294 relations: Academic Press, Acid, Acid dissociation constant, Acid–base reaction, Activation energy, Active site, Addition reaction, Adenosine triphosphate, Alchemy, Alexander William Williamson, Aliphatic compound, Alkene, Alkoxide, Alkyl, Alum, Aluminium, Amine, Amino acid, Ammonia, Amorphous solid, Anabolism, Antoine Lavoisier, Arc welding, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Arrhenius equation, Aryl, Atmospheric chemistry, Atom, Atomic orbital, Barium chloride, Base (chemistry), Biochemistry, Bioenergetics, Bioluminescence, Birkhäuser, Boltzmann constant, Boron, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Cambridge University Press, Carbanion, Carbocation, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbonyl group, Catalysis, Catalytic reforming, Cell (biology), Chain reaction, Chemical bond, ..., Chemical change, Chemical compound, Chemical engineering, Chemical equation, Chemical equilibrium, Chemical formula, Chemical kinetics, Chemical potential, Chemical reaction model, Chemical substance, Chemical synthesis, Chemist, Chemistry, Chlorine, Christopher Kelk Ingold, Cis–trans isomerism, Classical element, Coking, Collision theory, Combustion, Conjugate acid, Contact process, Coordinate covalent bond, Coordination complex, Cope rearrangement, Copper sulfate, Covalent bond, CRC Press, Crystal, Crystal field theory, Crystallization, Cycloaddition, Cyclohexene, Deprotonation, Diels–Alder reaction, Diene, Differential calculus, Diffusion, Dissociation (chemistry), DNA, Double bond, Electrochemistry, Electrolysis, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Electron configuration, Electron shell, Electronegativity, Electrophile, Electrophilic addition, Electrophilic aromatic substitution, Electrophilic substitution, Elementary particle, Elementary reaction, Elimination reaction, Elsevier, Empedocles, Endothermic process, Enthalpy, Entropy, Enzyme, Enzyme catalysis, Ether, Excited state, Exergonic process, Exothermic reaction, Femtochemistry, Fermentation, Firefly, Flash welding, Free-radical addition, Friedrich Wöhler, Functional group, Gibbs free energy, Glucose, Gold, Greenwood Publishing Group, Haber process, Half-life, Halide, Halogen, Heteroatom, Heterogeneous catalysis, Heterolysis (chemistry), Homogeneous catalysis, Homolysis (chemistry), Hydroboration–oxidation reaction, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogenation, Hydroxide, Internal energy, Ion, Iron, Iron(II) sulfide, Isaac Newton, Isomerization, Jabir ibn Hayyan, Jan Baptist van Helmont, Johann Joachim Becher, Johann Rudolf Glauber, John Dalton, John Wiley & Sons, Jones & Bartlett Learning, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Joseph Proust, Laser, Law of definite proportions, Le Chatelier's principle, Lead, Lead chamber process, Lead(II) iodide, Lead(II) nitrate, Leaving group, Leblanc process, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand, Ligand field theory, Limiting reagent, List of organic reactions, Lone pair, Magnesium, Magnesium hydroxide, Magnesium sulfate, Marcus theory, Markovnikov's rule, Mass balance, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Michael reaction, Molecule, Molybdenum, Molybdenum dioxide, Name reaction, Neutralization (chemistry), Nitric acid, Nitronium ion, Noble gas, Nuclear chemistry, Nuclear reaction, Nucleophile, Nucleophilic addition, Nucleophilic aromatic substitution, Nucleophilic conjugate addition, Nucleophilic substitution, Ore, Organic chemistry, Organic peroxide, Organic reaction, Oxidation state, Oxidizing agent, Oxy-fuel welding and cutting, Oxygen, Oxyhydrogen, Partial charge, Pericyclic reaction, Petroleum, PH, Phlogiston theory, Photochemistry, Photon, Photosynthesis, Platinum group, Polar effect, Polymer, Polymerization, Potassium iodide, Potassium nitrate, Potential energy surface, Precipitation (chemistry), Pressure, Principle of minimum energy, Product (chemistry), Protein, Proton, Pyrotechnics, Quantum field theory, Radical (chemistry), Radical polymerization, Radical substitution, Radioactive decay, Rate equation, Reaction mechanism, Reaction progress kinetic analysis, Reaction rate, Reagent, Rearrangement reaction, Recrystallization (chemistry), Redox, Reducing agent, Retrosynthetic analysis, Rhodopsin, Robert Boyle, RRKM theory, Salt (chemistry), Salt metathesis reaction, Scanning tunneling microscope, Sigmatropic reaction, Single displacement reaction, SN1 reaction, SN2 reaction, Sodium, Sodium carbonate, Sodium chloride, Sodium sulfate, Solubility, Spontaneous process, Springer Science+Business Media, Springer Vieweg Verlag, Stereochemistry, Stoichiometry, Structural formula, Structural isomer, Substitution reaction, Substrate (chemistry), Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Surface area, Temperature, Thermal energy, Thermite, Thermodynamic activity, Thermodynamics, Thieme Medical Publishers, Transition metal, Transition state, Transition state theory, Triple bond, Ultra-high vacuum, Ultrafast laser spectroscopy, Ultraviolet, Urea, Visual perception, Vitalism, Wagner–Meerwein rearrangement, Walden inversion, Walter de Gruyter, Water-gas shift reaction, Wave function, Welding, Wiley-VCH, Williamson ether synthesis, Woodward–Hoffmann rules, 18-electron rule. 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Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base, which can be used to determine pH.
