Logo
Unionpedia
Communication
Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Free
Faster access than browser!
 
New! Save your pages! » Create account

Chemical reaction

+ Save concept Saved concepts

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. [1]

293 relations: Academic Press, Acid, Acid dissociation constant, Acid–base reaction, Activation energy, Active site, Addition reaction, Adenosine triphosphate, Alchemy, Alexander William Williamson, Aliphatic compound, Alkene, Alkoxide, Alkyl, Alum, Aluminium, Amine, Amino acid, Ammonia, Amorphous solid, Anabolism, Antoine Lavoisier, Arc welding, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Arrhenius equation, Aryl, Atmospheric chemistry, Atom, Atomic orbital, Barium chloride, Base (chemistry), Biochemistry, Bioenergetics, Bioluminescence, Birkhäuser, Boltzmann constant, Boron, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Cambridge University Press, Carbanion, Carbocation, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbonyl, Catalysis, Catalytic reforming, Cell (biology), Chain reaction, Chemical bond, ..., Chemical change, Chemical compound, Chemical engineering, Chemical equation, Chemical equilibrium, Chemical formula, Chemical kinetics, Chemical potential, Chemical reaction model, Chemical substance, Chemical synthesis, Chemist, Chemistry, Chlorine, Christopher Kelk Ingold, Cis–trans isomerism, Classical element, Coke (fuel), Collision theory, Combustion, Conjugate acid, Contact process, Coordination complex, Cope rearrangement, Copper sulfate, Covalent bond, CRC Press, Crystal, Crystal field theory, Crystallization, Cycloaddition, Cyclohexene, Deprotonation, Diels–Alder reaction, Diene, Differential calculus, Diffusion, Dipolar bond, Dissociation (chemistry), DNA, Double bond, Electrochemistry, Electrolysis, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Electron configuration, Electron shell, Electronegativity, Electrophile, Electrophilic addition, Electrophilic aromatic substitution, Electrophilic substitution, Elementary particle, Elementary reaction, Elimination reaction, Elsevier, Empedocles, Endothermic process, Enthalpy, Entropy, Enzyme, Enzyme catalysis, Ether, Excited state, Exergonic process, Exothermic reaction, Femtochemistry, Fermentation, Firefly, Flash welding, Free-radical addition, Friedrich Wöhler, Functional group, Gibbs free energy, Glucose, Gold, Greenwood Publishing Group, Haber process, Half-life, Halide, Halogen, Heteroatom, Heterogeneous catalysis, Heterolysis (chemistry), Homogeneous catalysis, Homolysis (chemistry), Hydroboration–oxidation reaction, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogenation, Hydroxide, Internal energy, Ion, Iron, Iron(II) sulfide, Isaac Newton, Isomerization, Jabir ibn Hayyan, Jan Baptist van Helmont, Johann Joachim Becher, Johann Rudolf Glauber, John Dalton, John Wiley & Sons, Jones & Bartlett Learning, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Joseph Proust, Laser, Law of definite proportions, Le Chatelier's principle, Lead, Lead chamber process, Lead(II) iodide, Lead(II) nitrate, Leaving group, Leblanc process, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand, Ligand field theory, Limiting reagent, List of organic reactions, Lone pair, Magnesium, Magnesium hydroxide, Magnesium sulfate, Marcus theory, Markovnikov's rule, Mass balance, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Michael reaction, Molecule, Molybdenum, Molybdenum(IV) oxide, Name reaction, Neutralization (chemistry), Nitric acid, Nitronium ion, Noble gas, Nuclear chemistry, Nuclear reaction, Nucleophile, Nucleophilic addition, Nucleophilic aromatic substitution, Nucleophilic conjugate addition, Nucleophilic substitution, Order of reaction, Ore, Organic chemistry, Organic peroxide, Organic reaction, Oxidation state, Oxidizing agent, Oxy-fuel welding and cutting, Oxygen, Oxyhydrogen, Partial charge, Pericyclic reaction, Petroleum, PH, Phlogiston theory, Photochemistry, Photon, Photosynthesis, Platinum group, Polar effect, Polymer, Polymerization, Potassium iodide, Potassium nitrate, Potential energy surface, Precipitation (chemistry), Pressure, Principle of minimum energy, Product (chemistry), Protein, Proton, Pyrotechnics, Quantum field theory, Radical (chemistry), Radical polymerization, Radical substitution, Radioactive decay, Reaction mechanism, Reaction progress kinetic analysis, Reaction rate, Reagent, Rearrangement reaction, Recrystallization (chemistry), Redox, Reducing agent, Retrosynthetic analysis, Rhodopsin, Robert Boyle, RRKM theory, Salt, Salt metathesis reaction, Scanning tunneling microscope, Sigmatropic reaction, Single displacement reaction, SN1 reaction, SN2 reaction, Sodium, Sodium carbonate, Sodium chloride, Sodium sulfate, Solubility, Spontaneous process, Springer Science+Business Media, Springer Vieweg Verlag, Stereochemistry, Stoichiometry, Structural formula, Structural isomer, Substitution reaction, Substrate (chemistry), Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Surface area, Temperature, Thermite, Thermodynamic activity, Thermodynamics, Thieme Medical Publishers, Transition metal, Transition state, Transition state theory, Triple bond, Ultra-high vacuum, Ultrafast laser spectroscopy, Ultraviolet, Urea, Visual perception, Vitalism, Wagner–Meerwein rearrangement, Walden inversion, Walter de Gruyter, Water-gas shift reaction, Wave function, Welding, Wiley-VCH, Williamson ether synthesis, Woodward–Hoffmann rules, 18-Electron rule. Expand index (243 more) »

