339 relations: Absolute zero, Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Abundance of the chemical elements, Abundances of the elements (data page), Actinide, Actinium, Adenosine triphosphate, Aether (classical element), Age of the universe, Agriculture, Air (classical element), Alchemy, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Allotropes of carbon, Allotropy, Alloy, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Aluminium, American Institute of Physics, Americium, Amorphous carbon, Ancient philosophy, Antimony, Antoine Lavoisier, Arabic numerals, Argon, Aristotle, Arsenic, Astatine, Astronomy, Atmosphere of Earth, Atom, Atomas, Atomic mass, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Atomic theory, Bar (unit), Barium, Beryllium, Beta decay, Beta particle, Big Bang, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, Biology, Bismuth, Bismuth-209, ..., Boiling point, Boron, Bromine, Butterworth-Heinemann, Caesium, Calcium, Californium, Carbon, Carbon nanotube, Carbon-12, Carbon-13, Carbon-14, Celsius, Cerium, Charcoal, Chemical bond, Chemical compound, Chemical database, Chemical engineering, Chemical property, Chemical structure, Chemical substance, Chemist, Chlorine, Chlorophyll, Chromium, Chronology of the universe, Classical element, Cluster decay, Coal, Cobalt, Composition of the human body, Copper, Cosmic ray, Cosmic ray spallation, Cosmogenic nuclide, Cosmos, Crystal structure, Cube, Cubic crystal system, Curium, Dark energy, Dark matter, Decay product, Densities of the elements (data page), Density, Deuterium, Diamond, Dmitri Mendeleev, Dover Publications, Dubna, Earth, Earth (classical element), Einsteinium, Electric charge, Electricity, Electron, Electrophile, Element collecting, Empedocles, Engineering, English language, Environmental health, European Nuclear Society, Fire (classical element), Fluorine, Foothill College, Francium, French language, Fullerene, Gadolinium, Gallium, Gas, Geology, Glenn T. Seaborg, Gold, Goldschmidt classification, Gram, Graphene, Graphite, Group (periodic table), Hafnium, Half-life, Halogen, Hamish Hamilton, Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Heavy metals, Heavy water, Helium, Hemoglobin, Henry Moseley, Hexagonal crystal family, Human, Hydrogen, Icosahedron, Impurity, Industry, Inorganic chemistry, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Iodine, Ion, Ionization, Iron, Island of stability, Isotope, Isotopes of magnesium, IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, John Dalton, John Murrell (chemist), Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Lanthanide, Lanthanum, Latin, Latin alphabet, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lead, Ligand, Light, Liquid, List of alchemists, List of chemical elements, List of chemical elements naming controversies, List of fictional elements, materials, isotopes and subatomic particles, List of nuclides, Lithium, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Angeles Pierce College, Lutetium, Magnesium, Main sequence, Mass, Mass number, Materials science, Matter, Medicine, Melting point, Mendelevium, Mercury (element), Metal, Metalloid, Mineral, Mixture, Molar ionization energies of the elements, Molecular geometry, Molecule, Mollusc shell, Monoclinic crystal system, Monotonic function, NASA, Native element minerals, Natural number, Nature, Nature (journal), Neodymium, Neon, Neptunium, Neutron, New World, Nickel, Niobium, Nitrogen, Noble gas, Noble metal, Nonmetal, Nuclear binding energy, Nuclear fission, Nuclear transmutation, Nucleic acid, Nucleogenic, Nucleon, Nucleophile, Nucleosynthesis, Nutrition, Observable universe, Observational astronomy, Octahedron, Oganesson, Ore, Organism, Organometallic chemistry, Orthorhombic crystal system, Outer space, Oxford University Press, Oxygen, Paracelsus, Parts-per notation, Period (periodic table), Periodic systems of small molecules, Periodic table, Phosphorus, Physical property, Physical Review, Physics, Planet, Platinum, Plato, Plutonium, Polar effect, Polonium, Post-transition metal, Potassium, Pressure, Prices of elements and their compounds, Primitive (phylogenetics), Primordial nuclide, Promethium, Proper noun, Protactinium, Protein, Proton, Radical (chemistry), Radioactive decay, Radiogenic nuclide, Radionuclide, Radium, Radon, Rare-earth element, Ratio, Real number, Red blood cell, Regular polyhedron, Relative atomic mass, Reviews of Modern Physics, Rhenium, Robert Boyle, Roentgenium, Romance languages, Russian language, Science, Seawater, Semiconductor, Silicon, Silver, Smelting, Society, Sodium, Solar System, Solid, Spiral galaxy, Spontaneous fission, Stable isotope ratio, Stable nuclide, Standard atomic weight, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Standard enthalpy of formation, Standard state, State of matter, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Sulfur, Supernova, Supernova nucleosynthesis, Supernova remnant, Symbol (chemistry), Synthetic element, Systematic element name, Table of nuclides, Technetium, Technology, Temperature, Tennessine, Tetragonal crystal system, Tetrahedron, The Mystery of Matter (film), The New York Times, Theory of forms, Thermochemistry, Thorium, Timaeus (dialogue), Timeline of chemical element discoveries, Tin, Traité Élémentaire de Chimie, Transition metal, Transuranium element, Tritium, Tungsten, Unified atomic mass unit, United States Department of Energy, United States Environmental Protection Agency, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Southampton, Uranium, Uranium-235, Vertebrate, Water, Water (classical element), Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, Yttrium, Zinc. 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Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.
