192 relations: Acrolein, Adamsite, Adjutant, Air filter, Air raid on Bari, Alleged British use of chemical weapons in Mesopotamia in 1920, Allies of World War I, American Expeditionary Forces, Armistice of 11 November 1918, Arras, Artillery, Artillery battery, Asphyxia, Asphyxiant gas, Austria-Hungary, Autopsy, Avonmouth Docks, BASF, Battle of Bolimów, Battle of Hill 60 (Western Front), Battle of Loos, Battle of Neuve Chapelle, Battle of Passchendaele, Bayer, Benzyl bromide, Benzyl chloride, Berlin, Bis(chloromethyl) ether, Blister, Blister agent, Blue Cross (chemical warfare), British Empire, Bromine, Bromoacetone, Bronchus, Cambrai, Camp American University, Carbon dioxide, Central Powers, Charles Wilson, 1st Baron Moran, Chemical warfare, Chemical weapon, Chlorine, Chloroacetone, Chloromethyl chloroformate, Chloropicrin, Civilian, Cluny Macpherson (physician), Conjunctiva, Corrosive substance, ..., CRC Press, Daily Mail, Diphosgene, Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, Dulce et Decorum est, Eastern Front (World War I), Ethyl bromoacetate, Ethyldichloroarsine, Explosive material, Extermination camp, Field marshal (United Kingdom), Flanders, Flesquières, Fragmentation (weaponry), Fritz Haber, Gas cylinder, Gas mask, Gassed (painting), Geneva Protocol, Grenade, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Halabja chemical attack, Hexamethylenetetramine, Hindenburg Line, Hoechst AG, Hundred Days Offensive, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogen sulfide, Hypo helmet, IG Farben, II Corps (United Kingdom), Imperial Russian Army, Indiana University Press, Iran–Iraq War, Iron harvest, Irritation, Italian Front (World War I), John Singer Sargent, Kaiser Wilhelm Society, Langemark-Poelkapelle, Larynx, Lens, Pas-de-Calais, Lewisite, Little, Brown and Company, Livens Projector, London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, London Regiment (1908–1938), Martinique, Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Military personnel, Mortar (weapon), Mucous membrane, Nerve agent, Nieuwpoort, Belgium, No man's land, Operation Downfall, Operation Michael, Operation Sea Lion, Oslo Dumping Convention, Osowiec Fortress, Oxford University Press, Palestine (region), Paris, Parts-per notation, PH helmet, Phenol, Phosgene, Pneumonia, Poperinge, Propellant, Rawka (river), Rawka, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Rif, Royal Newfoundland Regiment, Russian Civil War, Russian Empire, Salient (military), Sarin, Scrotum, Second Battle of Gaza, Second Battle of Ypres, Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Shell (projectile), Shell shock, Shenyang, Shrapnel shell, Silicon carbide, Sir Charles Fergusson, 7th Baronet, Sneeze, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium phenoxide, Sodium thiosulfate, Soman, Spring Offensive, Suippes, Sulfonamide (medicine), Sulfur mustard, Tabun (nerve agent), Talc, Tambov Rebellion, Tear gas, Tin(IV) chloride, Tirailleur, Tissue (biology), Ton, Total war, Trachea, Trench, Trench warfare, Tuberculosis, United States Senate, University of Washington Press, Urea, Urine, Vera Brittain, Victor Grignard, Vimy, War crime, Warlord, Warsaw, Washington Naval Conference, Weapon of mass destruction, Western Front (World War I), Wiley-VCH, Wilfred Owen, William Howard Livens, Willoughby, Ohio, Wind, Winston Churchill, World Disarmament Conference, World war, World War I, World War II, Xylyl bromide, Ypres, Zhang Zuolin, Zone Rouge, Zouave, Zyklon B, 1st Canadian Division, 28th Division (United Kingdom). Expand index (142 more) » « Shrink index
Acrolein (systematic name: propenal) is the simplest unsaturated aldehyde.
Adamsite or DM is an organic compound; technically, an arsenical diphenylaminechlorarsine, that can be used as a riot control agent.
