб) (born 1947 in Moscow) is a Russian-American microbiologist, activist, and author.
Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Я́ковлев; 2 December 1923 – 18 October 2005) was a Soviet politician and historian.
The All-National Congress of the Chechen People (NCChP) of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria came to power on 1 November 1991 under president Dzhokhar Dudayev, a former commander of the Soviet air force base in Tartu, Estonia.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Peter Paul Anatol Lieven (28 June 1960) is a British author, Orwell Prize-winning journalist, and policy analyst.
Andrey Nikolayevich Illarionov (Андре́й Никола́евич Илларио́нов, born 16 September 1961) is a Russian economist and former economic policy advisor to the President of Russia, Vladimir Putin.
Anna Stepanovna Politkovskaya (p; Га́нна Степа́нівна Політко́вська; née Mazepa; 30 August 1958 – 7 October 2006) was a Russian journalist, writer, and human rights activist who reported on political events in Russia, in particular, the Second Chechen War (1999–2005).
Beginning in February 2017, it has been reported that more than 100 male residents of the Chechen Republic, a part of the Russian Federation, have been abducted, held prisoner and tortured by authorities targeting them based on their perceived sexual orientation.
Anton Ivanovich Denikin (p; 8 August 1947) was a Russian Lieutenant General in the Imperial Russian Army (1916) and afterwards a leading general of the White movement in the Russian Civil War.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Argun River (Аргу́н, Orga, არღუნი - arghuni) flows through the northern Caucasus, Georgia, and the Chechen Republic of Russia.
Argun (Аргу́н), also known as Ustrada (Устрада) is a town in the Chechen Republic, Russia, located on the Argun River.
Arkady Arkadyevich Babchenko (Аркадий Аркадьевич Бабченко; born 18 March 1977) is a Russian print and television journalist.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Aslan (Khalid) Aliyevich Maskhadov (Chechen: Аслан Али кӏант Масхадан, Aslan Ali-khant Masxadaŋ, Russian: Аслан Алиевич Масхадов) (21 September 1951 – 8 March 2005) was a leader of the Chechen independence movement and the third President of the unrecognized Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.
The Avars (аварал / магIарулал, awaral / maⱨarulal; "mountaineers" constitute a Caucasus native ethnic group, the most predominant of several ethnic groups living in the Russian republic of Dagestan. The Avars reside in a region known as the North Caucasus between the Black and Caspian Seas. Alongside other ethnic groups in the North Caucasus region, the Caucasian Avars live in ancient villages located approximately 2,000 m above sea level. The Avar language spoken by the Caucasian Avars belongs to the family of Northeast Caucasian languages and is also known as Nakh–Dagestanian. Sunni Islam has been the prevailing religion of the Avars since the 13th century.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
Bats (also Batsi, Batsbi, Batsb, Batsaw, Tsova-Tush) is the endangered language of the Bats people, a Caucasian minority group, and is part of the Nakh family of Caucasian languages.
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
The Battle of the Terek River was the second major battle of Tokhtamysh–Timur war.
Batu Khan (Бат хаан, Bat haan, Бату хан, Bá dū, хан Баты́й, Μπατού; c. 1207–1255), also known as Sain Khan (Good Khan, Сайн хаан, Sayn hân) and Tsar Batu, was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beslan (Бесла́н; Беслӕн, Beslæn) is a town and the administrative center of Pravoberezhny District of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russia, located about north of the republic's capital Vladikavkaz, close to the border with the Republic of Ingushetia.
The Beslan school siege (also referred to as the Beslan school hostage crisis or Beslan massacre) started on 1 September 2004, lasted three days, involved the illegal imprisonment of over 1,100 people as hostages (including 777 children), and ended with the deaths of at least 334 people.
In Islam, bid‘ah (بدعة; innovation) refers to innovation in religious matters.
