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Chemical reaction

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A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. [1]

293 relations: Academic Press, Acid, Acid dissociation constant, Acid–base reaction, Activation energy, Active site, Addition reaction, Adenosine triphosphate, Alchemy, Alexander William Williamson, Aliphatic compound, Alkene, Alkoxide, Alkyl, Alum, Aluminium, Amine, Amino acid, Ammonia, Amorphous solid, Anabolism, Antoine Lavoisier, Arc welding, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Arrhenius equation, Aryl, Atmospheric chemistry, Atom, Atomic orbital, Barium chloride, Base (chemistry), Biochemistry, Bioenergetics, Bioluminescence, Birkhäuser, Boltzmann constant, Boron, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Cambridge University Press, Carbanion, Carbocation, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbonyl, Catalysis, Catalytic reforming, Cell (biology), Chain reaction, Chemical bond, ..., Chemical change, Chemical compound, Chemical engineering, Chemical equation, Chemical equilibrium, Chemical formula, Chemical kinetics, Chemical potential, Chemical reaction model, Chemical substance, Chemical synthesis, Chemist, Chemistry, Chlorine, Christopher Kelk Ingold, Cis–trans isomerism, Classical element, Coke (fuel), Collision theory, Combustion, Conjugate acid, Contact process, Coordination complex, Cope rearrangement, Copper sulfate, Covalent bond, CRC Press, Crystal, Crystal field theory, Crystallization, Cycloaddition, Cyclohexene, Deprotonation, Diels–Alder reaction, Diene, Differential calculus, Diffusion, Dipolar bond, Dissociation (chemistry), DNA, Double bond, Electrochemistry, Electrolysis, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Electron configuration, Electron shell, Electronegativity, Electrophile, Electrophilic addition, Electrophilic aromatic substitution, Electrophilic substitution, Elementary particle, Elementary reaction, Elimination reaction, Elsevier, Empedocles, Endothermic process, Enthalpy, Entropy, Enzyme, Enzyme catalysis, Ether, Excited state, Exergonic process, Exothermic reaction, Femtochemistry, Fermentation, Firefly, Flash welding, Free-radical addition, Friedrich Wöhler, Functional group, Gibbs free energy, Glucose, Gold, Greenwood Publishing Group, Haber process, Half-life, Halide, Halogen, Heteroatom, Heterogeneous catalysis, Heterolysis (chemistry), Homogeneous catalysis, Homolysis (chemistry), Hydroboration–oxidation reaction, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogenation, Hydroxide, Internal energy, Ion, Iron, Iron(II) sulfide, Isaac Newton, Isomerization, Jabir ibn Hayyan, Jan Baptist van Helmont, Johann Joachim Becher, Johann Rudolf Glauber, John Dalton, John Wiley & Sons, Jones & Bartlett Learning, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Joseph Proust, Laser, Law of definite proportions, Le Chatelier's principle, Lead, Lead chamber process, Lead(II) iodide, Lead(II) nitrate, Leaving group, Leblanc process, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand, Ligand field theory, Limiting reagent, List of organic reactions, Lone pair, Magnesium, Magnesium hydroxide, Magnesium sulfate, Marcus theory, Markovnikov's rule, Mass balance, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Michael reaction, Molecule, Molybdenum, Molybdenum(IV) oxide, Name reaction, Neutralization (chemistry), Nitric acid, Nitronium ion, Noble gas, Nuclear chemistry, Nuclear reaction, Nucleophile, Nucleophilic addition, Nucleophilic aromatic substitution, Nucleophilic conjugate addition, Nucleophilic substitution, Order of reaction, Ore, Organic chemistry, Organic peroxide, Organic reaction, Oxidation state, Oxidizing agent, Oxy-fuel welding and cutting, Oxygen, Oxyhydrogen, Partial charge, Pericyclic reaction, Petroleum, PH, Phlogiston theory, Photochemistry, Photon, Photosynthesis, Platinum group, Polar effect, Polymer, Polymerization, Potassium iodide, Potassium nitrate, Potential energy surface, Precipitation (chemistry), Pressure, Principle of minimum energy, Product (chemistry), Protein, Proton, Pyrotechnics, Quantum field theory, Radical (chemistry), Radical polymerization, Radical substitution, Radioactive decay, Reaction mechanism, Reaction progress kinetic analysis, Reaction rate, Reagent, Rearrangement reaction, Recrystallization (chemistry), Redox, Reducing agent, Retrosynthetic analysis, Rhodopsin, Robert Boyle, RRKM theory, Salt, Salt metathesis reaction, Scanning tunneling microscope, Sigmatropic reaction, Single displacement reaction, SN1 reaction, SN2 reaction, Sodium, Sodium carbonate, Sodium chloride, Sodium sulfate, Solubility, Spontaneous process, Springer Science+Business Media, Springer Vieweg Verlag, Stereochemistry, Stoichiometry, Structural formula, Structural isomer, Substitution reaction, Substrate (chemistry), Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Surface area, Temperature, Thermite, Thermodynamic activity, Thermodynamics, Thieme Medical Publishers, Transition metal, Transition state, Transition state theory, Triple bond, Ultra-high vacuum, Ultrafast laser spectroscopy, Ultraviolet, Urea, Visual perception, Vitalism, Wagner–Meerwein rearrangement, Walden inversion, Walter de Gruyter, Water-gas shift reaction, Wave function, Welding, Wiley-VCH, Williamson ether synthesis, Woodward–Hoffmann rules, 18-Electron rule. 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Academic Press is an academic book publisher.