Academic Press is an academic book publisher.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Academic Press · See more »

An acid (from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour) is a chemical substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Acid · See more »

An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Acid dissociation constant · See more »

An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Acid–base reaction · See more »

In chemistry, activation energy is a term introduced in 1889 by the Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius to describe the minimum energy which must be available to a chemical system with potential reactants to result in a chemical reaction.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Activation energy · See more »

In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Active site · See more »

An addition reaction, in organic chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form a larger one (the adduct).

New!!: Chemical reaction and Addition reaction · See more »

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Adenosine triphosphate · See more »

Alchemy is an influential tradition whose practitioners have, from antiquity, claimed it to be the precursor to profound powers.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Alchemy · See more »

Alexander William Williamson FRS (1 May 1824 – 6 May 1904) was an English chemist of Scottish descent.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Alexander William Williamson · See more »

In organic chemistry, compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Aliphatic compound · See more »

In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Alkene · See more »

An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Alkoxide · See more »

In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Alkyl · See more »

Alum is both a specific chemical compound and a class of chemical compounds.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Alum · See more »

Aluminium (or aluminum; see) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Aluminium · See more »

Amines (US: or, UK:, or) are organic compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Amine · See more »

Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Amino acid · See more »

Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Ammonia · See more »

In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order characteristic of a crystal.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Amorphous solid · See more »

Anabolism (from upward and βάλλειν "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Anabolism · See more »

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution; 26 August 17438 May 1794) was a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Antoine Lavoisier · See more »

Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Arc welding · See more »

An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming rings.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Aromatic hydrocarbon · See more »

The Arrhenius equation is a formula for the temperature dependence of reaction rates.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Arrhenius equation · See more »

In the context of organic molecules, aryl refers to any functional group or substituent derived from an aromatic ring, be it phenyl, naphthyl, thienyl, indolyl, etc.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Aryl · See more »

Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Atmospheric chemistry · See more »

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Atom · See more »

An atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Atomic orbital · See more »

Barium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula BaCl2.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Barium chloride · See more »

In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, are slippery to the touch, taste bitter, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Base (chemistry) · See more »

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Biochemistry · See more »

Bioenergetics is a field in biochemistry that concerns energy flow through living systems.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Bioenergetics · See more »

Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Bioluminescence · See more »

Birkhäuser is a former Swiss publisher founded in 1879 by Emil Birkhäuser.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Birkhäuser · See more »

The Boltzmann constant (kB or k), named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating energy at the individual particle level with temperature.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Boltzmann constant · See more »

Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Boron · See more »

The Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid–base reaction theory which was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory · See more »

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Cambridge University Press · See more »

A carbanion is an anion in which carbon has an unshared pair of electrons and bears a negative charge usually with three substituents for a total of eight valence electrons.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Carbanion · See more »

A carbocation is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Carbocation · See more »

A carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m could be different from n).