Bogdan Kobulov (Богда́н Заха́рович Кобу́лов; 1 March 1904 – 23 December 1953) was a Soviet politician and member of the Soviet security and police apparatus during the rule of Joseph Stalin, as was his younger brother Amayak Zaharovich Kobulov.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
The Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis took place from 14 June to 19 June 1995, when a group of 80 to 200 Chechen separatists led by Shamil Basayev attacked the southern Russian city of Budyonnovsk (pop. 60,000, often spelled Budennovsk), some north of the border with the de facto independent Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.
Caning is a form of corporal punishment consisting of a number of hits (known as "strokes" or "cuts") with a single cane usually made of rattan, generally applied to the offender's bare or clothed buttocks (see spanking) or hand(s) (on the palm).
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Caucas or Kavkasos (კავკასოსი) was the purported ancestor of Caucasians.
300px Caucasian Knot (Russian: Кавказский узел, Kavkazkii Uzel) is an online news site that covers the Caucasus region in English and Russian.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Caucasus Emirate (Имарат Кавказ Imarat Kavkaz (IK); Кавказский Эмират Kavkazskiy Emirat), also known as the Caucasian Emirate, was a militant Jihadist organisation active in the southwestern region of the Russian Federation.
The terms Russians of the Caucasus; Caucasus Russians; Caucasian Russians; or Krasnodar Russians all refer to ethnic Russians living in the Caucasus.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
On 7 January 2015 at about 11:30 local time, two brothers, Saïd and Chérif Kouachi, forced their way into the offices of the French satirical weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo in Paris.
Chechen (нохчийн мотт / noxçiyn mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in the Chechen Republic and by members of the Chechen diaspora throughout Russia, Jordan, Central Asia (mainly Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), and Georgia.
The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (Nóxçiyn Paçẋalq Içkeri noχtʃʰiːn pʰɑtʃʜɑlq nɔχtʃɪtʃʰy̯ø, Cyrillic: Нохчийн Пачхьалкх Ичкери; Чеченская Республика Ичкерия; abbreviated as "ChRI" or "CRI") is the unrecognized secessionist government of the Chechen Republic.
The Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, or Chechen-Ingush ASSR was an autonomous republic within the Russian SFSR.
Chechens (Нохчий; Old Chechen: Нахчой Naxçoy) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe.
The Circassian genocide was the Russian Empire's ethnic cleansing, killing, forced migration, and expulsion of the majority of the Circassians from their historical homeland Circassia, which roughly encompassed the major part of the North Caucasus and the northeast shore of the Black Sea.
In military tactics, close air support (CAS) is defined as air action such as air strikes by fixed or rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and which requires detailed integration of each air mission with fire and movement of these forces and attacks with aerial bombs, glide bombs, missiles, rockets, aircraft cannons, machine guns, and even directed-energy weapons such as lasers.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
The coat of arms of the Chechen Republic is the official symbol of the Chechen Republic.
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
The Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Дагестанская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика; 1921–1991), abbreviated as Dagestan ASSR (Дагестанская АССР; Дагъистаналъул АССР; Дагъыстан АССР; Дагъустандин АССР; Дагъусттаннал АССР) or DASSR (ДАССР) and also unofficially known as Soviet Dagestan or just simply Dagestan, was an autonomous Soviet socialist republic (ASSR) in the Russian SFSR of the former Soviet Union.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
De-Stalinization (Russian: десталинизация, destalinizatsiya) consisted of a series of political reforms in the Soviet Union after the death of long-time leader Joseph Stalin in 1953, and the ascension of Nikita Khrushchev to power.
Decapitation is the complete separation of the head from the body.
The Deportation of the Chechens and Ingush, also known as Aardakh (Aardax), Operation Lentil (Чечевица, Chechevitsa; Вайнах махкахбахар Vaynax Maxkaxbaxar) was the Soviet forced transfer of the whole of the Vainakh (Chechen and Ingush) populations of the North Caucasus to Central Asia on February 23, 1944, during World War II.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Doku Khamatovich Umarov (Ӏумар КӀант Доккa, 'Umar K'ant Dokka; Доку Хаматович Умаров, Doku Khamatovich Umarov); also known as Dokka Umarov as well as by his Arabized name of Dokka Abu Umar; (13 April 1964 – 7 September 2013) was a Chechen Islamic extremist militant in Russia.