In chemistry and physics, activation energy is the energy which must be available to a chemical or nuclear system with potential reactants to result in: a chemical reaction, nuclear reaction, or other various other physical phenomena.
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
An addition reaction, in organic chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form the larger one (the adduct).
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Alexander William Williamson FRS (1 May 18246 May 1904) was an English chemist of Scottish descent.
In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons (compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen) are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.
In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.
An alum is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Arc welding is a process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted metals when cool result in a binding of the metals.
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.
The Arrhenius equation is a formula for the temperature dependence of reaction rates.
In the context of organic molecules, aryl is any functional group or substituent derived from an aromatic ring, usually an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as phenyl and naphthyl.
Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
Barium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula BaCl2.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Bioenergetics is a field in biochemistry and cell biology that concerns energy flow through living systems.
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.
Birkhäuser is a former Swiss publisher founded in 1879 by Emil Birkhäuser.
The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
The Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid–base reaction theory which was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A carbanion is an anion in which carbon is threevalent (forms three bonds) and bears a formal negative charge in at least one significant mesomeric contributor (resonance form).
A carbocation (/karbɔkətaɪː'jɔ̃/) is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert petroleum refinery naphthas distilled from crude oil (typically having low octane ratings) into high-octane liquid products called reformates, which are premium blending stocks for high-octane gasoline.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
Chemical changes occur when a substance combines with another to form a new substance, called chemical synthesis or, alternatively, chemical decomposition into two or more different substances.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics and economics to efficiently use, produce, transform, and transport chemicals, materials and energy.
A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols and formulae, wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side.
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chemical kinetics, also known as reaction kinetics, is the study of rates of chemical processes.
In thermodynamics, chemical potential of a species is a form of energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction or phase transition due to a change of the particle number of the given species.
Chemical reaction models transform physical knowledge into a mathematical formulation that can be utilized in computational simulation of practical problems in chemical engineering.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Sir Christopher Kelk Ingold (28 October 1893 – 8 December 1970) was a British chemist based in Leeds and London.
Cis–trans isomerism, also known as geometric isomerism or configurational isomerism, is a term used in organic chemistry.
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
Coking is the deposition of carbon-rich solids.
Collision theory is a theory proposed independently by Max Trautz in 1916 and William Lewis in 1918, that qualitatively explains how chemical reactions occur and why reaction rates differ for different reactions.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.
The contact process is the current method of producing sulfuric acid in the high concentrations needed for industrial processes.
A coordinate covalent bond, also known as a dative bond or coordinate bond is a kind of 2-center, 2-electron covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
The Cope rearrangement is an extensively studied organic reaction involving the 3,3-sigmatropic rearrangement of 1,5-dienes.
Copper sulfate may refer to.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Crystal Field Theory (CFT) is a model that describes the breaking of degeneracies of electron orbital states, usually d or f orbitals, due to a static electric field produced by a surrounding charge distribution (anion neighbors).