New!!: Chemical reaction and Carbohydrate · See more »

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Carbon dioxide · See more »

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Carbon monoxide · See more »

In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Carbonyl · See more »

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Catalysis · See more »

Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert petroleum refinery naphthas distilled from crude oil (typically having low octane ratings) into high-octane liquid products called reformates, which are premium blending stocks for high-octane gasoline.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Catalytic reforming · See more »

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Cell (biology) · See more »

A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Chain reaction · See more »

A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Chemical bond · See more »

Chemical changes occur when a substance combines with another to form a new substance, called synthesis or, alternatively, decomposes into two or more different substances.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Chemical change · See more »

A chemical compound (or just compound if used in the context of chemistry) is an entity consisting of two or more different atoms which associate via chemical bonds.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Chemical compound · See more »

Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that applies physical sciences (e.g. chemistry and physics) and life sciences (e.g. biology, microbiology and biochemistry) together with mathematics and economics to produce, transform, transport, and properly use chemicals, materials and energy.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Chemical engineering · See more »

A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols and formulae, wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Chemical equation · See more »

In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Chemical equilibrium · See more »

A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using a single line of chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Chemical formula · See more »

Chemical kinetics, also known as reaction kinetics, is the study of rates of chemical processes.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Chemical kinetics · See more »

In thermodynamics, chemical potential, also known as partial molar free energy, is a form of potential energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Chemical potential · See more »

Chemical reaction models transform physical knowledge into a mathematical formulation so that that knowledge can be utilized in computational simulation of practical problems.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Chemical reaction model · See more »

A chemical substance is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Chemical substance · See more »

In chemistry, chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Chemical synthesis · See more »

A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Chemist · See more »

Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Chemistry · See more »

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Chlorine · See more »

Sir Christopher Kelk Ingold FRS (28 October 1893 – 8 December 1970) was a British chemist based in Leeds and London.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Christopher Kelk Ingold · See more »

Cis/trans isomerism (geometric isomerism, configurational isomerism) is a term used in organic chemistry to refer to the stereoisomerism engendered in the relative orientation of functional groups within a molecule.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Cis–trans isomerism · See more »

Many philosophies and worldviews have a set of classical elements believed to reflect the simplest essential parts and principles of which anything can consist or upon which the constitution and fundamental powers of everything are based.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Classical element · See more »

Coke is a fuel with few impurities and a high carbon content, usually made from coal.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Coke (fuel) · See more »

Collision theory is a theory proposed independently by Max Trautz in 1916 and William Lewis in 1918, that qualitatively explains how chemical reactions occur and why reaction rates differ for different reactions.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Collision theory · See more »

Combustion or burning is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Combustion · See more »

A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+), by a base—in other words, the base with a hydrogen ion added to it.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Conjugate acid · See more »

The contact process is the current method of producing sulfuric acid in the high concentrations needed for industrial processes.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Contact process · See more »

In chemistry, a coordination complex or metal complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Coordination complex · See more »

The Cope rearrangement is an extensively studied organic reaction involving the 3,3-sigmatropic rearrangement of 1,5-dienes.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Cope rearrangement · See more »

Copper sulfate may refer to.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Copper sulfate · See more »

A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Covalent bond · See more »

The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group that specializes in producing technical books.

New!!: Chemical reaction and CRC Press · See more »

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents, such as atoms, molecules or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Crystal · See more »

Crystal Field Theory (CFT) is a model that describes the breaking of degeneracies of electron orbital states, usually d or f orbitals, due to a static electric field produced by a surrounding charge distribution (anion neighbors).

New!!: Chemical reaction and Crystal field theory · See more »

Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process of formation of solid crystals precipitating from a solution, melt or more rarely deposited directly from a gas.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Crystallization · See more »

A cycloaddition is a pericyclic chemical reaction, in which "two or more unsaturated molecules (or parts of the same molecule) combine with the formation of a cyclic adduct in which there is a net reduction of the bond multiplicity." The resulting reaction is a cyclization reaction.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Cycloaddition · See more »

Cyclohexene is a hydrocarbon with the formula C6H10.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Cyclohexene · See more »

Deprotonation is the removal of a proton (H+) from a molecule, forming the conjugate base.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Deprotonation · See more »

The Diels–Alder reaction is an organic chemical reaction (specifically, a cycloaddition) between a conjugated diene and a substituted alkene, commonly termed the dienophile, to form a substituted cyclohexene system.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Diels–Alder reaction · See more »

In organic chemistry a diene or diolefin is a hydrocarbon that contains two carbon double bonds.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Diene · See more »

In mathematics, differential calculus is a subfield of calculus concerned with the study of the rates at which quantities change.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Differential calculus · See more »

Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Diffusion · See more »

A dipolar bond, also known as a dative covalent bond or coordinate bond is a kind of 2-center, 2-electron covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Dipolar bond · See more »

Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Dissociation (chemistry) · See more »