Dzhokhar Musayevich Dudayev (Dudin Musa-khant Dƶoxar, Дудин Муса-кӀант Джохар; Джоха́р Муса́евич Дуда́ев; 15 February 1944 – 21 April 1996) was a Soviet Air Force general and Chechen leader, the first President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, a breakaway state in the North Caucasus.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
Elena Milashina (Russian: Милашина, Елена born 1978) is a Russian investigative journalist for Novaya Gazeta. In October 2009, she was awarded Human Rights Watch's Alison Des Forges Award for Extraordinary Activism.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
The First Chechen War (Пе́рвая чече́нская война́), also known as the First Chechen Сampaign (Пе́рвая чече́нская кампа́ния) or First Russian-Chechen war, was a rebellion by the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria against the Russian Federation, fought from December 1994 to August 1996.
The flag of Chechnya is a rectangle with sides in the ratio 2:3, the same ratio as the flag of the Russian Federation.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Georgian Civil War comprised inter-ethnic and intranational conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia (1988–1992) and Abkhazia (1992–1993), as well as the violent military coup d'état of December 22, 1991 – December 31, 1993, against the first democratically elected President of Georgia, Zviad Gamsakhurdia and his subsequent uprising in an attempt to regain power (1993). While the Gamsakhurdia rebellion was eventually defeated, the South Ossetia and Abkhazia conflicts resulted in the de facto secession of both regions from Georgia. As a result, both conflicts have lingered on, with occasional flare-ups.
Georgia, formally the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Georgian SSR; tr; Gruzinskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), was one of the republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.
Grozny (p; Соьлжа-ГӀала) is the capital city of the Chechen Republic, Russia.
Grozny Oblast (Гро́зненская о́бласть) was an administrative entity (an oblast) of the Russian SFSR that was established as Grozny Okrug (Гро́зненский о́круг) on 7 March 1944 and abolished on 9 January 1957.
Gudermes (Гудерме́с; Гуьмсе, Gümse or Гутӏермаӏас, Guthermajas) is a town in the Chechen Republic, Russia, located on the Sunzha River east of Grozny, the republic's capital.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
The Head of the Chechen Republic (formerly President of the Chechen Republic or President of Chechnya) is the highest office within the political system of the Chechen Republic.
Henry Cosad Harpending (January 13, 1944 – April 3, 2016) was an American anthropologist, geneticist and author.
Heraclius II (ერეკლე II), also known as Erekle II and The Little Kakhetian (პატარა კახი) (7 November 1720 or 7 October 1721 – 11 January 1798), was a Georgian monarch of the Bagrationi dynasty, reigning as the king of Kakheti from 1744 to 1762, and of Kartli and Kakheti from 1762 until 1798.
The Holodomor (Голодомо́р); (derived from морити голодом, "to kill by starvation"), also known as the Terror-Famine and Famine-Genocide in Ukraine, and—before the widespread use of the term "Holodomor", and sometimes currently—also referred to as the Great Famine, and The Ukrainian Genocide of 1932–33—was a man-made famine in Soviet Ukraine in 1932 and 1933 that killed millions of Ukrainians that was part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932–33, which affected the major grain-producing areas of the country.
An honor killing or shame killing is the murder of a member of a family, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family, or has violated the principles of a community or a religion, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their family, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, engaging in non-heterosexual relations or renouncing a faith.
A housewife (also known as a homekeeper) is a woman whose work is running or managing her family's home—caring for her children; buying, cooking, and storing food for the family; buying goods that the family needs in everyday life; housekeeping and maintaining the home; and making clothes for the family—and who is not employed outside the home.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
The term Ibero-Caucasian (or Iberian-Caucasian) was proposed by Georgian linguist Arnold Chikobava for the union of the three language families that are specific to the Caucasus, namely.