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
A cycloaddition is a pericyclic chemical reaction, in which "two or more unsaturated molecules (or parts of the same molecule) combine with the formation of a cyclic adduct in which there is a net reduction of the bond multiplicity." The resulting reaction is a cyclization reaction.
Cyclohexene is a hydrocarbon with the formula C6H10.
Deprotonation is the removal (transfer) of a proton (a hydrogen cation, H+) from a Brønsted–Lowry acid in an acid-base reaction.
The Diels–Alder reaction is an organic chemical reaction (specifically, a cycloaddition) between a conjugated diene and a substituted alkene, commonly termed the dienophile, to form a substituted cyclohexene derivative.
In organic chemistry a diene or diolefin is a hydrocarbon that contains two carbon double bonds.
In mathematics, differential calculus is a subfield of calculus concerned with the study of the rates at which quantities change.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.
In organic chemistry, an electrophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where, in a chemical compound, a π bond is broken and two new σ bonds are formed.
Electrophilic aromatic substitution is an organic reaction in which an atom that is attached to an aromatic system (usually hydrogen) is replaced by an electrophile.
Electrophilic substitution reactions are chemical reactions in which an electrophile displaces a functional group in a compound, which is typically, but not always, a hydrogen atom.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
An elementary reaction is a chemical reaction in which one or more chemical species react directly to form products in a single reaction step and with a single transition state.
An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).
An exergonic process is one in which there is a positive flow of energy from the system to the surroundings.
An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat.
Femtochemistry is the area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions on extremely short timescales (approximately 10−15 seconds or one femtosecond, hence the name) in order to study the very act of atoms within molecules (reactants) rearranging themselves to form new molecules (products).
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
The Lampyridae are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera.
Flash welding is a type of resistance welding that does not use any filler metals.
Free-radical addition is an addition reaction in organic chemistry involving free radicals.
Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
In chemistry, a heteroatom (from Ancient Greek heteros, "different", + atomos, "uncut") is any atom that is not carbon or hydrogen.
In chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis refers to the form of catalysis where the phase of the catalyst differs from that of the reactants.
In chemistry, heterolysis or heterolytic fission (from Greek ἕτερος, heteros, "different", and λύσις, lusis, "loosening") is the process of cleaving a covalent bond where one previously bonded species takes both original bonding electrons from the other species.
In chemistry, homogeneous catalysis is catalysis in a solution by a soluble catalyst.
In chemistry, homolysis (from Greek ὅμοιος, homoios, "equal," and λύσις, lusis, "loosening") or homolytic fission is chemical bond dissociation of a molecule by a process where each of the fragments retains one of the originally bonded electrons.
In organic chemistry, the hydroboration–oxidation reaction is a two-step organic reaction that converts an alkene into a neutral alcohol by the net addition of water across the double bond.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron(II) sulfide or ferrous sulfide (Br.E. sulphide) is one of a family chemical compounds and minerals with the approximate formula.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
In chemistry isomerization (also isomerisation) is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms have a different arrangement e.g. A-B-C → B-A-C (these related molecules are known as isomers). In some molecules and under some conditions, isomerization occurs spontaneously.
Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān (جابر بن حیانl fa, often given the nisbas al-Bariqi, al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi; fl. c. 721c. 815), also known by the Latinization Geber, was a polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician.
Jan Baptist van Helmont (12 January 1580 – 30 December 1644) was a Flemish chemist, physiologist, and physician.
Johann Joachim Becher (6 May 1635 – October 1682) was a German physician, alchemist, precursor of chemistry, scholar and adventurer, best known for his development of the phlogiston theory of combustion, and his advancement of Austrian cameralism.
Johann Rudolf Glauber (10 March 1604 – 16 March 1670) was a German-Dutch alchemist and chemist.
John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Jones & Bartlett Learning, a division of Ascend Learning, is a provider of instructional, assessment and learning-performance management solutions for the secondary, post-secondary, and professional markets.
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.
Joseph Louis Proust (26 September 1754 – 5 July 1826) was a French chemist.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
In chemistry, the law of definite proportion, sometimes called Proust's law or the law of definite composition, or law of constant composition states that a given chemical compound always contains its component elements in fixed ratio (by mass) and does not depend on its source and method of preparation.