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

New!!: Chemical reaction and DNA · See more »

A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Double bond · See more »

Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions which take place at the interface of an electrode, usually a solid metal or a semiconductor, and an ionic conductor, the electrolyte.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Electrochemistry · See more »

In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Electrolysis · See more »

Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) is the radiant energy released by certain electromagnetic processes.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Electromagnetic radiation · See more »

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Electron · See more »

In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Electron configuration · See more »

In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Electron shell · See more »

Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Electronegativity · See more »

In chemistry, an electrophile (literally electron lover) is a reagent attracted to electrons.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Electrophile · See more »

In organic chemistry, an electrophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where, in a chemical compound, a π bond is broken and two new σ bonds are formed.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Electrophilic addition · See more »

Electrophilic aromatic substitution (SEAr) is an organic reaction in which an atom that is attached to an aromatic system (usually hydrogen) is replaced by an electrophile.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Electrophilic aromatic substitution · See more »

Electrophilic substitution reactions are chemical reactions in which an electrophile displaces a functional group in a compound, which is typically, but not always, a hydrogen atom.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Electrophilic substitution · See more »

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle whose substructure is unknown, thus it is unknown whether it is composed of other particles.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Elementary particle · See more »

An elementary reaction is a chemical reaction in which one or more of the chemical species react directly to form products in a single reaction step and with a single transition state.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Elementary reaction · See more »

An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Elimination reaction · See more »

Elsevier B.V. is an academic publishing company that publishes medical and scientific literature.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Elsevier · See more »

Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs; c. 490 – c. 430 BC) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Agrigentum, a Greek city in Sicily.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Empedocles · See more »

In thermodynamics, the term endothermic process describes a process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings; usually, but not always, in the form of heat.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Endothermic process · See more »

Enthalpy is defined as a thermodynamic potential, designated by the letter "H", that consists of the internal energy of the system (U) plus the product of pressure (p) and volume (V) of the system: Since U, p and V are all functions of the state of the thermodynamic system, enthalpy is a state function.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Enthalpy · See more »

In thermodynamics, entropy (usual symbol S) is a measure of the number of specific ways in which a thermodynamic system may be arranged, commonly understood as a measure of disorder.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Entropy · See more »

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Enzyme · See more »

Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Enzyme catalysis · See more »

Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups—of general formula R–O–R'.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Ether · See more »

Excitation is an elevation in energy level above an arbitrary baseline energy state.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Excited state · See more »

An exergonic process is one in which there is a positive flow of energy from the system to the surroundings.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Exergonic process · See more »

An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Exothermic reaction · See more »

Femtochemistry is the area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions on extremely short timescales, approximately 10−15 seconds (one femtosecond, hence the name).

New!!: Chemical reaction and Femtochemistry · See more »

Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases or alcohol.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Fermentation · See more »

The Lampyridae are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Firefly · See more »

Flash welding is a type of resistance welding that does not use any filler metals.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Flash welding · See more »

Free-radical addition is an addition reaction in organic chemistry involving free radicals.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Free-radical addition · See more »

Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Friedrich Wöhler · See more »

In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups (moieties) of atoms or bonds within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Functional group · See more »

In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that measures the "usefulness" or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).

New!!: Chemical reaction and Gibbs free energy · See more »

Glucose is a sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Glucose · See more »

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Gold · See more »

Greenwood Publishing Group (GPG) is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Greenwood Publishing Group · See more »

The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Haber process · See more »

Half-life (t1⁄2) is the amount of time required for the amount of something to fall to half its initial value.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Half-life · See more »

A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically ununseptide compound.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Halide · See more »

The halogens or halogen elements are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

New!!: Chemical reaction and Halogen · See more »

In organic chemistry, a heteroatom (from Ancient Greek heteros, different, + atomos) is any atom that is not carbon or hydrogen in a ring structure.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Heteroatom · See more »

In chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis refers to the form of catalysis where the phase of the catalyst differs from that of the reactants.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Heterogeneous catalysis · See more »

In chemistry, heterolysis or heterolytic fission (from Greek ἕτερος, heteros, "different," and λύσις, lusis, "loosening") involves cleavage of a chemical bond in a process where both of the electrons involved in the original bond remain with only one of the fragment species.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Heterolysis (chemistry) · See more »

In chemistry, homogeneous catalysis is catalysis in a solution by a soluble catalyst.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Homogeneous catalysis · See more »