Ijtihad (اجتهاد, lit. effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question.
Ilia State University (ISU), located in Tbilisi, Georgia, is a higher education institution, established in 2006 as a merger of six different educational and research institutions.
Ilyas Khamzatovich Akhmadov (Ilyas Xamzat Axmadkhant/Ильяс Хамзат АхмадКIант, Ильяс Хамзатович Ахмадов; born December 19, 1960) served as the foreign minister of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.
Ingush (ГӀалгӀай,, pronounced) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by about 500,000 people, known as the Ingush, across a region covering the Russian republics of Ingushetia and Chechnya.
The Ingush (ГIалгIай,, pronounced) are a Caucasian native ethnic group of the North Caucasus, mostly inhabiting their native Ingushetia, a federal republic of Russian Federation.
The Republic of Ingushetia (rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə ɪnɡʊˈʂetʲɪjə; Гӏалгӏай Мохк), also referred to as simply Ingushetia, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), located in the North Caucasus region.
The Institute of Modern Russia (IMR) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan public policy organization—a think tank—headquartered in New York City.
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).
The insurgency in the North Caucasus is a currently low-level armed conflict between Russia and militants associated with the Caucasus Emirate and, since June 2015, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) groups.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (د افغانستان اسلامي امارات) was an Islamic state established in September 1996 when the Taliban began their rule of Afghanistan after the fall of Kabul.
The Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade (Исламская международная миротворческая бригада; abbreviated IIPB), also known as the Islamic International Brigade, the Islamic Peacekeeping Army, was the name of an international Islamist terrorist mujahideen organization, founded in 1998.
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.
Johanna Nichols (born 1945, Iowa City, Iowa) is a professor emerita Linguist in the Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures at the University of California, Berkeley.
The Kadyrovtsy (Kadyrovcy, lit. "Kadyrov's followers"), also known in English as the Kadyrovites, is a paramilitary organization in Chechnya, Russia, that serve as the protection of the Head of the Chechen Republic.
The Republic of Kalmykia (p; Хальмг Таңһч, Xaľmg Tañhç) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic was one of the transcontinental constituent republics of the Soviet Union from 1936-1991 in northern Central Asia.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Khanpasha Nuradilov (6 July 1924 in Yaryksu-Aukh, Khasav-Yurt District, Dagestan – 12 September 1942, Stalingrad) was a Chechen machine gunner who fought in the Great Patriotic War on the Soviet side.
The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti (ქართლ-კახეთის სამეფო) (1762–1801) was created in 1762 by the unification of two eastern Georgian kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti.
Kumyks (къумукълар, qumuqlar, кумыки) are a Turkic people living in the Kumyk plateau (in northern Dagestan to the south of the Terek river), the lands bordering the Caspian Sea, Northern Ossetia, Chechnya and the banks of the Terek river.
Lake Kezenoy-am (Lake Goluboye) is the deepest lake in the Caucasus Mountains, mostly in Chechnya but partly in Dagestan in the Russian Federation.
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
Leonti Mroveli (ლეონტი მროველი) was the 11th-century Georgian chronicler, presumably an ecclesiastic.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender rights in Chechnya have long been a cause for concern among human rights organizations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch.
A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).
Magas (Мага́с) is the capital town of the Republic of Ingushetia, Russia.
Maghas or Maas — more properly, Mags or Maks — was the capital city of Alania, a medieval kingdom in the Greater Caucasus.
Makhachkala (p; Анжи-кала; Lak: Гьанжи; Avar: МахӀачхъала; Lezgian: Магьачкъала; Rutul: МахаӀчкала) is the capital city of the Republic of Dagestan, Russia.
Malgobek (Малгобе́к; Ingush: Магӏалбике) is a town in the Republic of Ingushetia, Russia, located northwest of the republic's capital of Magas.
Maria Temryukovna (Мари́я Темрюко́вна, c. 1544 – 1 September 1569) was a Circassian Tsaritsa of the Tsardom of Russia and second spouse to Ivan IV of Russia.
