104 relations: Acclimatisation (neurones), Action potential, Active zone, Adenosine triphosphate, Alcohol, Amphibian, Autapse, Autocrine signalling, Axon, Axon terminal, Bernard Katz, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Central nervous system, Cerebral cortex, Charles Scott Sherrington, Chemoreceptor, Clonidine, Cocaine, Computer, Curare, Dendrite, Dendritic spine, Dendrodendritic synapse, Depolarization, Dopamine, Electrical conductor, Electrical synapse, Electron microscope, Endocytic cycle, Endocytosis, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endorphins, Excitatory postsynaptic potential, Excitatory synapse, Exocytosis, Fish, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gap junction, Gland, Glycine, Heterosynaptic plasticity, Hippocampus, Homosynaptic plasticity, Hyperpolarization (biology), Immunological synapse, Inhibitory postsynaptic potential, John Eccles (neurophysiologist), Johnson–Nyquist noise, Ligand-gated ion channel, ..., Long and short scales, Long-term depression, Long-term potentiation, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Mauthner cell, Membrane potential, Mitochondrion, Morphine, Nanometre, Neocortex, Neural circuit, Neuroglia, Neuromodulation, Neuromuscular junction, Neuron, Neuroscience, Neurotransmitter, Neurotransmitter receptor, Neurotransmitter transporter, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Norepinephrine, Optical microscope, Paralysis, Parasympathetic nervous system, Paul Fatt, Phosphorylation, Postsynaptic density, Postsynaptic potential, Principles of Neural Science, Psychoactive drug, Receptor (biochemistry), Retina, Reuptake, Ribbon synapse, Ricardo Miledi, Second messenger system, Serotonin, SNARE (protein), Spasm, Stochastic, Strychnine, Summation, Sympathetic nervous system, Synaptic fatigue, Synaptic plasticity, Synaptic vesicle, Synaptotagmin 1, Taste bud, Thalamic reticular nucleus, Transistor, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Vesicle fusion, Voltage, Voltage-gated calcium channel. Expand index (54 more) » « Shrink index
Acclimatisation is the process by which the nervous system fails to respond to a stimulus, as a result of the repeated stimulation of a transmission across a synapse.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
The active zone or synaptic active zone is a term first used by Couteaux and Pecot-Dechavassinein in 1970 to define the site of neurotransmitter release.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
An autapse is a chemical or electrical synapse from a neuron onto itself.
Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
Axon terminals (also called synaptic boutons or terminal boutons) are distal terminations of the telodendria (branches) of an axon.
Sir Bernard Katz, FRS (26 March 1911 – 20 April 2003) was a German-born Australian physician and biophysicist, noted for his work on nerve physiology.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (27 November 1857 – 4 March 1952) was an English neurophysiologist, histologist, bacteriologist, and a pathologist, Nobel laureate and president of the Royal Society in the early 1920s.
A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal.
Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, tic disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Curare or is a common name for various plant extract alkaloid arrow poisons originating from Central and South America.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
A dendritic spine (or spine) is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from a single axon at the synapse.
Dendrodendritic synapses are connections between the dendrites of two different neurons.
In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
An electrical synapse is a mechanical and electrically conductive link between two neighboring neurons that is formed at a narrow gap between the pre- and postsynaptic neurons known as a gap junction.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
The whole cycle of endocytosis plus exocytosis is known as the endocytic cycle.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Endorphins (contracted from "endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormones in humans and other animals.
In neuroscience, an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is a postsynaptic potential that makes the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential.
An excitatory synapse is a synapse in which an action potential in a presynaptic neuron increases the probability of an action potential occurring in a postsynaptic cell.
Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
A gap junction may also be called a nexus or macula communicans.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Synaptic plasticity refers to a chemical synapse's ability to undergo changes in strength.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Homosynaptic plasticity is one type of synaptic plasticity.
Hyperpolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative.
In immunology, an immunological synapse (or immune synapse) is the interface between an antigen-presenting cell or target cell and a lymphocyte such as an effector T cell or Natural Killer cell.
An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.
Sir John Carew Eccles (27 January 1903 – 2 May 1997) was an Australian neurophysiologist and philosopher who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the synapse.
Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
The long and short scales are two of several large-number naming systems for integer powers of ten that use the same words with different meanings.
Long-term depression (LTD), in neurophysiology, is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus.
In neuroscience, long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
The Mauthner cells are a pair of big and easily identifiable neurons (one for each half of the body) located in the rhombomere 4 of the hindbrain in fish and amphibians that are responsible for a very fast escape reflex (in the majority of animals – a so-called C-start response).
The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.
A neural circuit, is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons.
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
A neurotransmitter receptor (also known as a neuroreceptor) is a membrane receptor protein that is activated by a neurotransmitter.
Neurotransmitter transporters are a class of membrane transport proteins that span the cellular membranes of neurons.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Paul Fatt (13 January 1924 – 28 September 2014) was a British neuroscientist, who was a professor at University College London.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
The postsynaptic density (PSD) is a protein dense specialization attached to the postsynaptic membrane.
Postsynaptic potentials are changes in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic terminal of a chemical synapse.
First published in 1981 by Elsevier, Principles of Neural Science is an influential neuroscience textbook edited by Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, and Thomas M. Jessell.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
The ribbon synapse is a type of neuronal synapse characterized by the presence of an electron-dense structure, the synaptic ribbon, that holds vesicles close to the active zone.
Ricardo Miledi (15 September, 1927 – 18 December, 2017) was a Mexican neuroscientist.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
SNARE proteins (an acronym derived from "SNAP (Soluble NSF(N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) Attachment Protein) REceptor)" are a large protein complex consisting of at least 24 members in yeasts and more than 60 members in mammalian cells.
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.
The word stochastic is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined.
Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.
In mathematics, summation (capital Greek sigma symbol: ∑) is the addition of a sequence of numbers; the result is their sum or total.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Synaptic fatigue, or short-term synaptic depression, is an activity-dependent form of short term synaptic plasticity that results in the temporary inability of neurons to fire and therefore transmit an input signal.
In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Synaptotagmin 1 (or synaptotagmin) is a Ca2+ sensor in the membrane of the pre-synaptic axon terminal, coded by gene SYT1 (previously SYT) at 12q21.2 (MIM:185605).
Taste buds contain the taste receptor cells, which are also known as gustatory cells.
The thalamic reticular nucleus is part of the ventral thalamus that forms a capsule around the thalamus laterally.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
Vesicle fusion is the merging of a vesicle with other vesicles or a part of a cell membrane.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.
Bouton (synapse), Chemical synapses, Extrasynaptic, Frequency dependence of synapses, Heterotropic modulation, Neurocrine signaling, Post-synaptic, Post-synaptic cell, Post-synaptic receptor-channel, Post-synaptic receptor-channels, Postsynaptic, Postsynaptic cell, Postsynaptic membrane, Postsynaptic neuron, Postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor, Postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors, Pre-synaptic, Pre-synaptic neuron, Presynaptic, Presynaptic cell, Presynaptic inhibition, Presynaptic membrane, Presynaptic neuron, Presynaptic terminal, Receptors, presynaptic, Somatodendritic, Synapse biology, Synaptic bouton, Synaptic cleft, Synaptic knob, Synaptic membrane, Synaptic membranes, Synaptic signal, Synaptic strength, Synaptic terminal, Synaptic terminals, Terminal bouton, Terminal boutons.