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An acid (from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour) is a chemical substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts.

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An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.

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An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base.

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In chemistry, activation energy is a term introduced in 1889 by the Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius to describe the minimum energy which must be available to a chemical system with potential reactants to result in a chemical reaction.

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In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.

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An addition reaction, in organic chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form a larger one (the adduct).

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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.

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Alchemy is an influential tradition whose practitioners have, from antiquity, claimed it to be the precursor to profound powers.

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Alexander William Williamson FRS (1 May 1824 – 6 May 1904) was an English chemist of Scottish descent.

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In organic chemistry, compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds.

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In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

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An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.

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In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.

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Alum is both a specific chemical compound and a class of chemical compounds.

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Aluminium (or aluminum; see) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Amines (US: or, UK:, or) are organic compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid.

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Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order characteristic of a crystal.

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Anabolism (from upward and βάλλειν "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.

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Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution; 26 August 17438 May 1794) was a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.

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Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point.

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An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming rings.

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The Arrhenius equation is a formula for the temperature dependence of reaction rates.

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In the context of organic molecules, aryl refers to any functional group or substituent derived from an aromatic ring, be it phenyl, naphthyl, thienyl, indolyl, etc.

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Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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An atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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Barium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula BaCl2.

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In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, are slippery to the touch, taste bitter, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Bioenergetics is a field in biochemistry that concerns energy flow through living systems.

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Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.

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Birkhäuser is a former Swiss publisher founded in 1879 by Emil Birkhäuser.

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The Boltzmann constant (kB or k), named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating energy at the individual particle level with temperature.

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Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.

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The Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid–base reaction theory which was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.

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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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A carbanion is an anion in which carbon has an unshared pair of electrons and bears a negative charge usually with three substituents for a total of eight valence electrons.

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A carbocation is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.

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A carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m could be different from n).

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Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.

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Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst.

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Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert petroleum refinery naphthas distilled from crude oil (typically having low octane ratings) into high-octane liquid products called reformates, which are premium blending stocks for high-octane gasoline.

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The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.

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A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms.

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Chemical changes occur when a substance combines with another to form a new substance, called synthesis or, alternatively, decomposes into two or more different substances.

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A chemical compound (or just compound if used in the context of chemistry) is an entity consisting of two or more different atoms which associate via chemical bonds.

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Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that applies physical sciences (e.g. chemistry and physics) and life sciences (e.g. biology, microbiology and biochemistry) together with mathematics and economics to produce, transform, transport, and properly use chemicals, materials and energy.

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A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols and formulae, wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side.

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In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time.

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A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using a single line of chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.

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Chemical kinetics, also known as reaction kinetics, is the study of rates of chemical processes.

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In thermodynamics, chemical potential, also known as partial molar free energy, is a form of potential energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction.

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Chemical reaction models transform physical knowledge into a mathematical formulation so that that knowledge can be utilized in computational simulation of practical problems.

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A chemical substance is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties.

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In chemistry, chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.

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A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.

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Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter.

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Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Sir Christopher Kelk Ingold FRS (28 October 1893 – 8 December 1970) was a British chemist based in Leeds and London.

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Cis/trans isomerism (geometric isomerism, configurational isomerism) is a term used in organic chemistry to refer to the stereoisomerism engendered in the relative orientation of functional groups within a molecule.