Le Chatelier's principle, also called Chatelier's principle or "The Equilibrium Law", can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on some chemical equilibria.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
The lead chamber process was an industrial method used to produce sulfuric acid in large quantities.
Lead(II) iodide or lead iodide is a salt with the formula.
Lead(II) nitrate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Pb(NO3)2.
In chemistry, a leaving group is a molecular fragment that departs with a pair of electrons in heterolytic bond cleavage.
The Leblanc process was an early industrial process for the production of soda ash (sodium carbonate) used throughout the 19th century, named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Ligand field theory (LFT) describes the bonding, orbital arrangement, and other characteristics of coordination complexes.
The limiting reagent (or limiting reactant, LR) in a chemical reaction is the substance that is totally consumed when the chemical reaction is complete.
Well-known reactions and reagents in organic chemistry include.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium hydroxide is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2.
Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula MgSO4(H2O)x where 0≤x≤7.
Marcus theory is a theory originally developed by Rudolph A. Marcus, starting in 1956, to explain the rates of electron transfer reactions – the rate at which an electron can move or jump from one chemical species (called the electron donor) to another (called the electron acceptor).
In organic chemistry, Markovnikov's rule or Markownikoff's rule describes the outcome of some addition reactions.
A mass balance, also called a material balance, is an application of conservation of mass to the analysis of physical systems.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
The Michael reaction or Michael addition is the nucleophilic addition of a carbanion or another nucleophile to an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Molybdenum dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula MoO2.
A name reaction is a chemical reaction named after its discoverers or developers.
In chemistry, neutralization or neutralisation (see spelling differences), is a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react quantitatively with each other.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
The nitronium ion,, is a cation.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Nuclear chemistry is the subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes, such as nuclear transmutation, and nuclear properties.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
In organic chemistry, a nucleophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where a chemical compound with an electron-deficient or electrophilic double or triple bond, a π bond, reacts with electron-rich reactant, termed a nucleophile, with disappearance of the double bond and creation of two new single, or σ, bonds.
Aromatic nucleophilic substitution A nucleophilic aromatic substitution is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry in which the nucleophile displaces a good leaving group, such as a halide, on an aromatic ring.
Nucleophilic conjugate addition is a type of organic reaction.
In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Organic peroxides are organic compounds containing the peroxide functional group (ROOR′).
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Principle of the burn cutting Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or gas welding in the U.S.) and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxyhydrogen is a mixture of hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) gases.
A partial charge is a non-integer charge value when measured in elementary charge units.
In organic chemistry, a pericyclic reaction is a type of organic reaction wherein the transition state of the molecule has a cyclic geometry, the reaction progresses in a concerted fashion, and the bond orbitals involved in the reaction overlap in a continuous cycle at the transition state.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
The phlogiston theory is a superseded scientific theory that postulated that a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion.
Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
The platinum-group metals (abbreviated as the PGMs; alternatively, the platinoids, platinides, platidises, platinum group, platinum metals, platinum family or platinum-group elements (PGEs)) are six noble, precious metallic elements clustered together in the periodic table.
The polar effect or electronic effect in chemistry is the effect exerted by a substituent on modifying electrostatic forces operating on a nearby reaction center.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Potassium iodide is a chemical compound, medication, and dietary supplement.
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.
A potential energy surface (PES) describes the energy of a system, especially a collection of atoms, in terms of certain parameters, normally the positions of the atoms.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
The principle of minimum energy is essentially a restatement of the second law of thermodynamics.
Products are the species formed from chemical reactions.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pyrotechnics is the science of using materials capable of undergoing self-contained and self-sustained exothermic chemical reactions for the production of heat, light, gas, smoke and/or sound.
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Free-radical polymerization (FRP) is a method of polymerization by which a polymer forms by the successive addition of free-radical building blocks.
In organic chemistry, a radical-substitution reaction is a substitution reaction involving free radicals as a reactive intermediate.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
The rate law or rate equation for a chemical reaction is an equation that links the reaction rate with the concentrations or pressures of the reactants and constant parameters (normally rate coefficients and partial reaction orders).