In chemistry, homolysis (from Greek ὅμοιος, homoios, "equal," and λύσις, lusis, "loosening") or homolytic fission is chemical bond dissociation of a molecule by a process where each of the fragments retains one of the originally-bonded electrons.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Homolysis (chemistry) · See more »

In organic chemistry, the hydroboration–oxidation reaction is a two-step organic reaction that converts an alkene into a neutral alcohol by the net addition of water across the double bond.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Hydroboration–oxidation reaction · See more »

Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Hydrochloric acid · See more »

Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Hydrogen · See more »

Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Hydrogenation · See more »

Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Hydroxide · See more »

In thermodynamics, the internal energy is one of the two cardinal state functions of the state variables of a thermodynamic system.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Internal energy · See more »

An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Ion · See more »

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Iron · See more »

Iron(II) sulfide or ferrous sulfide (Br.E. sulphide) is a chemical compound with the formula.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Iron(II) sulfide · See more »

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 164220 March 1726/7) was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Isaac Newton · See more »

In chemistry isomerization (also isomerisation) is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms have a different arrangement e.g. A-B-C → B-A-C (these related molecules are known as isomers). In some molecules and under some conditions, isomerization occurs spontaneously.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Isomerization · See more »

Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān (جابر بن حیان, fa, often given the nisbahs al-al-Bariqi, al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi; fl. c. 721c. 815), also known as Geber, was a prominent polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Jabir ibn Hayyan · See more »

Jan Baptist van Helmont (12 January 1580 – 30 December 1644) was a Flemish chemist, physiologist, and physician.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Jan Baptist van Helmont · See more »

Johann Joachim Becher (6 May 1635 – October 1682) was a German physician, alchemist, precursor of chemistry, scholar and adventurer, best known for his development of the phlogiston theory of combustion, and his advancement of Austrian cameralism.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Johann Joachim Becher · See more »

Johann Rudolf Glauber (10 March 1604 – 10 March 1670) was a German-Dutch alchemist and chemist.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Johann Rudolf Glauber · See more »

John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.

New!!: Chemical reaction and John Dalton · See more »

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing and markets its products to professionals and consumers, students and instructors in higher education, and researchers and practitioners in scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly fields.

New!!: Chemical reaction and John Wiley & Sons · See more »

Jones & Bartlett Learning, a division of Ascend Learning, is a provider of instructional, assessment and learning-performance management solutions for the secondary, post-secondary, and professional markets.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Jones & Bartlett Learning · See more »

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac · See more »

Joseph Louis Proust (September 26, 1754 – July 5, 1826) was an actor and a French chemist.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Joseph Proust · See more »

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Laser · See more »

In chemistry, the law of definite proportions, sometimes called Proust's law or the law of definite composition, states that a chemical compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Law of definite proportions · See more »

In chemistry, Le Châtelier's principle, also called Chatelier's principle or "The Equilibrium Law", can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on a chemical equilibrium.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Le Chatelier's principle · See more »

Lead is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from plumbum) and atomic number 82.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Lead · See more »

The lead chamber process was an industrial method used to produce sulfuric acid in large quantities.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Lead chamber process · See more »

Lead(II) iodide (PbI2) or plumbous iodide is a bright yellow solid at room temperature, that reversibly becomes brick red by heating.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Lead(II) iodide · See more »

Lead(II) nitrate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Pb(NO3)2.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Lead(II) nitrate · See more »

In chemistry, a leaving group is a molecular fragment that departs with a pair of electrons in heterolytic bond cleavage.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Leaving group · See more »

The Leblanc process was an early industrial process for the production of soda ash (sodium carbonate) used throughout the 19th century, named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Leblanc process · See more »

Lewis acid is a chemical species that reacts with a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Lewis acids and bases · See more »

In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Ligand · See more »

Ligand field theory (LFT) describes the bonding, orbital arrangement, and other characteristics of coordination complexes.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Ligand field theory · See more »

The limiting reagent (or limiting reactant) in a chemical reaction is the substance which is totally consumed when the chemical reaction is complete.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Limiting reagent · See more »

Well-known reactions and reagents in organic chemistry include.

New!!: Chemical reaction and List of organic reactions · See more »

In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Lone pair · See more »

Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Magnesium · See more »

Magnesium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of hydrated Mg(OH)2.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Magnesium hydroxide · See more »

Magnesium sulfate (or magnesium sulphate) is an inorganic salt (chemical compound) containing magnesium, sulfur and oxygen, with the formula MgSO4.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Magnesium sulfate · See more »

Marcus theory is a theory originally developed by Rudolph A. Marcus, starting in 1956, to explain the rates of electron transfer reactions – the rate at which an electron can move or jump from one chemical species (called the electron donor) to another (called the electron acceptor).