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Many philosophies and worldviews have a set of classical elements believed to reflect the simplest essential parts and principles of which anything can consist or upon which the constitution and fundamental powers of everything are based.

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Coke is a fuel with few impurities and a high carbon content, usually made from coal.

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Collision theory is a theory proposed independently by Max Trautz in 1916 and William Lewis in 1918, that qualitatively explains how chemical reactions occur and why reaction rates differ for different reactions.

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Combustion or burning is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

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A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+), by a base—in other words, the base with a hydrogen ion added to it.

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The contact process is the current method of producing sulfuric acid in the high concentrations needed for industrial processes.

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In chemistry, a coordination complex or metal complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.

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The Cope rearrangement is an extensively studied organic reaction involving the 3,3-sigmatropic rearrangement of 1,5-dienes.

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Copper sulfate may refer to.

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A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group that specializes in producing technical books.

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A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents, such as atoms, molecules or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Crystal Field Theory (CFT) is a model that describes the breaking of degeneracies of electron orbital states, usually d or f orbitals, due to a static electric field produced by a surrounding charge distribution (anion neighbors).

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Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process of formation of solid crystals precipitating from a solution, melt or more rarely deposited directly from a gas.

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A cycloaddition is a pericyclic chemical reaction, in which "two or more unsaturated molecules (or parts of the same molecule) combine with the formation of a cyclic adduct in which there is a net reduction of the bond multiplicity." The resulting reaction is a cyclization reaction.

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Cyclohexene is a hydrocarbon with the formula C6H10.

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Deprotonation is the removal of a proton (H+) from a molecule, forming the conjugate base.

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The Diels–Alder reaction is an organic chemical reaction (specifically, a cycloaddition) between a conjugated diene and a substituted alkene, commonly termed the dienophile, to form a substituted cyclohexene system.

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In organic chemistry a diene or diolefin is a hydrocarbon that contains two carbon double bonds.

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In mathematics, differential calculus is a subfield of calculus concerned with the study of the rates at which quantities change.

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Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.

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A dipolar bond, also known as a dative covalent bond or coordinate bond is a kind of 2-center, 2-electron covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom.

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Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.

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Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions which take place at the interface of an electrode, usually a solid metal or a semiconductor, and an ionic conductor, the electrolyte.

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In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

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Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) is the radiant energy released by certain electromagnetic processes.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.

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In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.

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In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.

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Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

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In chemistry, an electrophile (literally electron lover) is a reagent attracted to electrons.

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In organic chemistry, an electrophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where, in a chemical compound, a π bond is broken and two new σ bonds are formed.

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Electrophilic aromatic substitution (SEAr) is an organic reaction in which an atom that is attached to an aromatic system (usually hydrogen) is replaced by an electrophile.

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Electrophilic substitution reactions are chemical reactions in which an electrophile displaces a functional group in a compound, which is typically, but not always, a hydrogen atom.

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In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle whose substructure is unknown, thus it is unknown whether it is composed of other particles.

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An elementary reaction is a chemical reaction in which one or more of the chemical species react directly to form products in a single reaction step and with a single transition state.

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An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism.

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Elsevier B.V. is an academic publishing company that publishes medical and scientific literature.

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Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs; c. 490 – c. 430 BC) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Agrigentum, a Greek city in Sicily.

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In thermodynamics, the term endothermic process describes a process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings; usually, but not always, in the form of heat.

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Enthalpy is defined as a thermodynamic potential, designated by the letter "H", that consists of the internal energy of the system (U) plus the product of pressure (p) and volume (V) of the system: Since U, p and V are all functions of the state of the thermodynamic system, enthalpy is a state function.

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In thermodynamics, entropy (usual symbol S) is a measure of the number of specific ways in which a thermodynamic system may be arranged, commonly understood as a measure of disorder.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.

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Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups—of general formula R–O–R'.

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Excitation is an elevation in energy level above an arbitrary baseline energy state.

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An exergonic process is one in which there is a positive flow of energy from the system to the surroundings.

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An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat.

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Femtochemistry is the area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions on extremely short timescales, approximately 10−15 seconds (one femtosecond, hence the name).

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Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases or alcohol.

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The Lampyridae are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera.

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Flash welding is a type of resistance welding that does not use any filler metals.

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Free-radical addition is an addition reaction in organic chemistry involving free radicals.

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Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.

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In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups (moieties) of atoms or bonds within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.

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In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that measures the "usefulness" or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).