In chemistry, a reaction mechanism is the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs.
In chemistry, reaction progress kinetic analysis (RPKA) is a subset of a broad range of kinetic techniques utilized to determine the rate laws of chemical reactions and to aid in elucidation of reaction mechanisms.
The reaction rate or rate of reaction is the speed at which reactants are converted into products.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
A rearrangement reaction is a broad class of organic reactions where the carbon skeleton of a molecule is rearranged to give a structural isomer of the original molecule.
In chemistry, recrystallization is a technique used to purify chemicals.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
Retrosynthetic analysis is a technique for solving problems in the planning of organic syntheses.
Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransduction.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
The Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus (RRKM) theory is a theory of chemical reactivity.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
A salt metathesis reaction (from the Greek μετάθεσις, "transposition"), sometimes called a double replacement reaction or double displacement reaction, is a chemical process involving the exchange of bonds between two reacting chemical species, which results in the creation of products with similar or identical bonding affiliations.
A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level.
A sigmatropic reaction in organic chemistry is a pericyclic reaction wherein the net result is one σ-bond is changed to another σ-bond in an uncatalyzed intramolecular process.
A single-displacement reaction, also known as a single-replacement reaction, is a reaction by which one (or more) element(s) replaces an/other element(s) in a compound.
The SN1 reaction is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry.
The SN2 reaction is a type of reaction mechanism that is common in organic chemistry.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium sulfate, also known as sulfate of soda, is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
A spontaneous process is the time-evolution of a system in which it releases free energy and it moves to a lower, more thermodynamically stable energy state.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Springer Vieweg Verlag (formerly known as Vieweg+Teubner Verlag) is a German publishing company that specializes in books on technical subjects.
Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
The structural formula of a chemical compound is a graphic representation of the molecular structure, showing how the atoms are arranged.
Structural isomerism, or constitutional isomerism (per IUPAC), is a form of isomerism in which molecules with the same molecular formula have different bonding patterns and atomic organization, as opposed to stereoisomerism, in which molecular bonds are always in the same order and only spatial arrangement differs.
Substitution reaction (also known as single displacement reaction or single substitution reaction) is a chemical reaction during which one functional group in a chemical compound is replaced by another functional group.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
The surface area of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Thermal energy is a term used loosely as a synonym for more rigorously-defined thermodynamic quantities such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of transfer of energy (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system kT, where T is temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant.
Thermite is a pyrotechnic composition of metal powder, which serves as fuel, and metal oxide.
In chemical thermodynamics, activity (symbol) is a measure of the "effective concentration" of a species in a mixture, in the sense that the species' chemical potential depends on the activity of a real solution in the same way that it would depend on concentration for an ideal solution.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
Thieme Medical Publishers is a German medical and science publisher in the Thieme Publishing Group.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
The transition state of a chemical reaction is a particular configuration along the reaction coordinate.
Transition state theory (TST) explains the reaction rates of elementary chemical reactions.
A triple bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond.
Ultra-high vacuum (UHV) is the vacuum regime characterised by pressures lower than about 10−7 pascal or 100 nanopascals (10−9 mbar, ~10−9 torr).
Ultrafast laser spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique that uses ultrashort pulse lasers for the study of dynamics on extremely short time scales (attoseconds to nanoseconds).
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".
A Wagner–Meerwein rearrangement is a class of carbocation 1,2-rearrangement reactions in which a hydrogen, alkyl or aryl group migrates from one carbon to a neighboring carbon.
Walden inversion is the inversion of a chiral center in a molecule in a chemical reaction.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (not water) is known as water gas): The water gas shift reaction was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontana in 1780.
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.
The Williamson ether synthesis is an organic reaction, forming an ether from an organohalide and a deprotonated alcohol (alkoxide).
The Woodward–Hoffmann rules (or the pericyclic selection rules), devised by Robert Burns Woodward and Roald Hoffmann, are a set of rules used to rationalize or predict certain aspects of the stereochemical outcome and activation energy of pericyclic reactions, an important class of reactions in organic chemistry.
The 18-electron rule is a rule used primarily for predicting and rationalizing formulae for stable metal complexes, especially organometallic compounds.
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