Adjutant is a military appointment given to an officer who assists the commanding officer with unit administration.
A particulate air filter is a device composed of fibrous or porous materials which removes solid particulates such as dust, pollen, mold, and bacteria from the air.
The air raid on Bari was an air attack by German bombers on Allied forces and shipping in Bari, Italy on 2 December 1943 during World War II.
It has been alleged that the British used chemical weapons in Mesopotamia in 1920, during the Iraqi revolt (Ath Thawra al Iraqiyya al Kubra), in the period of the British Mandate.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The American Expeditionary Forces (A. E. F., A.E.F. or AEF) was a formation of the United States Army on the Western Front of World War I. The AEF was established on July 5, 1917, in France under the command of Gen.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
Arras (Atrecht) is the capital (chef-lieu/préfecture) of the Pas-de-Calais department, which forms part of the region of Hauts-de-France; prior to the reorganization of 2014 it was located in Nord-Pas-de-Calais.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc, so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
An asphyxiant gas is a nontoxic or minimally toxic gas which reduces or displaces the normal oxygen concentration in breathing air.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
The Avonmouth Docks are part of the Port of Bristol, in England.
BASF SE is a German chemical company and the largest chemical producer in the world.
The Battle of Bolimów was an inconclusive battle of World War I fought on January 31, 1915 between Germany and Russia and considered a preliminary to the Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes.
The Battle of Hill 60 took place near Hill 60 south of Ypres on the Western Front, during the First World War.
The Battle of Loos was a battle that took place from 1915 in France on the Western Front, during the First World War.
The Battle of Neuve Chapelle (10–13 March 1915) took place in the First World War.
The Battle of Passchendaele (Flandernschlacht, Deuxième Bataille des Flandres), also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was a campaign of the First World War, fought by the Allies against the German Empire.
Bayer AG is a German multinational, pharmaceutical and life sciences company.
Benzyl bromide is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2Br.
Benzyl chloride, or α-chlorotoluene, is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2Cl.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bis(chloromethyl) ether is an organic compound with the chemical formula (CH2Cl)2O.
A blister is a small pocket of body fluid (lymph, serum, plasma, blood, or pus) within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection.
A blister agent, or vesicant, is a chemical compound that causes severe skin, eye and mucosal pain and irritation.
Blue Cross (Blaukreuz) is a World War I chemical warfare agent consisting of diphenylchloroarsine (DA, Clark I), diphenylcyanoarsine (CDA, Clark II), ethyldichloroarsine (Dick), and/or methyldichloroarsine (Methyldick).
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Bromoacetone is an organic compound with the formula 3CCH2.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
Cambrai (Kimbré; Kamerijk; historically in English Camerick and Camericke) is a commune in the Nord department and in the Hauts-de-France region of France on the Scheldt river, which is known locally as the Escaut river.
Camp American University was the name the U.S. military used for the segment of the Washington, DC main campus of American University during World War I and World War II.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Charles McMoran Wilson, 1st Baron Moran, MC, PRCP (10 November 1882 – 12 April 1977) was personal physician to Sir Winston Churchill from 1940 until the latter’s death in 1965.
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chloroacetone is a chemical compound with the formula 3CCH2.
Chloromethyl chloroformate (CClO2CH2Cl) is a chemical compound developed for use in chemical warfare in World War I. It is a tearing agent designed to cause temporary blindness.
Chloropicrin, also known as PS and nitrochloroform, is a chemical compound currently used as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial, fungicide, herbicide, insecticide, and nematicide.
A civilian is "a person who is not a member of the military or of a police or firefighting force".
Cluny Macpherson (March 18, 1879 – November 16, 1966) was a physician and the inventor of an early gas mask.
The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye).
A corrosive substance is one that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
Diphosgene is a chemical compound with the formula ClCO2CCl3.
Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, (19 June 1861 – 29 January 1928), was a senior officer of the British Army.
"Dulce et Decorum est" (read here) is a poem written by Wilfred Owen during World War I, and published posthumously in 1920.