Marie Bennigsen-Broxup (1944 – 7 December 2012) was a leading European expert on the Caucasus and Central Asia, with particular emphasis on Muslim communities within these regions.
Memorial (Мемориа́л) is a Russian historical and civil rights society that operates in a number of post-Soviet states.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Morale, also known as esprit de corps, is the capacity of a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship.
The chemical agent used in the Moscow theatre hostage crisis of 23 October 2002 has never been definitively revealed by the Russian authorities, though many possible identities have been speculated.
The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.
The Moscow theater hostage crisis (also known as the 2002 Nord-Ost siege) was the seizure of a crowded Dubrovka Theater by 40 to 50 armed Chechens on 23 October 2002 that involved 850 hostages and ended with the death of at least 170 people.
The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (MRNC; also known as the Mountain Republic or the Republic of the Mountaineers; r) was a short-lived state situated in the Northern Caucasus that existed from 1917 until 1920.
Movlid Visaitov (13 May 191423 May 1986) was a Chechen Red Army colonel and a Hero of the Soviet Union.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
The Murid War (1829–1859, also known as the Russian Conquest of Chechnya and Dagestan) was the eastern component of the Caucasian War of 1817-1864.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.
The Nakh languages are a group of languages within Northeast Caucasian, spoken chiefly by the Chechens and Ingush in the North Caucasus within Southern Russia.
The Naqshbandi (نقشبندی) or Naqshbandiyah is a major Sunni spiritual order of Sufism.
Naursky District (Нау́рский райо́н; Нӏовран кӏошт) is an administrativeDecree #500 and municipalLaw #47-RZ district (raion), one of the fifteen in the Chechen Republic, Russia.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nazran (Назра́нь; Наьсара, Näsara) is a town in the Republic of Ingushetia, Russia.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
The Nogais are a Turkic ethnic group who live in southern European Russia, mainly in the North Caucasus region.
Norman M. Naimark (born 1944 in New York City) is an American historian.
North Caucasian Federal District (Се́веро-Кавка́зский федера́льный о́круг, Severo-Kavkazsky federalny okrug) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia.
The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.
North Caucasus Economic Region (Се́веро-Кавка́зский экономи́ческий райо́н; tr.: Severo-Kavkazsky ekonomichesky rayon) is one of 12 economic regions of Russia.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (p; Республикӕ Цӕгат Ирыстон-Алани, Respublikæ Cægat Iryston-Alani) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
The North Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Цæгат Ирыстоны Автономон Советон Социалистон Республикæ; Северо-Осетинская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика) was an autonomous republic of the Russian SFSR within the Soviet Union.
The Northeast Caucasian languages, or Nakh-Daghestanian languages, are a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia and in northern Azerbaijan as well as in diaspora populations in Western Europe, Turkey and the Middle East.
Novaya Gazeta (p) is a Russian newspaper well known in its country for its critical and investigative coverage of Russian political and social affairs.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Parliament of Chechnya (Парламент Чеченской Республики) is the regional, unicameral legislature of the Chechen Republic in Russia.
Brent Corley (Павел Юрьевич Хлебников; August 6, 1964 – July 9, 2004) was an American journalist and historian of Russian history.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a state of war between the parties.
This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region.
Peter Simon Pallas FRS FRSE (22 September 1741 – 8 September 1811) was a Prussian zoologist and botanist who worked in Russia (1767–1810).
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Population transfer in the Soviet Union refers to forced transfer of various groups from the 1930s up to the 1950s ordered by Joseph Stalin and may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population (often classified as "enemies of workers"), deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories.
The Caucasus region, on the gateway between Southwest Asia, Europe and Central Asia, plays a pivotal role in the peopling of Eurasia, possibly as early as during the Homo erectus expansion to Eurasia, in the Upper Paleolithic peopling of Europe, and again in the re-peopling Mesolithic Europe following the Last Glacial Maximum, and in the expansion associated with the Neolithic Revolution.
The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.