New!!: Chemical reaction and Marcus theory · See more »

In organic chemistry, Markovnikov's rule or Markownikoff's rule describes the outcome of some addition reactions.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Markovnikov's rule · See more »

A mass balance, also called a material balance, is an application of conservation of mass to the analysis of physical systems.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Mass balance · See more »

In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Metabolic pathway · See more »

Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Metabolism · See more »

The Michael reaction or Michael addition is the nucleophilic addition of a carbanion or another nucleophile to an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Michael reaction · See more »

A molecule (from Latin moles "mass") is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Molecule · See more »

Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Molybdenum · See more »

Molybdenum dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula MoO2.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Molybdenum(IV) oxide · See more »

A name reaction is a chemical reaction named after its discoverers or developers.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Name reaction · See more »

In chemistry, neutralization (US spelling) or neutralisation (UK spelling), is a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react quantitatively with each other.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Neutralization (chemistry) · See more »

Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Nitric acid · See more »

The nitronium ion, or sometimes the nitryl ion (incorrect because it is not a radical),, is a generally reactive cation created by the removal of an electron from the paramagnetic nitrogen dioxide molecule, or the protonation of nitric acid.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Nitronium ion · See more »

The noble gases make a group of chemical elements with similar properties.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Noble gas · See more »

Nuclear chemistry is the subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes, such as nuclear transmutation, and nuclear properties.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Nuclear chemistry · See more »

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Nuclear reaction · See more »

A nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Nucleophile · See more »

In organic chemistry, a nucleophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where a chemical compound with an electron-deficient or electrophilic double or triple bond, a π bond, reacts with electron-rich reactant, termed a nucleophile, with disappearance of the double bond and creation of two new single, or σ, bonds.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Nucleophilic addition · See more »

Aromatic nucleophilic substitutionA nucleophilic aromatic substitution is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry in which the nucleophile displaces a good leaving group, such as a halide, on an aromatic ring.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Nucleophilic aromatic substitution · See more »

Nucleophilic conjugate addition is a type of organic reaction.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Nucleophilic conjugate addition · See more »

In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a so-called leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Nucleophilic substitution · See more »

In chemical kinetics, the order of reaction with respect to a given substance (such as reactant, catalyst or product) is defined as the index, or exponent, to which its concentration term in the rate equation is raised.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Order of reaction · See more »

An ore is a type of rock that contains sufficient minerals with important elements including metals that can be economically extracted from the rock.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Ore · See more »

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Organic chemistry · See more »

Organic peroxides are organic compounds containing the peroxide functional group (ROOR').

New!!: Chemical reaction and Organic peroxide · See more »

Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Organic reaction · See more »

The oxidation state, often called the oxidation number, is an indicator of the degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Oxidation state · See more »

In chemistry, oxidizing agent has two meanings.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Oxidizing agent · See more »

Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or gas welding in the U.S.) and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Oxy-fuel welding and cutting · See more »

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Oxygen · See more »

Oxyhydrogen is a mixture of hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) gases.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Oxyhydrogen · See more »

A partial charge is a non-integer charge value when measured in elementary charge units.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Partial charge · See more »

In organic chemistry, a pericyclic reaction is a type of organic reaction wherein the transition state of the molecule has a cyclic geometry, and the reaction progresses in a concerted fashion.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Pericyclic reaction · See more »

Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Petroleum · See more »

In chemistry, pH is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution.

New!!: Chemical reaction and PH · See more »

The phlogiston theory is an obsolete scientific theory that postulated a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Phlogiston theory · See more »

Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Photochemistry · See more »

No description.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Photon · See more »

Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Photosynthesis · See more »

The platinum-group metals (abbreviated as the PGMs; alternatively, the platinoids, platinides, platidises, platinum group, platinum metals, platinum family or platinum-group elements (PGEs)) are six metallic elements clustered together in the periodic table.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Platinum group · See more »

The Polar effect or electronic effect in chemistry is the effect exerted by a substituent on modifying electrostatic forces operating on a nearby reaction center.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Polar effect · See more »

A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Polymer · See more »

In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Polymerization · See more »

Potassium iodide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula KI.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Potassium iodide · See more »

Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Potassium nitrate · See more »

A potential energy surface (PES) describes the energy of a system, especially a collection of atoms, in terms of certain parameters, normally the positions of the atoms.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Potential energy surface · See more »