The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I (Восточный фронт, Vostochnıy front, sometimes called the Second Fatherland War or Second Patriotic War (Вторая Отечественная война, Vtoraya Otechestvennaya voyna) in Russian sources) was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France. During 1910, Russian General Yuri Danilov developed "Plan 19" under which four armies would invade East Prussia. This plan was criticised as Austria-Hungary could be a greater threat than the German Empire. So instead of four armies invading East Prussia, the Russians planned to send two armies to East Prussia, and two Armies to defend against Austro-Hungarian forces invading from Galicia. In the opening months of the war, the Imperial Russian Army attempted an invasion of eastern Prussia in the northwestern theater, only to be beaten back by the Germans after some initial success. At the same time, in the south, they successfully invaded Galicia, defeating the Austro-Hungarian forces there. In Russian Poland, the Germans failed to take Warsaw. But by 1915, the German and Austro-Hungarian armies were on the advance, dealing the Russians heavy casualties in Galicia and in Poland, forcing it to retreat. Grand Duke Nicholas was sacked from his position as the commander-in-chief and replaced by the Tsar himself. Several offensives against the Germans in 1916 failed, including Lake Naroch Offensive and the Baranovichi Offensive. However, General Aleksei Brusilov oversaw a highly successful operation against Austria-Hungary that became known as the Brusilov Offensive, which saw the Russian Army make large gains. The Kingdom of Romania entered the war in August 1916. The Entente promised the region of Transylvania (which was part of Austria-Hungary) in return for Romanian support. The Romanian Army invaded Transylvania and had initial successes, but was forced to stop and was pushed back by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians when Bulgaria attacked them in the south. Meanwhile, a revolution occurred in Russia in February 1917 (one of the several causes being the hardships of the war). Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate and a Russian Provisional Government was founded, with Georgy Lvov as its first leader, who was eventually replaced by Alexander Kerensky. The newly formed Russian Republic continued to fight the war alongside Romania and the rest of the Entente until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October 1917. Kerensky oversaw the July Offensive, which was largely a failure and caused a collapse in the Russian Army. The new government established by the Bolsheviks signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking it out of the war and making large territorial concessions. Romania was also forced to surrender and signed a similar treaty, though both of the treaties were nullified with the surrender of the Central Powers in November 1918.
Ethyl bromoacetate is the chemical compound with the formula CH2BrCO2C2H5.
Ethyldichloroarsine, sometimes abbreviated "ED", is an organoarsenic compound with the formula CH3CH2AsCl2.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
Field Marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
Flesquières is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery or mortar shell, rocket, missile, bomb, grenade, etc.
Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas.
A gas cylinder or tank is a pressure vessel used to store gases at above atmospheric pressure.
The gas mask is a mask used to protect the user from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases.
Gassed is a very large oil painting completed in March 1919 by John Singer Sargent.
The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons in international armed conflicts.
A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
The Halabja chemical attack (Kurdish: Kîmyabarana Helebce کیمیابارانی ھەڵەبجە), also known as the Halabja Massacre or Bloody Friday, was a massacre against the Kurdish people that took place on March 16, 1988, during the closing days of the Iran–Iraq War in the Kurdish city of Halabja in Iraq.
Hexamethylenetetramine or methenamine is a heterocyclic organic compound with the formula (CH2)6N4.
The Hindenburg Line (Siegfriedstellung or Siegfried Position) was a German defensive position of World War I, built during the winter of 1916–1917 on the Western Front, from Arras to Laffaux, near Soissons on the Aisne.
Hoechst AG was a German chemicals then life-sciences company that became Aventis Deutschland after its merger with France's Rhône-Poulenc S.A. in 1999.
The Hundred Days Offensive was the final period of the First World War, during which the Allies launched a series of offensives against the Central Powers on the Western Front from 8 August to 11 November 1918, beginning with the Battle of Amiens.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
The Hypo helmet, or British Smoke Hood (its official name), was an early British World War I gas mask, designed by Cluny MacPherson.
IG Farben was a German chemical and pharmaceutical industry conglomerate.