The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
According to ancient and medieval science, aether (αἰθήρ aithēr), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.
In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Air is one of the four classical elements in ancient Greek philosophy and in Western alchemy.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
Carbon is capable of forming many allotropes due to its valency.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
The American Institute of Physics (AIP) promotes science, the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies.
Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95.
Amorphous carbon is free, reactive carbon that does not have any crystalline structure (also called diamond-like carbon).
This page lists some links to ancient philosophy.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Astatine is a radioactive chemical element with symbol At and atomic number 85.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Atomas is a science themed puzzle game available on IOS and Android.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.
The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI).
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
In physical cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (abbreviated BBN, also known as primordial nucleosynthesis, arch(a)eonucleosynthesis, archonucleosynthesis, protonucleosynthesis and pal(a)eonucleosynthesis) refers to the production of nuclei other than those of the lightest isotope of hydrogen (hydrogen-1, 1H, having a single proton as a nucleus) during the early phases of the Universe.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
Bismuth-209 is the "quasi-stable" isotope of bismuth with the longest known half-life of any radioisotope that undergoes α-decay (alpha decay).
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Butterworth–Heinemann is a British publishing company specialized in professional information and learning materials for higher education and professional training, in printed and electronic forms.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Californium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Cf and atomic number 98.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.
Carbon-12 is the more abundant of the two stable isotopes of carbon (Carbon-13 being the other), amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.
Carbon-13 (13C) is a natural, stable isotope of carbon with a nucleus containing six protons and seven neutrons.
Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical database is a database specifically designed to store chemical information.
Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics and economics to efficiently use, produce, transform, and transport chemicals, materials and energy.
A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
The chronology of the universe describes the history and future of the universe according to Big Bang cosmology.
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
Cluster decay, also named heavy particle radioactivity or heavy ion radioactivity, is a type of nuclear decay in which an atomic nucleus emits a small "cluster" of neutrons and protons, more than in an alpha particle, but less than a typical binary fission fragment.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Body composition may be analyzed in terms of molecular type e.g., water, protein, connective tissue, fats (or lipids), hydroxylapatite (in bones), carbohydrates (such as glycogen and glucose) and DNA.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Cosmic ray spallation is a naturally occurring nuclear reaction causing nucleosynthesis.
Cosmogenic nuclides (or cosmogenic isotopes) are rare nuclides (isotopes) created when a high-energy cosmic ray interacts with the nucleus of an in situ Solar System atom, causing nucleons (protons and neutrons) to be expelled from the atom (see cosmic ray spallation).
The cosmos is the universe.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
Curium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Cm and atomic number 96.
In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe.
Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
Dubna (p) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth is one of the classical elements, in some systems numbering four along with air, fire, and water.
Einsteinium is a synthetic element with symbol Es and atomic number 99.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.