Precipitation is the creation of a solid.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Precipitation (chemistry) · See more »

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Pressure · See more »

The principle of minimum energy is essentially a restatement of the second law of thermodynamics.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Principle of minimum energy · See more »

Products are the species formed from chemical reactions.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Product (chemistry) · See more »

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Protein · See more »

| magnetic_moment.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Proton · See more »

Pyrotechnics is the science of using materials capable of undergoing self-contained and self-sustained exothermic chemical reactions for the production of heat, light, gas, smoke and/or sound.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Pyrotechnics · See more »

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is a theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Quantum field theory · See more »

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has unpaired valency electrons.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Radical (chemistry) · See more »

Free radical polymerization is a method of polymerization by which a polymer forms by the successive addition of free radical building blocks.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Radical polymerization · See more »

In organic chemistry, a radical-substitution reaction is a substitution reaction involving free radicals as a reactive intermediate.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Radical substitution · See more »

Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Radioactive decay · See more »

In chemistry, a reaction mechanism is the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Reaction mechanism · See more »

In chemistry, reaction progress kinetic analysis (RPKA) is a subset of a broad range of kinetic techniques utilized to determine the rate laws of chemical reactions and to aid in elucidation of reaction mechanisms.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Reaction progress kinetic analysis · See more »

The reaction rate (rate of reaction) or speed of reaction for a reactant or product in a particular reaction is intuitively defined as how fast or slow a reaction takes place.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Reaction rate · See more »

A reagent is a "substance or compound that is added to a system in order to bring about a chemical reaction, or added to see if a reaction occurs." Although the terms reactant and reagent are often used interchangeably, a reactant is more specifically a "substance that is consumed in the course of a chemical reaction".

New!!: Chemical reaction and Reagent · See more »

A rearrangement reaction is a broad class of organic reactions where the carbon skeleton of a molecule is rearranged to give a structural isomer of the original molecule.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Rearrangement reaction · See more »

In chemistry, recrystallization is a technique used to purify chemicals.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Recrystallization (chemistry) · See more »

Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Redox · See more »

A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Reducing agent · See more »

Retrosynthetic analysis is a technique for solving problems in the planning of organic syntheses.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Retrosynthetic analysis · See more »

Rhodopsin, also known as visual purple, from Ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhódon, “rose”), due to its pinkish color, and ὄψις (ópsis, “sight”), is a light-sensitive receptor protein.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Rhodopsin · See more »

Robert Boyle FRS was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist and inventor born in Lismore, County Waterford, Ireland.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Robert Boyle · See more »

The Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus (RRKM) theory is a theory of chemical reactivity.

New!!: Chemical reaction and RRKM theory · See more »

Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Salt · See more »

A salt metathesis reaction (from the Greek μετάθεσις, "transposition"), sometimes called a double replacement reaction or double displacement reaction, is a chemical process involving the exchange of bonds between two reacting chemical species, which results in the creation of products with similar or identical bonding affiliations.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Salt metathesis reaction · See more »

A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Scanning tunneling microscope · See more »

A sigmatropic reaction in organic chemistry is a pericyclic reaction wherein the net result is one σ-bond is changed to another σ-bond in an uncatalyzed intramolecular process.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Sigmatropic reaction · See more »

A single-displacement reaction, also named single-replacement reaction, is a type of oxidation-reduction chemical reaction when an element or ion moves out of one compound and into another - that is, one element is replaced by another in a compound.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Single displacement reaction · See more »

The SN1 reaction is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry.

New!!: Chemical reaction and SN1 reaction · See more »

The SN2 reaction is a type of reaction mechanism that is common in organic chemistry.

New!!: Chemical reaction and SN2 reaction · See more »

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from New Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Sodium · See more »

Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals), Na2CO3, is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Sodium carbonate · See more »

Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt or halite, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Sodium chloride · See more »

Sodium sulfate is the sodium salt of sulfuric acid.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Sodium sulfate · See more »

Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a solution of the solute in the solvent.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Solubility · See more »

A spontaneous process is the time-evolution of a system in which it releases free energy (usually as heat) and moves to a lower, more thermodynamically stable energy state.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Spontaneous process · See more »

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Springer Science+Business Media · See more »

Springer Vieweg Verlag (formerly known as Vieweg+Teubner Verlag) is a German publishing company that specializes in books on technical subjects.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Springer Vieweg Verlag · See more »

Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Stereochemistry · See more »

