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Chemical substance

Index Chemical substance

A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure. [1]

133 relations: Aggregate (geology), Aldehyde, Allotropy, Alloy, Analytical chemistry, Anorthoclase, August Kekulé, Basic copper carbonate, Benzene, Butter, Carbon, CAS Registry Number, Charcoal, Chemical Abstracts Service, Chemical bond, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical formula, Chemical reaction, Chemical structure, Chemical synthesis, Chemist, Chemistry, Concept, Copper, Covalent bond, Crystal, Crystal structure, Database, Diamond, Diastereomer, Ductility, Electronegativity, Enantiomer, Energy, European Union, Feldspar, Fine chemical, Fructose, Gas, Gasoline, Geology, Glucose, Gold, Gram, Hazard symbol, Heat, Hemiacetal, High-density polyethylene, Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, ..., Hydrogen, Inorganic chemistry, Inorganic compound, International Chemical Identifier, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ion, Ionic bonding, Iron, Iron(II) sulfide, Isomer, Isotope, IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry, Joseph Proust, Ketone, Laboratory, Law of definite proportions, Light, Liquid, List of chemistry journals, Lobry de Bruyn–van Ekenstein transformation, Low-density polyethylene, Lustre (mineralogy), Magnet, Material, Matter, Mechanics, Medication, Medium-density polyethylene, Melting point, Metal, Metalloid, Mineral, Mixture, Molar mass distribution, Mole (unit), Molecule, Naproxen, Nature, Nitrogen, Non-stoichiometric compound, Nonmetal, Nuclear reaction, Octane rating, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Organometallic chemistry, Oxygen, Ozone, Palladium hydride, Patent, Phase (matter), Plasma (physics), Polyethylene, Polymer, Pressure, Prices of elements and their compounds, Properties of water, Radioactive decay, Ratio, Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, Rock (geology), Salt, Scientific literature, Secondary metabolite, Silicon, Simplified molecular-input line-entry system, Sodium chloride, Soil, Solid, Solid solution, Solubility, Stereoisomerism, Sucrose, Sugar, Sulfur, Systematic name, Tartaric acid, Tautomer, Temperature, Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, United States Pharmacopeia, Wood, Xylose isomerase. Expand index (83 more) »

Aggregate (geology)

In the Earth sciences, aggregrate has three possible meanings.

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Aldehyde

An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.

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Allotropy

Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.

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Alloy

An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.

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Analytical chemistry

Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.

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Anorthoclase

The mineral anorthoclase ((Na,K)AlSi3O8) is a crystalline solid solution in the alkali feldspar series, in which the sodium-aluminium silicate member exists in larger proportion.

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August Kekulé

Friedrich August Kekulé, later Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz (7 September 1829 – 13 July 1896), was a German organic chemist.

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Basic copper carbonate

Basic copper carbonate is a chemical compound, more properly called copper(II) carbonate hydroxide.

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Benzene

Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.

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Butter

Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat (in commercial products) which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed.

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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CAS Registry Number

A CAS Registry Number, also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).

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Charcoal

Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.

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Chemical Abstracts Service

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) is a division of the American Chemical Society.

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Chemical bond

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chemical formula

A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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Chemical structure

A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.

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Chemical synthesis

Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.

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Chemist

A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.

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Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Concept

Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs.

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Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Crystal

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Crystal structure

In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.

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Database

A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.

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Diamond

Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.

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Diastereomer

Diastereomers (sometimes called diastereoisomers) are a type of a stereoisomer.

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Ductility

Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.

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Electronegativity

Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

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Enantiomer

In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).

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Energy

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Feldspar

Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.

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Fine chemical

Fine chemicals are complex, single, pure chemical substances, produced in limited quantities in multipurpose plants by multistep batch chemical or biotechnological processes.

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Fructose

Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.

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Gas

Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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Gasoline

Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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Geology

Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

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Glucose

Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Gram

The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.

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Hazard symbol

Hazard symbols or warning symbols are recognisable symbols designed to warn about hazardous or dangerous materials, locations, or objects, including electric currents, poisons, and radioactivity.

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Heat

In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.

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Hemiacetal

A hemiacetal or a hemiketal is a compound that results from the addition of an alcohol to an aldehyde or a ketone, respectively.

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High-density polyethylene

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polyethylene high-density (PEHD) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum.

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Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures

A homogeneous mixture is a solid, liquid, or gaseous mixture that has the same proportions of its components throughout any given sample.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Inorganic chemistry

Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.