Element collecting is the hobby of collecting the chemical elements.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Environmental health is the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health.
Since being founded in 1975, the European Nuclear Society (ENS) has grown to become the largest society in Europe for science, engineering and research in support of the nuclear industry.
Fire has been an important part of all cultures and religions from pre-history to modern day and was vital to the development of civilization.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Foothill College is a community college in Los Altos Hills, California.
Francium is a chemical element with symbol Fr and atomic number 87.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
A fullerene is a molecule of carbon in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, and many other shapes.
Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The Goldschmidt classification, developed by Victor Goldschmidt (1888-1947), is a geochemical classification which groups the chemical elements within the Earth according to their preferred host phases into lithophile (rock-loving), siderophile (iron-loving), chalcophile (ore-loving or chalcogen-loving), and atmophile (gas-loving) or volatile (the element, or a compound in which it occurs, is liquid or gaseous at ambient surface conditions).
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
Graphene is a semi-metal with a small overlap between the valence and the conduction bands (zero bandgap material).
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements.
Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Hamish Hamilton Limited was a British book publishing house, founded in 1931 eponymously by the half-Scot half-American Jamie Hamilton (Hamish is the vocative form of the Gaelic 'Seumas', James the English form – which was also his given name, and Jamie the diminutive form).
The Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is a research institute which carries out a broad program of research in astronomy, astrophysics, earth and space sciences, and science education.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (23 November 1887 – 10 August 1915) was an English physicist, whose contribution to the science of physics was the justification from physical laws of the previous empirical and chemical concept of the atomic number.
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
In geometry, an icosahedron is a polyhedron with 20 faces.
Impurities are either naturally occurring or added during synthesis of a chemical or commercial product.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
In nuclear physics, the island of stability is the prediction that a set of heavy nuclides with a near magic number of protons and neutrons will temporarily reverse the trend of decreasing stability in elements heavier than uranium.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Magnesium (12Mg) naturally occurs in three stable isotopes, 24Mg, 25Mg, and 26Mg.
The IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party is a group convened periodically by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) to consider claims for discovery and naming of new chemical elements.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.
John Norman Murrell FRS (2 March 1932 – 25 January 2016) was a British theoretical chemist who played a leading role in revolutionising the UK's reputation for theoretical chemistry during the second half of the 20th century.
The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ), in Dubna, Moscow Oblast (110 km north of Moscow), Russia, is an international research center for nuclear sciences, with 5500 staff members, 1200 researchers including 1000 Ph.Ds from eighteen member states (including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus and Kazakhstan).
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
An alchemist is a person versed in the art of alchemy.
, 118 chemical elements are identified.
The currently accepted names and symbols of the chemical elements are determined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), usually following recommendations by the recognized discoverers of each element.
This list contains fictional chemical elements, materials, isotopes or subatomic particles that either a) play a major role in a notable work of fiction, b) are common to several unrelated works, or c) are discussed in detail by independent sources.
This list of nuclides shows observed nuclides that either are stable or, if radioactive, have half-lives longer than one hour.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
Los Angeles Pierce College, also known as Pierce College and Pierce, is a community college that serves 22,000 students each semester in the northern Chalk Hills of Woodland Hills, a community within the San Fernando Valley region of the city of Los Angeles, California.
Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mendelevium is a synthetic element with chemical symbol Md (formerly Mv) and atomic number 101.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed.
These tables list values of molar ionization energies, measured in kJ mol−1.
Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
The mollusc (or molluskOften spelled mollusk shell in the USA; the spelling "mollusc" are preferred by) shell is typically a calcareous exoskeleton which encloses, supports and protects the soft parts of an animal in the phylum Mollusca, which includes snails, clams, tusk shells, and several other classes.
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
In mathematics, a monotonic function (or monotone function) is a function between ordered sets that preserves or reverses the given order.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Native element minerals are those elements that occur in nature in uncombined form with a distinct mineral structure.
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting (as in "there are six coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the third largest city in the country").
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).
Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, as an s-block element, would normally be placed next to hydrogen and above beryllium. However, since it is a noble gas, it is instead placed above neon (in the p-block). In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.