Stoichiometry is the calculation of relative quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Stoichiometry · See more »

The structural formula of a chemical compound is a graphic representation of the molecular structure, showing how the atoms are arranged.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Structural formula · See more »

Structural isomerism, or constitutional isomerism (per IUPAC), is a form of isomerism in which molecules with the same molecular formula have bonded together in different orders, as opposed to stereoisomerism.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Structural isomer · See more »

Substitution reaction (also known as single displacement reaction or single replacement reaction) is a chemical reaction during which one functional group in a chemical compound is replaced by another functional group.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Substitution reaction · See more »

In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with reagent to generate a product.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Substrate (chemistry) · See more »

Sulfur or sulphur (see spelling differences) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Sulfur · See more »

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4 and molecular weight 98.079 g/mol.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Sulfuric acid · See more »

The surface area of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of an object occupies.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Surface area · See more »

A temperature is an objective comparative measure of hot or cold.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Temperature · See more »

Thermite is a pyrotechnic composition of metal powder fuel and metal oxide.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Thermite · See more »

In chemical thermodynamics, activity (symbol a) is a measure of the “effective concentration” of a species in a mixture, in the sense that the species' chemical potential depends on the activity of a real solution in the same way that it would depend on concentration for an ideal solution.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Thermodynamic activity · See more »

Thermodynamics is a branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Thermodynamics · See more »

Thieme Medical Publishers is a German medical and science publisher in the Thieme Publishing Group.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Thieme Medical Publishers · See more »

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has two possible meanings.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Transition metal · See more »

The transition state of a chemical reaction is a particular configuration along the reaction coordinate.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Transition state · See more »

Transition state theory (TST) explains the reaction rates of elementary chemical reactions.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Transition state theory · See more »

A triple bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Triple bond · See more »

Ultra-high vacuum is the vacuum regime characterised by pressures lower than about 10−7 pascal or 100 nanopascals (10−9 mbar, ~10−9 torr).

New!!: Chemical reaction and Ultra-high vacuum · See more »

Ultrafast laser spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique that uses ultrashort pulse lasers for the study of dynamics on extremely short time scales (attoseconds to nanoseconds).

New!!: Chemical reaction and Ultrafast laser spectroscopy · See more »

Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Ultraviolet · See more »

Urea or carbamide is an organic compound with the chemical formula CO(NH2)2.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Urea · See more »

Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment by processing information that is contained in visible light.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Visual perception · See more »

Vitalism is an obsolete scientific doctrine that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".

New!!: Chemical reaction and Vitalism · See more »

A Wagner–Meerwein rearrangement is a class of carbocation 1,2-rearrangement reactions in which a hydrogen, alkyl or aryl group migrates from one carbon to a neighboring carbon.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Wagner–Meerwein rearrangement · See more »

Walden inversion is the inversion of a chiral center in a molecule in a chemical reaction.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Walden inversion · See more »

Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Walter de Gruyter · See more »

The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen is known as water gas): The water gas shift reaction was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontana in 1780.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Water-gas shift reaction · See more »

A wave function in quantum mechanics describes the quantum state of an isolated system of one or more particles.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Wave function · See more »

Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Welding · See more »

Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Wiley-VCH · See more »

The Williamson ether synthesis is an organic reaction, forming an ether from an organohalide and an alcohol.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Williamson ether synthesis · See more »

The Woodward–Hoffmann rules, devised by Robert Burns Woodward and Roald Hoffmann, are a set of rules in organic chemistry predicting the barrier heights of pericyclic reactions based upon conservation of orbital symmetry.

New!!: Chemical reaction and Woodward–Hoffmann rules · See more »

The 18-electron rule is a rule used primarily for predicting formulae for stable metal complexes.

New!!: Chemical reaction and 18-Electron rule · See more »

Redirects here:

Bond rupture, Chemical Reaction, Chemical Reactions, Chemical reactant, Chemical reaction (disambiguation), Chemical reactions, Chemicalisation, Chemicalisations, Chemicalise, Chemicalised, Chemicaliser, Chemicalisers, Chemicalises, Chemicalising, Chemicalization, Chemicalizations, Chemicalize, Chemicalized, Chemicalizer, Chemicalizers, Chemicalizes, Chemicalizing, Chemically, Chemically reacting, Displacement reaction, Elementary particle reaction, Metal-acid reaction, Reaction (chemistry), Reaction Types, Reaction mixture, Reactions Type, Reactions type.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_reaction

OutgoingIncoming
Hey! We are on Facebook now! »