Prigorodny District (При́городный райо́н; Горæтгæроны район) is an administrativeLaw #34-RZ and municipalLaw #18-RZ district (raion), one of the eight in the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, Russia.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Ramzan Akhmadovich Kadyrov (p, Къадар Ахьмат-кIант Рамзан Q̇adar Aẋmat-khant Ramzan; born 5 October 1976) is the Head of the Chechen Republic and a former member of the Chechen independence movement.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to receive refugees and people in refugee-like situations.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
According to the Constitution, the Russian Federation is divided into 85 federal subjects (constituent units), 22 of which are "republics".
RIA Novosti (РИА Новости), sometimes RIA (РИА) for short, was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian apartment bombings were a series of explosions that hit four apartment blocks in the Russian cities of Buynaksk, Moscow and Volgodonsk in September 1999, killing 293 and injuring more than 1000 people and spreading a wave of fear across the country.
The Russian Census of 2002 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2002 го́да) was the first census of the Russian Federation since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, carried out on October 9 through October 16, 2002.
The Russian Census of 2010 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2010 го́да) is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Russian Federal State Statistics Service (Федеральная служба государственной статистики, Federal'naya sluzhba gosudarstvennoi statistiki) (also known as Rosstat) is the governmental statistics agency in Russia.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
The Russo-Persian War of 1722–1723, known in Russian historiography as the Persian campaign of Peter the Great, was a war between the Russian Empire and Safavid Iran, triggered by the tsar's attempt to expand Russian influence in the Caspian and Caucasus regions and to prevent its rival, the Ottoman Empire, from territorial gains in the region at the expense of declining Safavid Iran.
The 1804–1813 Russo-Persian War, was one of the many wars between the Persian Empire and Imperial Russia, and began like many of their wars as a territorial dispute.
The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829 was sparked by the Greek War of Independence.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (p; Sakha Öröspüübülükete), simply Sakha (Yakutia) (Саха (Якутия); Sakha Sire), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
A satellite telephone, satellite phone, or satphone is a type of mobile phone that connects to orbiting satellites instead of terrestrial cell sites.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Second Chechen War (Втора́я чече́нская война́), also known as the Second Chechen Сampaign (Втора́я чече́нская кампа́ния), was an armed conflict on the territory of Chechnya and the border regions of the North Caucasus between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, also with militants of various Islamist groups, fought from August 1999 to April 2009.
A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group.
Sergey Borisovich Abramov (Серге́й Бори́сович Абра́мов; born February 29, 1972) is a Moscow-based executive of Russian Railways and a former politician.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Shali (Шали́; Шела, Şela) is a town and the administrative center of Shalinsky District of the Chechen Republic, Russia.
Shamil Salmanovich Basayev (Шамиль Басаев, Шамиль Салманович Басаев; 14 January 1965 – 10 July 2006) was a Chechen General militant Islamist and a leader of the Chechen movement.
Imam Shamil (also spelled Shamyl, Schamil, Schamyl or Shameel; Шейх Шамил; Şeyh Şamil; Имам Шамиль; الشيخ شامل) (pronounced "Shaamil") (26 June 1797 – 4 February 1871) was the political, military, and spiritual leader of Caucasian resistance to Imperial Russia in the 1800s, as well as the third Imam of the Caucasian Imamate (1840–1859).
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Song of Shatlak (Шатлакхан Илли, Şatlaqan Illi) is the anthem of the Chechen Republic in Russia.
Al-Imam al-Mansur al-Mutawakil 'ala Allah, also known as Sheikh al-Mansur ("The-Victorious"), born Ushurma (1760–1794) was a Chechen Islamic religious and military leader who led the resistance against Catherine the Great's imperialist expansion into the Caucasus during the late 18th century.
Shelkovskoy District (Шелковско́й райо́н; Терка-Дехьаран кӏошт, Terka-Deẋaran k̇oşt) is an administrativeDecree #500 and municipalLaw #42-RZ district (raion), one of the fifteen in the Chechen Republic, Russia.