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Glucose is a sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79.

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Greenwood Publishing Group (GPG) is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.

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Half-life (t1⁄2) is the amount of time required for the amount of something to fall to half its initial value.

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A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically ununseptide compound.

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The halogens or halogen elements are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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In organic chemistry, a heteroatom (from Ancient Greek heteros, different, + atomos) is any atom that is not carbon or hydrogen in a ring structure.

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In chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis refers to the form of catalysis where the phase of the catalyst differs from that of the reactants.

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In chemistry, heterolysis or heterolytic fission (from Greek ἕτερος, heteros, "different," and λύσις, lusis, "loosening") involves cleavage of a chemical bond in a process where both of the electrons involved in the original bond remain with only one of the fragment species.

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In chemistry, homogeneous catalysis is catalysis in a solution by a soluble catalyst.

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In chemistry, homolysis (from Greek ὅμοιος, homoios, "equal," and λύσις, lusis, "loosening") or homolytic fission is chemical bond dissociation of a molecule by a process where each of the fragments retains one of the originally-bonded electrons.

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In organic chemistry, the hydroboration–oxidation reaction is a two-step organic reaction that converts an alkene into a neutral alcohol by the net addition of water across the double bond.

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Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.

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Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.

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In thermodynamics, the internal energy is one of the two cardinal state functions of the state variables of a thermodynamic system.

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An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Iron(II) sulfide or ferrous sulfide (Br.E. sulphide) is a chemical compound with the formula.

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Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 164220 March 1726/7) was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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In chemistry isomerization (also isomerisation) is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms have a different arrangement e.g. A-B-C → B-A-C (these related molecules are known as isomers). In some molecules and under some conditions, isomerization occurs spontaneously.

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Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān (جابر بن حیان, fa, often given the nisbahs al-al-Bariqi, al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi; fl. c. 721c. 815), also known as Geber, was a prominent polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician.

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Jan Baptist van Helmont (12 January 1580 – 30 December 1644) was a Flemish chemist, physiologist, and physician.

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Johann Joachim Becher (6 May 1635 – October 1682) was a German physician, alchemist, precursor of chemistry, scholar and adventurer, best known for his development of the phlogiston theory of combustion, and his advancement of Austrian cameralism.

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Johann Rudolf Glauber (10 March 1604 – 10 March 1670) was a German-Dutch alchemist and chemist.

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John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.

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John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing and markets its products to professionals and consumers, students and instructors in higher education, and researchers and practitioners in scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly fields.

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Jones & Bartlett Learning, a division of Ascend Learning, is a provider of instructional, assessment and learning-performance management solutions for the secondary, post-secondary, and professional markets.

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Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.

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Joseph Louis Proust (September 26, 1754 – July 5, 1826) was an actor and a French chemist.

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A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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In chemistry, the law of definite proportions, sometimes called Proust's law or the law of definite composition, states that a chemical compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass.

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In chemistry, Le Châtelier's principle, also called Chatelier's principle or "The Equilibrium Law", can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on a chemical equilibrium.

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Lead is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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The lead chamber process was an industrial method used to produce sulfuric acid in large quantities.

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Lead(II) iodide (PbI2) or plumbous iodide is a bright yellow solid at room temperature, that reversibly becomes brick red by heating.

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Lead(II) nitrate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Pb(NO3)2.

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In chemistry, a leaving group is a molecular fragment that departs with a pair of electrons in heterolytic bond cleavage.

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The Leblanc process was an early industrial process for the production of soda ash (sodium carbonate) used throughout the 19th century, named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc.

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Lewis acid is a chemical species that reacts with a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.

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In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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Ligand field theory (LFT) describes the bonding, orbital arrangement, and other characteristics of coordination complexes.

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The limiting reagent (or limiting reactant) in a chemical reaction is the substance which is totally consumed when the chemical reaction is complete.

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Well-known reactions and reagents in organic chemistry include.

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In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Magnesium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of hydrated Mg(OH)2.

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Magnesium sulfate (or magnesium sulphate) is an inorganic salt (chemical compound) containing magnesium, sulfur and oxygen, with the formula MgSO4.

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Marcus theory is a theory originally developed by Rudolph A. Marcus, starting in 1956, to explain the rates of electron transfer reactions – the rate at which an electron can move or jump from one chemical species (called the electron donor) to another (called the electron acceptor).

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In organic chemistry, Markovnikov's rule or Markownikoff's rule describes the outcome of some addition reactions.