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Inorganic compound

An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.

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International Chemical Identifier

The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI or) is a textual identifier for chemical substances, designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web.

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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

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Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ionic bonding

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Iron(II) sulfide

Iron(II) sulfide or ferrous sulfide (Br.E. sulphide) is one of a family chemical compounds and minerals with the approximate formula.

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Isomer

An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.

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Isotope

Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

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IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature.

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Joseph Proust

Joseph Louis Proust (26 September 1754 – 5 July 1826) was a French chemist.

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Ketone

In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.

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Laboratory

A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.

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Law of definite proportions

In chemistry, the law of definite proportion, sometimes called Proust's law or the law of definite composition, or law of constant composition states that a given chemical compound always contains its component elements in fixed ratio (by mass) and does not depend on its source and method of preparation.

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Liquid

A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.

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List of chemistry journals

This is a list of scientific journals in chemistry and its various subfields.

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Lobry de Bruyn–van Ekenstein transformation

In carbohydrate chemistry, the Lobry de Bruyn–van Ekenstein transformation also known as the Lobry de Bruyn–Alberda–van Ekenstein transformation is the base or acid catalyzed transformation of an aldose into the ketose isomer or vice versa, with a tautomeric enediol as reaction intermediate.

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Low-density polyethylene

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is a thermoplastic made from the monomer ethylene.

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Lustre (mineralogy)

Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.

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Magnet

A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.

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Material

Material is a broad term for a chemical substance or mixture of substances that constitute a thing.

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Matter

In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.

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Mechanics

Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

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Medication

A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Medium-density polyethylene

Medium-density polyethylene (MDPE) is a type of polyethylene defined by a density range of 0.926–0.940 g/cm3.

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Melting point

The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.

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Metal

A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Metalloid

A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.

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Mineral

A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.

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Mixture

In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed.

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Molar mass distribution

In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value.

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Mole (unit)

The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Naproxen

Naproxen (brand names: Aleve, Naprosyn, and many others) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the propionic acid class (the same class as ibuprofen) that relieves pain, fever, swelling, and stiffness.

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Nature

Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Non-stoichiometric compound

Non-stoichiometric compounds are chemical compounds, almost always solid inorganic compounds, having elemental composition whose proportions cannot be represented by integers; most often, in such materials, some small percentage of atoms are missing or too many atoms are packed into an otherwise perfect lattice work.

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Nonmetal

Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, as an s-block element, would normally be placed next to hydrogen and above beryllium. However, since it is a noble gas, it is instead placed above neon (in the p-block). In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.

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Nuclear reaction

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.

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Octane rating

An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation fuel.

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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Organometallic chemistry

Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Ozone

Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.

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Palladium hydride

Palladium hydride is metallic palladium that contains a substantial quantity of hydrogen within its crystal lattice.

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Patent

A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.

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Phase (matter)

In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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Polyethylene

Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.

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Polymer

A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Pressure

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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Prices of elements and their compounds

This table lists the elements by their name and gives some historical prices for them and their commonly traded compounds.

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Properties of water

Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Ratio

In mathematics, a ratio is a relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second.

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Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is a European Union regulation dating from 18 December 2006.

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Rock (geology)

Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.

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Salt

Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.

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Scientific literature

Scientific literature comprises scholarly publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the natural and social sciences, and within an academic field, often abbreviated as the literature.

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Secondary metabolite

Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.

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Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Simplified molecular-input line-entry system

The simplified molecular-input line-entry system (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings.

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Sodium chloride

Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.

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Soil

Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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Solid

Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).

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Solid solution

A solid solution is a solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent.

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Solubility

Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.

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Stereoisomerism

In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.

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Sucrose

Sucrose is common table sugar.

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Sugar

Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Sulfur

Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Systematic name

A systematic name is a name given in a systematic way to one unique group, organism, object or chemical substance, out of a specific population or collection.

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Tartaric acid

Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many fruits, most notably in grapes, but also in bananas, tamarinds and citrus.

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Tautomer

Tautomers are constitutional isomers of organic compounds that readily interconvert.

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Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene

Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, UHMW) is a subset of the thermoplastic polyethylene.

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United States Pharmacopeia

The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is a pharmacopeia (compendium of drug information) for the United States published annually by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (usually also called the USP), a nonprofit organization that owns the trademark and copyright.

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Wood

Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.

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Xylose isomerase

In enzymology, a xylose isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of D-xylose and D-xylulose.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_substance

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