Nuclear binding energy is the minimum energy that would be required to disassemble the nucleus of an atom into its component parts.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
A nucleogenic isotope, or nuclide, is one that is produced by a natural terrestrial nuclear reaction, other than a reaction beginning with cosmic rays (the latter nuclides by convention are called by the different term cosmogenic).
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
The observable universe is a spherical region of the Universe comprising all matter that can be observed from Earth at the present time, because electromagnetic radiation from these objects has had time to reach Earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion.
Observational astronomy is a division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models.
In geometry, an octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices.
Oganesson is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Og and atomic number 118.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
A period in the periodic table is a horizontal row.
Periodic systems of molecules are charts of molecules similar to the periodic table of the elements.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
The polar effect or electronic effect in chemistry is the effect exerted by a substituent on modifying electrostatic forces operating on a nearby reaction center.
Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.
Post-transition metals are a set of metallic elements in the periodic table located between the transition metals to their left, and the metalloids to their right.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
This table lists the elements by their name and gives some historical prices for them and their commonly traded compounds.
In phylogenetics, a primitive (or ancestral) character, trait, or feature of a lineage or taxon is one that is inherited from the common ancestor of a clade (or clade group) and has undergone little change since.
In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.
A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).
Protactinium (formerly protoactinium) is a chemical element with symbol Pa and atomic number 91.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radiogenic nuclide is a nuclide that is produced by a process of radioactive decay.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
In mathematics, a ratio is a relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second.
In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
A regular polyhedron is a polyhedron whose symmetry group acts transitively on its flags.
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.
Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
Roentgenium is a chemical element with symbol Rg and atomic number 111.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
Spiral galaxies form a class of galaxy originally described by Edwin Hubble in his 1936 work The Realm of the Nebulae(pp. 124–151) and, as such, form part of the Hubble sequence.
Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.
The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element.
Stable nuclides are nuclides that are not radioactive and so (unlike radionuclides) do not spontaneously undergo radioactive decay.
The standard atomic weight (Ar, standard, a relative atomic mass) is the atomic weight (Ar) of a chemical element, as appearing and met in the earthly environment.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the substance from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states.
In chemistry, the standard state of a material (pure substance, mixture or solution) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions.
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Supernova nucleosynthesis is a theory of the nucleosynthesis of the natural abundances of the chemical elements in supernova explosions, advanced as the nucleosynthesis of elements from carbon to nickel in massive stars by Fred Hoyle in 1954.
A supernova remnant (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova.
In relation to the chemical elements, a symbol is a code for a chemical element.
In chemistry, a synthetic element is a chemical element that does not occur naturally on Earth, and can only be created artificially.
A systematic element name is the temporary name assigned to a newly synthesized or not yet synthesized chemical element.
A table of nuclides or chart of nuclides is a two-dimensional graph in which one axis represents the number of neutrons and the other represents the number of protons in an atomic nucleus.
Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Tennessine is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Ts and atomic number 117.
In crystallography, the tetragonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons), also known as a triangular pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners.
The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements is a 2014 American documentary film, which premiered nationwide on August 19, 2015.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.
Thermochemistry is the study of the heat energy associated with chemical reactions and/or physical transformations.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Timaeus (Timaios) is one of Plato's dialogues, mostly in the form of a long monologue given by the title character Timaeus of Locri, written c. 360 BC.
The discovery of the 118 chemical elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Traité élémentaire de chimie (Elementary Treatise of Chemistry) is a textbook written by Antoine Lavoisier published in 1789 and translated into English by Robert Kerr in 1790 under the title Elements of Chemistry in a New Systematic Order containing All the Modern Discoveries.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
The University of Southampton (abbreviated as Soton in post-nominal letters) is a research university located in Southampton, England.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Water is one of the elements in ancient Greek philosophy, in the Asian Indian system Panchamahabhuta, and in the Chinese cosmological and physiological system Wu Xing.
The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), originally known as the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), was a spacecraft operating from 2001 to 2010 which measured temperature differences across the sky in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) – the radiant heat remaining from the Big Bang.
Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
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