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A mass balance, also called a material balance, is an application of conservation of mass to the analysis of physical systems.

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In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.

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The Michael reaction or Michael addition is the nucleophilic addition of a carbanion or another nucleophile to an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound.

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A molecule (from Latin moles "mass") is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.

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Molybdenum dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula MoO2.

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A name reaction is a chemical reaction named after its discoverers or developers.

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In chemistry, neutralization (US spelling) or neutralisation (UK spelling), is a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react quantitatively with each other.

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Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.

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The nitronium ion, or sometimes the nitryl ion (incorrect because it is not a radical),, is a generally reactive cation created by the removal of an electron from the paramagnetic nitrogen dioxide molecule, or the protonation of nitric acid.

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The noble gases make a group of chemical elements with similar properties.

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Nuclear chemistry is the subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes, such as nuclear transmutation, and nuclear properties.

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In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.

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A nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.

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In organic chemistry, a nucleophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where a chemical compound with an electron-deficient or electrophilic double or triple bond, a π bond, reacts with electron-rich reactant, termed a nucleophile, with disappearance of the double bond and creation of two new single, or σ, bonds.

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Aromatic nucleophilic substitutionA nucleophilic aromatic substitution is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry in which the nucleophile displaces a good leaving group, such as a halide, on an aromatic ring.

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Nucleophilic conjugate addition is a type of organic reaction.

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In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a so-called leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.

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In chemical kinetics, the order of reaction with respect to a given substance (such as reactant, catalyst or product) is defined as the index, or exponent, to which its concentration term in the rate equation is raised.

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An ore is a type of rock that contains sufficient minerals with important elements including metals that can be economically extracted from the rock.

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Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Organic peroxides are organic compounds containing the peroxide functional group (ROOR').

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Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.

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The oxidation state, often called the oxidation number, is an indicator of the degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.

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In chemistry, oxidizing agent has two meanings.

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Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or gas welding in the U.S.) and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Oxyhydrogen is a mixture of hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) gases.

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A partial charge is a non-integer charge value when measured in elementary charge units.

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In organic chemistry, a pericyclic reaction is a type of organic reaction wherein the transition state of the molecule has a cyclic geometry, and the reaction progresses in a concerted fashion.

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Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.

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In chemistry, pH is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution.

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The phlogiston theory is an obsolete scientific theory that postulated a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion.

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Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities.

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The platinum-group metals (abbreviated as the PGMs; alternatively, the platinoids, platinides, platidises, platinum group, platinum metals, platinum family or platinum-group elements (PGEs)) are six metallic elements clustered together in the periodic table.

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The Polar effect or electronic effect in chemistry is the effect exerted by a substituent on modifying electrostatic forces operating on a nearby reaction center.

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A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

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Potassium iodide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula KI.

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Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.

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A potential energy surface (PES) describes the energy of a system, especially a collection of atoms, in terms of certain parameters, normally the positions of the atoms.

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Precipitation is the creation of a solid.

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Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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The principle of minimum energy is essentially a restatement of the second law of thermodynamics.

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Products are the species formed from chemical reactions.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Pyrotechnics is the science of using materials capable of undergoing self-contained and self-sustained exothermic chemical reactions for the production of heat, light, gas, smoke and/or sound.

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In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is a theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.

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In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has unpaired valency electrons.

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Free radical polymerization is a method of polymerization by which a polymer forms by the successive addition of free radical building blocks.

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In organic chemistry, a radical-substitution reaction is a substitution reaction involving free radicals as a reactive intermediate.

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Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.

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In chemistry, a reaction mechanism is the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs.

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In chemistry, reaction progress kinetic analysis (RPKA) is a subset of a broad range of kinetic techniques utilized to determine the rate laws of chemical reactions and to aid in elucidation of reaction mechanisms.

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The reaction rate (rate of reaction) or speed of reaction for a reactant or product in a particular reaction is intuitively defined as how fast or slow a reaction takes place.

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A reagent is a "substance or compound that is added to a system in order to bring about a chemical reaction, or added to see if a reaction occurs." Although the terms reactant and reagent are often used interchangeably, a reactant is more specifically a "substance that is consumed in the course of a chemical reaction".

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A rearrangement reaction is a broad class of organic reactions where the carbon skeleton of a molecule is rearranged to give a structural isomer of the original molecule.

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In chemistry, recrystallization is a technique used to purify chemicals.

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Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.