II Corps was an army corps of the British Army formed in both the First World War and the Second World War.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
The iron harvest is the annual "harvest" of unexploded ordnance, barbed wire, shrapnel, bullets and congruent trench support collected by Belgian and French farmers after plowing their fields.
Irritation, in biology and physiology, is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage.
The Italian Front (Fronte italiano; in Gebirgskrieg, "Mountain war") was a series of battles at the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy, fought between 1915 and 1918 in World War I. Following the secret promises made by the Allies in the Treaty of London, Italy entered the war in order to annex the Austrian Littoral and northern Dalmatia, and the territories of present-day Trentino and South Tyrol.
John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was an American artist, considered the "leading portrait painter of his generation" for his evocations of Edwardian era luxury.
The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science (German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften) was a German scientific institution established in the German Empire in 1911.
Langemark-Poelkapelle is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
Lens (Linse) is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.
Lewisite (L) is an organoarsenic compound.
Little, Brown and Company is an American publisher founded in 1837 by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown, and for close to two centuries has published fiction and nonfiction by American authors.
The Livens Projector was a simple mortar-like weapon that could throw large drums filled with flammable or toxic chemicals.
The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972, commonly called the "London Convention" or "LC '72" and also abbreviated as Marine Dumping, is an agreement to control pollution of the sea by dumping and to encourage regional agreements supplementary to the Convention.
The London Regiment was an infantry regiment in the British Army, part of the Territorial Force (later renamed the Territorial Army).
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.
The Meuse-Argonne Offensive (also known as Battles of the Meuse-Argonne and the Meuse-Argonne Campaign) was a major part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire Western Front.
Military personnel are members of the state's armed forces.
A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Nerve agents, sometimes also called nerve gases, are a class of organic chemicals that disrupt the mechanisms by which nerves transfer messages to organs.
Nieuwpoort (West Flemish: Nieuwpôort) (French: Nieuport) is a municipality located in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium, and in the Flemish province of West Flanders.
No man's land is land that is unoccupied or is under dispute between parties who leave it unoccupied due to fear or uncertainty.
Operation Downfall was the proposed Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II.
Operation Michael was a major German military offensive during the First World War that began the Spring Offensive on 21 March 1918.
Operation Sea Lion, also written as Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe), was Nazi Germany's code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War.
The Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft also called the Oslo Convention was an international agreement designed to control the dumping of harmful substances from ships and aircraft into the sea.
Osowiec Fortress (Polish Twierdza Osowiec) is a 19th-century fortress located in north-eastern Poland, built by the Russian Empire.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
The P helmet, PH helmet and PHG helmet were early types of gas mask issued by the British Army in the First World War, to protect troops against chlorine, phosgene and tear gases.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
Phosgene is the chemical compound with the formula COCl2.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Poperinge (also spelled Poperinghe in the past) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders, Flemish Region, and has a history going back to medieval times.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
The Rawka River is a river in central Poland, a right tributary of the Bzura river (which is meets between Łowicz and Sochaczew), with a length of 97 kilometres and the basin area of 1,192 km2.
Rawka is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Słupia, within Jędrzejów County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in south-central Poland.
The Rif or Riff (Berber: ⴰⵔⵉⴼ Arif or ⴰⵔⵔⵉⴼ Arrif or ⵏⴽⵔ Nkor) is a mainly mountainous region in the northern part of the Kingdom of Morocco.
The Royal Newfoundland Regiment (R NFLD R) is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Army.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
A salient, also known as a bulge, is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory.
Sarin, or NATO designation GB (G-series, 'B'), is a highly toxic synthetic organophosphorus compound.
The scrotum is an anatomical male reproductive structure that consists of a suspended dual-chambered sack of skin and smooth muscle that is present in most terrestrial male mammals and located under the penis.
The Second Battle of Gaza was fought between 17 and 19 April 1917, following the defeat of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) at the First Battle of Gaza in March, during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
During World War I, the Second Battle of Ypres was fought from for control of the strategic Flemish town of Ypres in western Belgium after the First Battle of Ypres the previous autumn.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.