The Soviet Air Forces (r (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
Stavropol Krai (p) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia.
Stoning, or lapidation, is a method of capital punishment whereby a group throws stones at a person until the subject dies.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Sunzha (p, Шолжа, Sholʒə, translit, p) is a river in North Ossetia, Ingushetia and Chechnya, Russia, a tributary of the Terek River.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
The Tampa Bay Times, previously named the St.
Abdul "Tapa" Medjid Bey Ortsa Tchermoeff (1882 – August 28, 1937) (Тапа Абдул Миджит Бей Орца Чермо́ев Tapa Abdul Midƶit Bey Orca Çermoyev) was the only Prime Minister of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus.
Taqlid or taqleed (Arabic تَقْليد taqlīd) is an Islamic terminology denoting the conformity of one person to the teaching of another.
The Republic of Tatarstan (p; Татарстан Республикасы), or simply Tatarstan, is a federal subject (a republic) of the Russian Federation, located in the Volga Federal District.
Tawhid (توحيد, meaning "oneness " also romanized as tawheed, touheed, or tevhid) is the indivisible oneness concept of monotheism in Islam.
Teip (also taip and taipa; Vaynakh тайпа taypa: family, kin, clan, tribe) is a Chechen and Ingush tribal organization or clan, self-identified through descent from a common ancestor and geographic location.
The Terek Cossack Host (Терское казачье войско) was a Cossack host created in 1577 from free Cossacks who resettled from the Volga to the Terek River.
The Terek River (Terk), a major river in the Northern Caucasus, flows through Georgia and Russia into the Caspian Sea.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thomas Goltz (born October 11, 1954) is an American author and journalist best known for his accounts of conflict in the Caucasus region during the 1990s.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
Tokhtamysh (tat. Tuqtamış) The spelling of Tokhtamysh varies, but the most common spelling is Tokhtamysh.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
The Treaty of Georgievsk (Георгиевский трактат, Georgievskiy traktat; გეორგიევსკის ტრაქტატი, georgievskis trakt'at'i) was a bilateral treaty concluded between the Russian Empire and the east Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti on July 24, 1783.
The Treaty of Gulistan (Гюлистанский договор; عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia (modern day Iran) on 24 October 1813 in the village of Gulistan (in modern-day Goranboy Rayon of Azerbaijan) as a result of the first full-scale Russo-Persian War, lasting from 1804 to 1813.
The Treaty of Resht was signed between the Russian Empire and Safavid Empire at Rasht on 21 January 1732.
The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Туркманчайский договор, عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was an agreement between Persia (Iran) and the Russian Empire, which concluded the Russo-Persian War (1826–28). It was signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran. By the treaty, Persia ceded to Russia control of several areas in the South Caucasus: the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate. The boundary between Russian and Persia was set at the Aras River. These territories comprise modern-day Armenia, the southern parts of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan, Nakhchivan, as well as Iğdır Province (now part of Turkey). The treaty was signed for Persia by Crown Prince Abbas Mirza and Allah-Yar Khan Asaf al-Daula, chancellor to Shah Fath Ali (of the Qajar Dynasty), and for Russia by General Ivan Paskievich. Like the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan, this treaty was imposed by Russia, following military victory over Persia. Paskievich threatened to occupy Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed. By this final treaty of 1828 and the 1813 Gulistan treaty, Russia had finalised conquering all the Caucasus territories from Iran, comprising modern-day Dagestan, eastern Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, all which had formed part of its very concept for centuries. The area to the North of the river Aras, amongst which the territory of the contemporary nations of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and the North Caucasian Republic of Dagestan were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course of the 19th century. As a further direct result and consequence of the two treaties, the formerly Iranian territories became now part of Russia for around the next 180 years, except Dagestan, which has remained a Russian possession ever since. Out of the greater part of the territory, three separate nations would be formed through the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, namely Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.
Trialetian is the name for an Upper Paleolithic-Epipaleolithic stone tool industry from the area south of the Caucasus Mountains and to the northern Zagros Mountains.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
Tuva (Тува́) or Tyva (Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (p; Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state).