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A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.

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Retrosynthetic analysis is a technique for solving problems in the planning of organic syntheses.

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Rhodopsin, also known as visual purple, from Ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhódon, “rose”), due to its pinkish color, and ὄψις (ópsis, “sight”), is a light-sensitive receptor protein.

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Robert Boyle FRS was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist and inventor born in Lismore, County Waterford, Ireland.

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The Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus (RRKM) theory is a theory of chemical reactivity.

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Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.

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A salt metathesis reaction (from the Greek μετάθεσις, "transposition"), sometimes called a double replacement reaction or double displacement reaction, is a chemical process involving the exchange of bonds between two reacting chemical species, which results in the creation of products with similar or identical bonding affiliations.

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A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level.

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A sigmatropic reaction in organic chemistry is a pericyclic reaction wherein the net result is one σ-bond is changed to another σ-bond in an uncatalyzed intramolecular process.

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A single-displacement reaction, also named single-replacement reaction, is a type of oxidation-reduction chemical reaction when an element or ion moves out of one compound and into another - that is, one element is replaced by another in a compound.

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The SN1 reaction is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry.

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The SN2 reaction is a type of reaction mechanism that is common in organic chemistry.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from New Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals), Na2CO3, is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.

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Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt or halite, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.

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Sodium sulfate is the sodium salt of sulfuric acid.

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Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a solution of the solute in the solvent.

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A spontaneous process is the time-evolution of a system in which it releases free energy (usually as heat) and moves to a lower, more thermodynamically stable energy state.

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Springer Science+Business Media or Springer is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Springer Vieweg Verlag (formerly known as Vieweg+Teubner Verlag) is a German publishing company that specializes in books on technical subjects.

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Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation.

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Stoichiometry is the calculation of relative quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions.

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The structural formula of a chemical compound is a graphic representation of the molecular structure, showing how the atoms are arranged.

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Structural isomerism, or constitutional isomerism (per IUPAC), is a form of isomerism in which molecules with the same molecular formula have bonded together in different orders, as opposed to stereoisomerism.

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Substitution reaction (also known as single displacement reaction or single replacement reaction) is a chemical reaction during which one functional group in a chemical compound is replaced by another functional group.

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In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with reagent to generate a product.

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Sulfur or sulphur (see spelling differences) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4 and molecular weight 98.079 g/mol.

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The surface area of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of an object occupies.

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A temperature is an objective comparative measure of hot or cold.

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Thermite is a pyrotechnic composition of metal powder fuel and metal oxide.

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In chemical thermodynamics, activity (symbol a) is a measure of the “effective concentration” of a species in a mixture, in the sense that the species' chemical potential depends on the activity of a real solution in the same way that it would depend on concentration for an ideal solution.

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Thermodynamics is a branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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Thieme Medical Publishers is a German medical and science publisher in the Thieme Publishing Group.

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In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has two possible meanings.

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The transition state of a chemical reaction is a particular configuration along the reaction coordinate.

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Transition state theory (TST) explains the reaction rates of elementary chemical reactions.

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A triple bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond.

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Ultra-high vacuum is the vacuum regime characterised by pressures lower than about 10−7 pascal or 100 nanopascals (10−9 mbar, ~10−9 torr).

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Ultrafast laser spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique that uses ultrashort pulse lasers for the study of dynamics on extremely short time scales (attoseconds to nanoseconds).

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Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Urea or carbamide is an organic compound with the chemical formula CO(NH2)2.

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Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment by processing information that is contained in visible light.

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Vitalism is an obsolete scientific doctrine that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".

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A Wagner–Meerwein rearrangement is a class of carbocation 1,2-rearrangement reactions in which a hydrogen, alkyl or aryl group migrates from one carbon to a neighboring carbon.

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Walden inversion is the inversion of a chiral center in a molecule in a chemical reaction.

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Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.

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The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen is known as water gas): The water gas shift reaction was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontana in 1780.

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A wave function in quantum mechanics describes the quantum state of an isolated system of one or more particles.

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Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.

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Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.

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The Williamson ether synthesis is an organic reaction, forming an ether from an organohalide and an alcohol.

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The Woodward–Hoffmann rules, devised by Robert Burns Woodward and Roald Hoffmann, are a set of rules in organic chemistry predicting the barrier heights of pericyclic reactions based upon conservation of orbital symmetry.

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The 18-electron rule is a rule used primarily for predicting formulae for stable metal complexes.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_reaction

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