Shell shock is a term coined in World War I to describe the type of posttraumatic stress disorder many soldiers were afflicted with during the war (before PTSD itself was a term).
Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian, is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.
Shrapnel shells were anti-personnel artillery munitions which carried a large number of individual bullets close to the target and then ejected them to allow them to continue along the shell's trajectory and strike the target individually.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
General Sir Charles Fergusson, 7th Baronet (17 January 1865 – 20 February 1951) was a British Army officer and the third Governor-General of New Zealand.
A sneeze, or sternutation, is a semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth, usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
Sodium phenoxide is an organic compound with the formula NaOC6H5.
Sodium thiosulfate (sodium thiosulphate) is a chemical and medication.
Soman (or GD, EA 1210, Zoman, PFMP, systematic name: O-Pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate), is an extremely toxic chemical substance.
The 1918 Spring Offensive, or Kaiserschlacht (Kaiser's Battle), also known as the Ludendorff Offensive, was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, beginning on 21 March 1918, which marked the deepest advances by either side since 1914.
Suippes is a commune in the Marne department in north-eastern France.
Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.
Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
Tabun or GA is an extremely toxic chemical substance.
Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.
The Tambov Rebellion (historically referred to in the Soviet Union as Antonovshchina), which occurred between 1920 and 1921, was one of the largest and best-organized peasant rebellions challenging the Bolshevik regime during the Russian Civil War.
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin lacrima, meaning "tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace,"Mace" is a brand name for a tear gas spray is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and even blindness.
Tin(IV) chloride, also known as tin tetrachloride or stannic chloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula SnCl4.
A tirailleur, in the Napoleonic era, was a type of light infantry trained to skirmish ahead of the main columns.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
The ton is a unit of measure.
Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
A trench is a type of excavation or depression in the ground that is generally deeper than it is wide (as opposed to a wider gully, or ditch), and narrow compared with its length (as opposed to a simple hole).
Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The University of Washington Press is an American academic publishing house.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vera Mary Brittain (29 December 1893 – 29 March 1970) was an English Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD) nurse, writer, feminist, and pacifist.
François Auguste Victor Grignard (6 May 1871 in Cherbourg – 13 December 1935 in Lyon) was a Nobel Prize-winning French chemist.
Vimy is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
A warlord is a leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state due to their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Washington Naval Conference, also called the Washington Arms Conference or the Washington Disarmament Conference, was a military conference called by U.S. President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington, D.C., from 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922.
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.
Wilfred Edward Salter Owen, MC (18 March 1893 – 4 November 1918) was an English poet and soldier.
William Howard Livens DSO MC (28 March 1889 – 1 February 1964) was an engineer, a soldier in the British Army and an inventor particularly known for the design of chemical warfare and flame warfare weapons.
Willoughby is a city in Lake County, Ohio, United States and is a suburb of Cleveland.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The Conference for the Reduction and Limitation of Armaments of 1932–1934 (sometimes World Disarmament Conference or Geneva Disarmament Conference) was an effort by member states of the League of Nations, together with the U.S., to actualize the ideology of disarmament.
A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xylyl bromide, also known as methylbenzyl bromide or T-stoff ("T stuff"), is any member or a mixture of organic chemical compounds with the molecular formula C6H4(CH3)(CH2Br).
Ypres (Ieper) is a Belgian municipality in the province of West Flanders.
Zhang Zuolin (19 March 1875Xiao, Lin, and Li 1184 June 1928) was the warlord of Manchuria from 1916–28, during the Warlord Era in China.
Zone Rouge (English: Red Zone) is a chain of non-contiguous areas throughout northeastern France that the French government isolated after the First World War.
The Zouaves were a class of light infantry regiments of the French Army serving between 1830 and 1962 and linked to French North Africa, as well as some units of other countries modelled upon them.
Zyklon B (translated Cyclone B) was the trade name of a cyanide-based pesticide invented in Germany in the early 1920s.
The 1st Canadian Division is an operational command and control formation of the Canadian Joint Operations Command, based at CFB Kingston.
The 28th Division was an infantry division of the British Army raised for service in World War I.
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