The classification system of the types of inhabited localities in Russia, the former Soviet Union, and some other post-Soviet states has certain peculiarities compared with the classification systems in other countries.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Umar S. Israilov (c. 1982 – January 13, 2009) was a former bodyguard of Chechen President Ramzan Kadyrov who became a critic of the Chechen government.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) is an international pro-democracy organization.
Urus-Martan (Уру́с-Марта́н; Хьалха-Марта, Ẋalxa-Marta or Мартантӏи, Martanthi) is a town and the administrative center of Urus-Martanovsky District of the Chechen Republic, Russia, located on the Martan River.
The Vainakh peoples (Russian: Вайнахи, apparently derived from Chechen вайн нах, Ingush вейн нах "our people"; also Chechen-Ingush) are the speakers of the Vainakh languages, chiefly the Chechen, Ingush and Kist peoples of the North Caucasus, including closely related minor or historical groups The term Nakh peoples (Нахские народы) was coined in the Soviet period to accommodate the wider linguistic family of Nakh languages, connecting the Chechen-Ingush group to the Bats people, an ethnic minority in northeastern Georgia.
Vedeno (Ведено; Ведана, Vedana) is a rural locality (a selo) and the administrative center of Vedensky District of the Chechen Republic, Russia, located above sea level on the northern slope of the Andi range, southeast of Grozny.
Vladikavkaz (p, lit. ruler of the Caucasus; translit, lit. Dzaug's settlement), formerly known as Ordzhonikidze (Орджоники́дзе) and Dzaudzhikau (Дзауджика́у), is the capital city of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russia.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Mironov (Миронов, Вячесла́в Никола́евич) (born January 21, 1961 in Kemerovo) is a Russian writer and officer of the Soviet then Russian army.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
The War of Dagestan began when the Chechnya-based Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade (IIPB), an Islamist group, led by warlords Shamil Basayev and Ibn al-Khattab, invaded the neighboring Russian republic of Dagestan, on 7 August 1999, in support of the Shura of Dagestan separatist rebels.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
The wildlife of Chechnya includes a range of flora and fauna as reflected by its varying topographic and climatic conditions, with the Greater Caucasus to the south, the foreland zone the Terek and Sunza river valleys in the west and east, and the rolling plains of Nogai steppe in the north.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zelimkhan (also spelled Zelim-Khan and Zelimxan) (January 1872; Kharachoy, Terek Oblast – 26 September 1913) is a Chechen and Ingush hero, who is viewed today as a version of a Chechen Robin Hood.
Zviad Gamsakhurdia (ზვიად გამსახურდია, tr. Zviad K'onst'ant'ines dze Gamsakhurdia; Звиа́д Константи́нович Гамсаху́рдия, tr. Zviad Konstantinovich Gamsakhurdiya; March 31, 1939 – December 31, 1993) was a Georgian politician, dissident, scholar, and writer who became the first democratically elected President of Georgia in the post-Soviet era.
The following lists events that happened during 1944 in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The following lists events that happened during 1957 in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
Chechen Republic, Chechen republic, Chechenia, Chechenskaya Respublika, Chechenya, Chechneya, Chechnia, Chechniia, Chechniya, Chechni︠a︡, Chechni︠a︡ (Russia), Chechnya Republic, Russia, Chechnyan, Chechya, Chechyna, Demographics of Chechnya, Economy of Chechnya, Emirate of Chechenia, Ethnic cleansing in Chechnya, Ethnic groups in Chechnya, List of cities in Chechnya, Nokhchiin, Nokhchiyn, Noxçiyn, Noxçiyn Republic, Noxçiyn Respublika, Noxçiyçö, RU-CE, Republic of Chechnya, The Chechen Republic, Čečenskaja Respublika, Čečenskaâ Respublika, Нохчийн Республика, Чече́нская Респу́блика, Чеченская Республика, Чеченская республика, Чечня.